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PERLAPI(1)	       Perl Programmers Reference Guide		    PERLAPI(1)

NAME
       perlapi - autogenerated documentation for the perl public API

DESCRIPTION
       This file contains the documentation of the perl public API generated
       by embed.pl, specifically a listing of functions, macros, flags, and
       variables that may be used by extension writers.	 The interfaces of any
       functions that are not listed here are subject to change without
       notice.	For this reason, blindly using functions listed in proto.h is
       to be avoided when writing extensions.

       Note that all Perl API global variables must be referenced with the
       "PL_" prefix.  Some macros are provided for compatibility with the
       older, unadorned names, but this support may be disabled in a future
       release.

       Perl was originally written to handle US-ASCII only (that is characters
       whose ordinal numbers are in the range 0 - 127).	 And documentation and
       comments may still use the term ASCII, when sometimes in fact the
       entire range from 0 - 255 is meant.

       Note that Perl can be compiled and run under EBCDIC (See perlebcdic) or
       ASCII.  Most of the documentation (and even comments in the code)
       ignore the EBCDIC possibility.  For almost all purposes the differences
       are transparent.	 As an example, under EBCDIC, instead of UTF-8, UTF-
       EBCDIC is used to encode Unicode strings, and so whenever this
       documentation refers to "utf8" (and variants of that name, including in
       function names), it also (essentially transparently) means
       "UTF-EBCDIC".  But the ordinals of characters differ between ASCII,
       EBCDIC, and the UTF- encodings, and a string encoded in UTF-EBCDIC may
       occupy more bytes than in UTF-8.

       Also, on some EBCDIC machines, functions that are documented as
       operating on US-ASCII (or Basic Latin in Unicode terminology) may in
       fact operate on all 256 characters in the EBCDIC range, not just the
       subset corresponding to US-ASCII.

       The listing below is alphabetical, case insensitive.

"Gimme" Values
       GIMME   A backward-compatible version of "GIMME_V" which can only
	       return "G_SCALAR" or "G_ARRAY"; in a void context, it returns
	       "G_SCALAR".  Deprecated.	 Use "GIMME_V" instead.

		       U32     GIMME

       GIMME_V The XSUB-writer's equivalent to Perl's "wantarray".  Returns
	       "G_VOID", "G_SCALAR" or "G_ARRAY" for void, scalar or list
	       context, respectively.

		       U32     GIMME_V

       G_ARRAY Used to indicate list context.  See "GIMME_V", "GIMME" and
	       perlcall.

       G_DISCARD
	       Indicates that arguments returned from a callback should be
	       discarded.  See perlcall.

       G_EVAL  Used to force a Perl "eval" wrapper around a callback.  See
	       perlcall.

       G_NOARGS
	       Indicates that no arguments are being sent to a callback.  See
	       perlcall.

       G_SCALAR
	       Used to indicate scalar context.	 See "GIMME_V", "GIMME", and
	       perlcall.

       G_VOID  Used to indicate void context.  See "GIMME_V" and perlcall.

Array Manipulation Functions
       AvFILL  Same as "av_len()".  Deprecated, use "av_len()" instead.

		       int     AvFILL(AV* av)

       av_clear
	       Clears an array, making it empty.  Does not free the memory
	       used by the array itself.

		       void    av_clear(AV *av)

       av_create_and_push
	       Push an SV onto the end of the array, creating the array if
	       necessary.  A small internal helper function to remove a
	       commonly duplicated idiom.

	       NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be
	       removed without notice.

		       void    av_create_and_push(AV **const avp, SV *const val)

       av_create_and_unshift_one
	       Unshifts an SV onto the beginning of the array, creating the
	       array if necessary.  A small internal helper function to remove
	       a commonly duplicated idiom.

	       NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be
	       removed without notice.

		       SV**    av_create_and_unshift_one(AV **const avp, SV *const val)

       av_delete
	       Deletes the element indexed by "key" from the array.  Returns
	       the deleted element. If "flags" equals "G_DISCARD", the element
	       is freed and null is returned.

