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PDFROFF(1)							    PDFROFF(1)

       pdfroff - create PDF documents using groff

       pdfroff [-abcegilpstzCEGNRSUVXZ] [-d cs] [-f fam] [-F dir] [-I dir]
	       [-L arg] [-m name] [-M dir] [-n num] [-o list] [-P arg] [-r cn]
	       [-T dev] [-w name] [-W name] [--emit-ps] [--no-toc-relocation]
	       [--no-kill-null-pages] [--stylesheet=name] [--no-pdf-output]
	       [--pdf-output=name] [--no-reference-dictionary]
	       [--reference-dictionary=name] [--report-progress]
	       [--keep-temporary-files] file ...
       pdfroff -h | --help
       pdfroff -v | --version [option ...]

       pdfroff is a wrapper program for the GNU text processing system, groff.
       It transparently handles the mechanics of multiple pass groff  process‐
       ing,  when  applied to suitably marked up groff source files, such that
       tables of contents and body text are formatted separately, and are sub‐
       sequently  combined  in	the  correct order, for final publication as a
       single PDF document.  A further optional “style	sheet”	capability  is
       provided;  this	allows for the definition of content which is required
       to precede the table of contents, in the published document.

       For each invocation of pdfroff, the ultimate  groff  output  stream  is
       post-processed  by  the	GhostScript interpreter, to produce a finished
       PDF document.

       pdfroff makes no assumptions about, and imposes no restrictions on, the
       use of any groff macro packages which the user may choose to employ, in
       order to achieve a desired document format; however,  it	 does  include
       specific	 built	in  support  for the pdfmark macro package, should the
       user choose to employ it.  Specifically, if the pdfhref macro,  defined
       in  the pdfmark.tmac package, is used to define public reference marks,
       or dynamic links to such reference marks, then pdfroff performs as many
       preformatting  groff passes as required, up to a maximum limit of four,
       in order to compile a document reference dictionary, to resolve	refer‐
       ences, and to expand the dynamically defined content of links.

       The  command  line is parsed in accordance with normal GNU conventions,
       but with one exception — when specifying any short form option (i.e., a
       single  character  option  introduced  by a single hyphen), and if that
       option expects an argument, then it  must  be  specified	 independently
       (i.e.,  it  may	not be appended to any group of other single character
       short form options).

       Long form option names (i.e., those introduced by a double hyphen)  may
       be abbreviated to their minimum length unambiguous initial substring.

       Otherwise, pdfroff usage closely mirrors that of groff itself.  Indeed,
       with the exception of the -h, -v, and -T dev short  form	 options,  and
       all  long  form	options,  which	 are parsed internally by pdfroff, all
       options and file name arguments	specified  on  the  command  line  are
       passed  on  to  groff,  to  control the formatting of the PDF document.
       Consequently, pdfroff accepts all options and arguments,	 as  specified
       in  groff(1),  which may also be considered as the definitive reference
       for all standard pdfroff options and argument usage.

       pdfroff accepts all of the short form options (i.e.,  those  introduced
       by  a  single  hyphen), which are available with groff itself.  In most
       cases, these are simply passed transparently to groff;  the  following,
       however, are handled specially by pdfroff.

       -h     Same as --help; see below.

       -i     Process  standard	 input, after all other specified input files.
	      This is passed transparently to  groff,  but,  if	 grouped  with
	      other  options,  it  must	 be the first in the group.  Hiding it
	      within a group breaks standard input processing, in the multiple
	      pass groff processing context of pdfroff.

       -T dev Only  -T ps  is supported by pdfroff.  Attempting to specify any
	      other device causes pdfroff to abort.

       -v     Same as --version; see below.

       See groff(1) for a description of all other short form  options,	 which
       are transparently passed through pdfroff to groff.

       All  long  form options (i.e., those introduced by a double hyphen) are
       interpreted locally by pdfroff; they are not passed on to groff, unless
       otherwise stated below.

       --help Causes pdfroff to display a summary of the its usage syntax, and
	      supported options, and then exit.

	      Suppresses the final output conversion step, causing pdfroff  to
	      emit  PostScript	output instead of PDF.	This may be useful, to
	      capture intermediate PostScript output, when using a specialised
	      postprocessor,  such  as	gpresent  for example, in place of the
	      default GhostScript PDF writer.

	      Suppresses the  deletion	of  temporary  files,  which  normally
	      occurs after pdfroff has completed PDF document formatting; this
	      may be useful, when debugging formatting problems.

	      See section FILES, for a description of the temporary files used
	      by pdfroff.

	      May   be	 used	with  the  --reference-dictionary=name	option
	      (described below) to eliminate the overhead of  PDF  formatting,
	      when  running  pdfroff to create a reference dictionary, for use
	      in a different document.

	      May be used to eliminate the overhead of	creating  a  reference
	      dictionary,  when	 it is known that the target PDF document con‐
	      tains no public references, created by the pdfhref macro.