		       SV*     av_delete(AV *av, I32 key, I32 flags)

       av_exists
	       Returns true if the element indexed by "key" has been
	       initialized.

	       This relies on the fact that uninitialized array elements are
	       set to &PL_sv_undef.

		       bool    av_exists(AV *av, I32 key)

       av_extend
	       Pre-extend an array.  The "key" is the index to which the array
	       should be extended.

		       void    av_extend(AV *av, I32 key)

       av_fetch
	       Returns the SV at the specified index in the array.  The "key"
	       is the index.  If "lval" is set then the fetch will be part of
	       a store.	 Check that the return value is non-null before
	       dereferencing it to a "SV*".

	       See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in
	       perlguts for more information on how to use this function on
	       tied arrays.

		       SV**    av_fetch(AV *av, I32 key, I32 lval)

       av_fill Set the highest index in the array to the given number,
	       equivalent to Perl's "$#array = $fill;".

	       The number of elements in the an array will be "fill + 1" after
	       av_fill() returns.  If the array was previously shorter then
	       the additional elements appended are set to "PL_sv_undef".  If
	       the array was longer, then the excess elements are freed.
	       "av_fill(av, -1)" is the same as "av_clear(av)".

		       void    av_fill(AV *av, I32 fill)

       av_len  Returns the highest index in the array.	The number of elements
	       in the array is "av_len(av) + 1".  Returns -1 if the array is
	       empty.

		       I32     av_len(const AV *av)

       av_make Creates a new AV and populates it with a list of SVs.  The SVs
	       are copied into the array, so they may be freed after the call
	       to av_make.  The new AV will have a reference count of 1.

		       AV*     av_make(I32 size, SV **strp)

       av_pop  Pops an SV off the end of the array.  Returns &PL_sv_undef if
	       the array is empty.

		       SV*     av_pop(AV *av)

       av_push Pushes an SV onto the end of the array.	The array will grow
	       automatically to accommodate the addition. Like "av_store",
	       this takes ownership of one reference count.

		       void    av_push(AV *av, SV *val)

       av_shift
	       Shifts an SV off the beginning of the array. Returns
	       &PL_sv_undef if the array is empty.

		       SV*     av_shift(AV *av)

       av_store
	       Stores an SV in an array.  The array index is specified as
	       "key".  The return value will be NULL if the operation failed
	       or if the value did not need to be actually stored within the
	       array (as in the case of tied arrays). Otherwise it can be
	       dereferenced to get the original "SV*".	Note that the caller
	       is responsible for suitably incrementing the reference count of
	       "val" before the call, and decrementing it if the function
	       returned NULL.

	       See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in
	       perlguts for more information on how to use this function on
	       tied arrays.

		       SV**    av_store(AV *av, I32 key, SV *val)

       av_undef
	       Undefines the array.  Frees the memory used by the array
	       itself.

		       void    av_undef(AV *av)

       av_unshift
	       Unshift the given number of "undef" values onto the beginning
	       of the array.  The array will grow automatically to accommodate
	       the addition.  You must then use "av_store" to assign values to
	       these new elements.

		       void    av_unshift(AV *av, I32 num)

       get_av  Returns the AV of the specified Perl array.  "flags" are passed
	       to "gv_fetchpv". If "GV_ADD" is set and the Perl variable does
	       not exist then it will be created.  If "flags" is zero and the
	       variable does not exist then NULL is returned.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       AV*     get_av(const char *name, I32 flags)

       newAV   Creates a new AV.  The reference count is set to 1.

		       AV*     newAV()

       sortsv  Sort an array. Here is an example:

		   sortsv(AvARRAY(av), av_len(av)+1, Perl_sv_cmp_locale);

	       Currently this always uses mergesort. See sortsv_flags for a
	       more flexible routine.

		       void    sortsv(SV** array, size_t num_elts, SVCOMPARE_t cmp)

       sortsv_flags
	       Sort an array, with various options.

		       void    sortsv_flags(SV** array, size_t num_elts, SVCOMPARE_t cmp, U32 flags)

Callback Functions
       call_argv
	       Performs a callback to the specified Perl sub.  See perlcall.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       I32     call_argv(const char* sub_name, I32 flags, char** argv)

       call_method
	       Performs a callback to the specified Perl method.  The blessed
	       object must be on the stack.  See perlcall.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       I32     call_method(const char* methname, I32 flags)

       call_pv Performs a callback to the specified Perl sub.  See perlcall.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       I32     call_pv(const char* sub_name, I32 flags)

       call_sv Performs a callback to the Perl sub whose name is in the SV.
	       See perlcall.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       I32     call_sv(SV* sv, VOL I32 flags)

       ENTER   Opening bracket on a callback.  See "LEAVE" and perlcall.

			       ENTER;

       eval_pv Tells Perl to "eval" the given string and return an SV* result.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       SV*     eval_pv(const char* p, I32 croak_on_error)

       eval_sv Tells Perl to "eval" the string in the SV.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       I32     eval_sv(SV* sv, I32 flags)

       FREETMPS
	       Closing bracket for temporaries on a callback.  See "SAVETMPS"
	       and perlcall.

			       FREETMPS;

       LEAVE   Closing bracket on a callback.  See "ENTER" and perlcall.

			       LEAVE;

       SAVETMPS
	       Opening bracket for temporaries on a callback.  See "FREETMPS"
	       and perlcall.

			       SAVETMPS;

Character classes
       isALNUM Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is a US-ASCII
	       (Basic Latin) alphanumeric character (including underscore) or
	       digit.

		       bool    isALNUM(char ch)

       isALPHA Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is a US-ASCII
	       (Basic Latin) alphabetic character.

		       bool    isALPHA(char ch)

       isDIGIT Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is a US-ASCII
	       (Basic Latin) digit.

		       bool    isDIGIT(char ch)

       isLOWER Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is a US-ASCII
	       (Basic Latin) lowercase character.

		       bool    isLOWER(char ch)

       isSPACE Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is a US-ASCII
	       (Basic Latin) whitespace.

		       bool    isSPACE(char ch)

       isUPPER Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is a US-ASCII
	       (Basic Latin) uppercase character.

		       bool    isUPPER(char ch)

       toLOWER Converts the specified character to lowercase.  Characters
	       outside the US-ASCII (Basic Latin) range are viewed as not
	       having any case.

		       char    toLOWER(char ch)

       toUPPER Converts the specified character to uppercase.  Characters
	       outside the US-ASCII (Basic Latin) range are viewed as not
	       having any case.

		       char    toUPPER(char ch)

Cloning an interpreter
       perl_clone
	       Create and return a new interpreter by cloning the current one.

	       perl_clone takes these flags as parameters:

	       CLONEf_COPY_STACKS - is used to, well, copy the stacks also,
	       without it we only clone the data and zero the stacks, with it
	       we copy the stacks and the new perl interpreter is ready to run
	       at the exact same point as the previous one.  The pseudo-fork
	       code uses COPY_STACKS while the threads->create doesn't.

	       CLONEf_KEEP_PTR_TABLE perl_clone keeps a ptr_table with the
	       pointer of the old variable as a key and the new variable as a
	       value, this allows it to check if something has been cloned and
	       not clone it again but rather just use the value and increase
	       the refcount. If KEEP_PTR_TABLE is not set then perl_clone will
	       kill the ptr_table using the function
	       "ptr_table_free(PL_ptr_table); PL_ptr_table = NULL;", reason to
	       keep it around is if you want to dup some of your own variable
	       who are outside the graph perl scans, example of this code is
	       in threads.xs create

	       CLONEf_CLONE_HOST This is a win32 thing, it is ignored on unix,
	       it tells perls win32host code (which is c++) to clone itself,
	       this is needed on win32 if you want to run two threads at the
	       same time, if you just want to do some stuff in a separate perl
	       interpreter and then throw it away and return to the original
	       one, you don't need to do anything.

		       PerlInterpreter*	       perl_clone(PerlInterpreter *proto_perl, UV flags)

CV Manipulation Functions
       CvSTASH Returns the stash of the CV.