	      May be used to eliminate the extra groff processing pass,	 which
	      is  required to generate a table of contents, and relocate it to
	      the start of the PDF  document,  when  processing	 any  document
	      which lacks an automatically generated table of contents.

	      While  preparing	for  simulation	 of the manual collation step,
	      which is traditionally required to relocate of a table  of  con‐
	      tents  to	 the start of a document, pdfroff accumulates a number
	      of empty page descriptions into the intermediate PostScript out‐
	      put  stream.  During the final collation step, these empty pages
	      are normally discarded from the finished document;  this	option
	      forces pdfroff to leave them in place.

	      Specifies the name to be used for the resultant PDF document; if
	      unspecified, the PDF output is written to	 standard  output.   A
	      future  version  of  pdfroff  may use this option, to encode the
	      document name in a generated reference dictionary.

	      Specifies the name to be used for the generated  reference  dic‐
	      tionary  file;  if unspecified, the reference dictionary is cre‐
	      ated in a temporary file, which is  deleted  when	 pdfroff  com‐
	      pletes  processing of the current document.  This option must be
	      specified, if it is desired to save  the	reference  dictionary,
	      for use in references placed in other PDF documents.

	      Causes  pdfroff  to display an informational message on standard
	      error, at the start of each groff processing pass.

	      Specifies the name of an input file, to be used as a style sheet
	      for  formatting of content, which is to be placed before the ta‐
	      ble of contents, in the formatted PDF document.

	      Causes pdfroff to display a version identification message.  The
	      entire  command line is then passed transparently to groff, in a
	      one pass operation only, in  order  to  display  the  associated
	      groff version information, before exiting.

       The following environment variables may be set, and exported, to modify
       the behaviour of pdfroff.

	      Specifies the program to be used for collation  of  the  finshed
	      PDF document.

	      This  collation  step may be required to move tables of contents
	      to the start of the finished PDF document, when formatting  with
	      traditional  macro  packages, which print them at the end.  How‐
	      ever, users should not normally need to specify PDFROFF_COLLATE,
	      (and  indeed,  are  not  encouraged  to do so).  If unspecified,
	      pdfroff uses sed(1) by default, which normally suffices.

	      If PDFROFF_COLLATE is specified, then it must act as  a  filter,
	      accepting a list of file name arguments, and write its output to
	      the   stdout   stream,   whence	it    is    piped    to	   the
	      PDFROFF_POSTPROCESSOR_COMMAND,  to produce the finished PDF out‐

	      When specifying PDFROFF_COLLATE, it  is  normally	 necessary  to
	      also specify PDFROFF_KILL_NULL_PAGES.

	      PDFROFF_COLLATE  is  ignored,  if	 pdfroff  is  invoked with the
	      --no-kill-null-pages option.

	      Specifies options to be passed to the PDFROFF_COLLATE program.

	      It   should   not	  normally    be    necessary	 to    specify
	      PDFROFF_KILL_NULL_PAGES.	 The  internal	default	 is  a	sed(1)
	      script, which is intended to remove completely blank pages  from
	      the  collated  output stream, and which should be appropriate in
	      most applications of pdfroff.  However, if  any  alternative  to
	      sed(1)  is specified for PDFROFF_COLLATE, then it is likely that
	      a	    corresponding      alternative	specification	   for
	      PDFROFF_KILL_NULL_PAGES is required.

	      As  in  the  case of PDFROFF_COLLATE, PDFROFF_KILL_NULL_PAGES is
	      ignored, if pdfroff is  invoked  with  the  --no-kill-null-pages

	      Specifies	 the command to be used for the final document conver‐
	      sion from PostScript intermediate output to PDF.	It must behave
	      as  a  filter, writing its output to the stdout stream, and must
	      accept an arbitrary number of files ... arguments, with the spe‐
	      cial case of - representing the stdin stream.

	      If unspecified, PDFROFF_POSTPROCESSOR_COMMAND defaults to

		gs -dBATCH -dQUIET -dNOPAUSE -dSAFER -sDEVICE=pdfwrite

	      Identifies the directory in which pdfroff should	create	tempo‐
	      rary  files.   If	 GROFF_TMPDIR is not specified, then the vari‐
	      ables TMPDIR, TMP and TEMP are considered in turn,  as  possible
	      temporary	 file  repositories.   If  none of these are set, then
	      temporary files are created in the current directory.

	      Specifies the program to be invoked, when pdfroff converts groff
	      PostScript  output  to PDF.  If PDFROFF_POSTPROCESSOR_COMMAND is
	      specified, then the command name it specifies is implicitly  as‐
	      signed to GROFF_GHOSTSCRIPT_INTERPRETER, overriding any explicit
	      setting	  specified	in	the	 environment.	    If
	      GROFF_GHOSTSCRIPT_INTERPRETER  is	 not  specified,  then pdfroff
	      searches the process PATH, looking for a program with any of the
	      well  known  names for the GhostScript interpreter; if no Ghost‐
	      Script interpreter can be found, pdfroff aborts.

	      Specifies the program to be invoked, when pdfroff is  extracting
	      reference	 dictionary  entries from a groff intermediate message
	      stream.  If GROFF_AWK_INTERPRETER is not specified, then pdfroff
	      searches the process PATH, looking for any of the preferred pro‐
	      grams, `gawk', `mawk', `nawk' and `awk', in this order; if  none
	      of  these	 are found, pdfroff issues a warning message, and con‐
	      tinue processing; however, in this case, no reference dictionary
	      is created.

       OSTYPE Typically	 defined automatically by the operating system, OSTYPE
	      is used on Microsoft Win32/MS-DOS platforms only, to  infer  the
	      default PATH_SEPARATOR character, which is used when parsing the
	      process PATH to search for external helper programs.

	      If set, PATH_SEPARATOR overrides the default  separator  charac‐
	      ter,  (`:' on POSIX/UNIX systems, inferred from OSTYPE on Micro‐
	      soft Win32/MS-DOS), which is used when parsing the process  PATH
	      to search for external helper programs.

	      If this is set to a non-empty value, then pdfroff always behaves
	      as if the --report-progress option is specified, on the  command

       Input  and  output files for pdfroff may be named according to any con‐
       vention of the user's choice.  Typically, input files may be named  ac‐
       cording	to the choice of the principal formatting macro package, e.g.,
       file.ms might be an input file  for  formatting	using  the  ms	macros
       (s.tmac); normally, the final output file should be named file.pdf.

       Temporary  files, created by pdfroff, are placed in the file system hi‐
       erarchy, in or below the directory specified by	environment  variables
       (see section ENVIRONMENT).  If mktemp(1) is available, it is invoked to
       create a private subdirectory of the nominated temporary files directo‐
       ry,   (with  subdirectory  name	derived	 from  the  template  pdfroff-
       XXXXXXXXXX); if this subdirectory is successfully created,  the	tempo‐
       rary  files will be placed within it, otherwise they will be placed di‐
       rectly in the directory nominated in the environment.

       All temporary files themselves are named according  to  the  convention
       pdf$$.*,	 where	$$  is	the  standard  shell variable representing the
       process ID of the pdfroff process itself, and * represents any  of  the
       extensions  used by pdfroff to identify the following temporary and in‐
       termediate files.

	      A scratch pad file, used to capture reference  data  emitted  by
	      groff, during the reference dictionary compilation phase.

	      The  reference  dictionary, as compiled in the last but one pass
	      of the reference dictionary compilation phase; (at the start  of
	      the  first pass, this file is created empty; in successive pass‐
	      es, it contains the reference dictionary entries,	 as  collected
	      in the preceding pass).

	      If the --reference-dictionary=name option is specified, this in‐
	      termediate file becomes permanent, and  is  named	 name,	rather
	      than pdf$$.ref.

	      Used  to	collect reference dictionary entries during the active
	      pass of the reference dictionary compilation phase.  At the  end
	      of any pass, when the content of pdf$$.cmp compares as identical
	      to  pdf$$.ref,  (or  the	corresponding  file   named   by   the
	      --reference-dictionary=name  option),  then reference dictionary
	      compilation is terminated, and the document reference map is ap‐
	      pended  to  this	intermediate  file, for inclusion in the final
	      formatting passes.

	      An intermediate PostScript file, in which	 “Table	 of  Contents”
	      entries  are collected, to facilitate relocation before the body
	      text, on ultimate output to the GhostScript postprocessor.

	      An intermediate PostScript file, in which the body text is  col‐
	      lected  prior  to ultimate output to the GhostScript postproces‐
	      sor, in the proper sequence, after pdf$$.tc.

       See groff(1) for the definitive reference to document  formatting  with
       groff.	Since  pdfroff	provides a superset of all groff capabilities,
       groff(1) may also be considered to be the definitive reference  to  all
       standard capabilities of pdfroff, with this document providing the ref‐
       erence to pdfroff's extended features.

       While pdfroff imposes neither any restriction on, nor  any  requirement
       for,  the use of any specific groff macro package, a number of supplied
       macro packages, and in particular those	associated  with  the  package
       pdfmark.tmac,  are  best	 suited	 for use with pdfroff as the preferred
       formatter.  Detailed documentation on the use of these packages may  be
       found,  in PDF format, in the reference guide “Portable Document Format
       Publishing with GNU Troff”, included in the installed documentation set
       as /usr/share/doc/groff-1.22.2/pdf/pdfmark.pdf.

       Copyright © 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This man page is distributed under the terms of the GNU Free Documenta‐
       tion License (FDL), version 1.3 or later, and is part of the GNU	 troff
       software	  package.   It	 was  originally  written  by  Keith  Marshall
       ⟨keith.d.marshall@ntlworld.com⟩, who also wrote the  implementation  of
       the pdfroff program, to which it relates.

       You  should  have  received  a copy of the FDL as part of the GNU troff
       distribution; it is also available on-line, at the  GNU	copyleft  site

Groff Version 1.22.2		7 February 2013			    PDFROFF(1)

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