		       HV*     CvSTASH(CV* cv)

       get_cv  Uses "strlen" to get the length of "name", then calls
	       "get_cvn_flags".

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       CV*     get_cv(const char* name, I32 flags)

       get_cvn_flags
	       Returns the CV of the specified Perl subroutine.	 "flags" are
	       passed to "gv_fetchpvn_flags". If "GV_ADD" is set and the Perl
	       subroutine does not exist then it will be declared (which has
	       the same effect as saying "sub name;").	If "GV_ADD" is not set
	       and the subroutine does not exist then NULL is returned.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       CV*     get_cvn_flags(const char* name, STRLEN len, I32 flags)

Embedding Functions
       cv_undef
	       Clear out all the active components of a CV. This can happen
	       either by an explicit "undef &foo", or by the reference count
	       going to zero.  In the former case, we keep the CvOUTSIDE
	       pointer, so that any anonymous children can still follow the
	       full lexical scope chain.

		       void    cv_undef(CV* cv)

       load_module
	       Loads the module whose name is pointed to by the string part of
	       name.  Note that the actual module name, not its filename,
	       should be given.	 Eg, "Foo::Bar" instead of "Foo/Bar.pm".
	       flags can be any of PERL_LOADMOD_DENY, PERL_LOADMOD_NOIMPORT,
	       or PERL_LOADMOD_IMPORT_OPS (or 0 for no flags). ver, if
	       specified, provides version semantics similar to "use Foo::Bar
	       VERSION".  The optional trailing SV* arguments can be used to
	       specify arguments to the module's import() method, similar to
	       "use Foo::Bar VERSION LIST".  They must be terminated with a
	       final NULL pointer.  Note that this list can only be omitted
	       when the PERL_LOADMOD_NOIMPORT flag has been used.  Otherwise
	       at least a single NULL pointer to designate the default import
	       list is required.

		       void    load_module(U32 flags, SV* name, SV* ver, ...)

       nothreadhook
	       Stub that provides thread hook for perl_destruct when there are
	       no threads.

		       int     nothreadhook()

       perl_alloc
	       Allocates a new Perl interpreter.  See perlembed.

		       PerlInterpreter*	       perl_alloc()

       perl_construct
	       Initializes a new Perl interpreter.  See perlembed.

		       void    perl_construct(PerlInterpreter *my_perl)

       perl_destruct
	       Shuts down a Perl interpreter.  See perlembed.

		       int     perl_destruct(PerlInterpreter *my_perl)

       perl_free
	       Releases a Perl interpreter.  See perlembed.

		       void    perl_free(PerlInterpreter *my_perl)

       perl_parse
	       Tells a Perl interpreter to parse a Perl script.	 See
	       perlembed.

		       int     perl_parse(PerlInterpreter *my_perl, XSINIT_t xsinit, int argc, char** argv, char** env)

       perl_run
	       Tells a Perl interpreter to run.	 See perlembed.

		       int     perl_run(PerlInterpreter *my_perl)

       require_pv
	       Tells Perl to "require" the file named by the string argument.
	       It is analogous to the Perl code "eval "require '$file'"".
	       It's even implemented that way; consider using load_module
	       instead.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       void    require_pv(const char* pv)

Functions in file dump.c
       pv_display
	       Similar to

		 pv_escape(dsv,pv,cur,pvlim,PERL_PV_ESCAPE_QUOTE);

	       except that an additional "\0" will be appended to the string
	       when len > cur and pv[cur] is "\0".

	       Note that the final string may be up to 7 chars longer than
	       pvlim.

		       char*   pv_display(SV *dsv, const char *pv, STRLEN cur, STRLEN len, STRLEN pvlim)

       pv_escape
	       Escapes at most the first "count" chars of pv and puts the
	       results into dsv such that the size of the escaped string will
	       not exceed "max" chars and will not contain any incomplete
	       escape sequences.

	       If flags contains PERL_PV_ESCAPE_QUOTE then any double quotes
	       in the string will also be escaped.

	       Normally the SV will be cleared before the escaped string is
	       prepared, but when PERL_PV_ESCAPE_NOCLEAR is set this will not
	       occur.

	       If PERL_PV_ESCAPE_UNI is set then the input string is treated
	       as Unicode, if PERL_PV_ESCAPE_UNI_DETECT is set then the input
	       string is scanned using "is_utf8_string()" to determine if it
	       is Unicode.

	       If PERL_PV_ESCAPE_ALL is set then all input chars will be
	       output using "\x01F1" style escapes, otherwise only chars above
	       255 will be escaped using this style, other non printable chars
	       will use octal or common escaped patterns like "\n". If
	       PERL_PV_ESCAPE_NOBACKSLASH then all chars below 255 will be
	       treated as printable and will be output as literals.

	       If PERL_PV_ESCAPE_FIRSTCHAR is set then only the first char of
	       the string will be escaped, regardles of max. If the string is
	       utf8 and the chars value is >255 then it will be returned as a
	       plain hex sequence. Thus the output will either be a single
	       char, an octal escape sequence, a special escape like "\n" or a
	       3 or more digit hex value.

	       If PERL_PV_ESCAPE_RE is set then the escape char used will be a
	       '%' and not a '\\'. This is because regexes very often contain
	       backslashed sequences, whereas '%' is not a particularly common
	       character in patterns.

	       Returns a pointer to the escaped text as held by dsv.

		       char*   pv_escape(SV *dsv, char const * const str, const STRLEN count, const STRLEN max, STRLEN * const escaped, const U32 flags)

       pv_pretty
	       Converts a string into something presentable, handling escaping
	       via pv_escape() and supporting quoting and ellipses.

	       If the PERL_PV_PRETTY_QUOTE flag is set then the result will be
	       double quoted with any double quotes in the string escaped.
	       Otherwise if the PERL_PV_PRETTY_LTGT flag is set then the
	       result be wrapped in angle brackets.

	       If the PERL_PV_PRETTY_ELLIPSES flag is set and not all
	       characters in string were output then an ellipsis "..." will be
	       appended to the string. Note that this happens AFTER it has
	       been quoted.

	       If start_color is non-null then it will be inserted after the
	       opening quote (if there is one) but before the escaped text. If
	       end_color is non-null then it will be inserted after the
	       escaped text but before any quotes or ellipses.

	       Returns a pointer to the prettified text as held by dsv.

		       char*   pv_pretty(SV *dsv, char const * const str, const STRLEN count, const STRLEN max, char const * const start_color, char const * const end_color, const U32 flags)

Functions in file mathoms.c
       gv_fetchmethod
	       See gv_fetchmethod_autoload.

		       GV*     gv_fetchmethod(HV* stash, const char* name)

       pack_cat
	       The engine implementing pack() Perl function. Note: parameters
	       next_in_list and flags are not used. This call should not be
	       used; use packlist instead.

		       void    pack_cat(SV *cat, const char *pat, const char *patend, SV **beglist, SV **endlist, SV ***next_in_list, U32 flags)

       sv_2pvbyte_nolen
	       Return a pointer to the byte-encoded representation of the SV.
	       May cause the SV to be downgraded from UTF-8 as a side-effect.

	       Usually accessed via the "SvPVbyte_nolen" macro.

		       char*   sv_2pvbyte_nolen(SV* sv)

       sv_2pvutf8_nolen
	       Return a pointer to the UTF-8-encoded representation of the SV.
	       May cause the SV to be upgraded to UTF-8 as a side-effect.

	       Usually accessed via the "SvPVutf8_nolen" macro.

		       char*   sv_2pvutf8_nolen(SV* sv)

       sv_2pv_nolen
	       Like "sv_2pv()", but doesn't return the length too. You should
	       usually use the macro wrapper "SvPV_nolen(sv)" instead.
		    char*     sv_2pv_nolen(SV* sv)

       sv_catpvn_mg
	       Like "sv_catpvn", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_catpvn_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_catsv_mg
	       Like "sv_catsv", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_catsv_mg(SV *dsv, SV *ssv)

       sv_force_normal
	       Undo various types of fakery on an SV: if the PV is a shared
	       string, make a private copy; if we're a ref, stop refing; if
	       we're a glob, downgrade to an xpvmg. See also
	       "sv_force_normal_flags".

		       void    sv_force_normal(SV *sv)

       sv_iv   A private implementation of the "SvIVx" macro for compilers
	       which can't cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the
	       macro instead.

		       IV      sv_iv(SV* sv)

       sv_nolocking
	       Dummy routine which "locks" an SV when there is no locking
	       module present.	Exists to avoid test for a NULL function
	       pointer and because it could potentially warn under some level
	       of strict-ness.

	       "Superseded" by sv_nosharing().

		       void    sv_nolocking(SV *sv)

       sv_nounlocking
	       Dummy routine which "unlocks" an SV when there is no locking
	       module present.	Exists to avoid test for a NULL function
	       pointer and because it could potentially warn under some level
	       of strict-ness.

	       "Superseded" by sv_nosharing().

		       void    sv_nounlocking(SV *sv)

       sv_nv   A private implementation of the "SvNVx" macro for compilers
	       which can't cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the
	       macro instead.

		       NV      sv_nv(SV* sv)

       sv_pv   Use the "SvPV_nolen" macro instead

		       char*   sv_pv(SV *sv)

       sv_pvbyte
	       Use "SvPVbyte_nolen" instead.

		       char*   sv_pvbyte(SV *sv)

       sv_pvbyten
	       A private implementation of the "SvPVbyte" macro for compilers
	       which can't cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the
	       macro instead.

		       char*   sv_pvbyten(SV *sv, STRLEN *lp)

       sv_pvn  A private implementation of the "SvPV" macro for compilers
	       which can't cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the
	       macro instead.

		       char*   sv_pvn(SV *sv, STRLEN *lp)

       sv_pvutf8
	       Use the "SvPVutf8_nolen" macro instead

		       char*   sv_pvutf8(SV *sv)

       sv_pvutf8n
	       A private implementation of the "SvPVutf8" macro for compilers
	       which can't cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the
	       macro instead.

		       char*   sv_pvutf8n(SV *sv, STRLEN *lp)

       sv_taint
	       Taint an SV. Use "SvTAINTED_on" instead.
		    void sv_taint(SV* sv)

       sv_unref
	       Unsets the RV status of the SV, and decrements the reference
	       count of whatever was being referenced by the RV.  This can
	       almost be thought of as a reversal of "newSVrv".	 This is
	       "sv_unref_flags" with the "flag" being zero.  See "SvROK_off".

		       void    sv_unref(SV* sv)

       sv_usepvn
	       Tells an SV to use "ptr" to find its string value. Implemented
	       by calling "sv_usepvn_flags" with "flags" of 0, hence does not
	       handle 'set' magic. See "sv_usepvn_flags".

		       void    sv_usepvn(SV* sv, char* ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_usepvn_mg
	       Like "sv_usepvn", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_usepvn_mg(SV *sv, char *ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_uv   A private implementation of the "SvUVx" macro for compilers
	       which can't cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the
	       macro instead.

		       UV      sv_uv(SV* sv)

       unpack_str
	       The engine implementing unpack() Perl function. Note:
	       parameters strbeg, new_s and ocnt are not used. This call
	       should not be used, use unpackstring instead.

		       I32     unpack_str(const char *pat, const char *patend, const char *s, const char *strbeg, const char *strend, char **new_s, I32 ocnt, U32 flags)

Functions in file perl.h
       PERL_SYS_INIT
	       Provides system-specific tune up of the C runtime environment
	       necessary to run Perl interpreters. This should be called only
	       once, before creating any Perl interpreters.

		       void    PERL_SYS_INIT(int argc, char** argv)

       PERL_SYS_INIT3
	       Provides system-specific tune up of the C runtime environment
	       necessary to run Perl interpreters. This should be called only
	       once, before creating any Perl interpreters.

		       void    PERL_SYS_INIT3(int argc, char** argv, char** env)

       PERL_SYS_TERM
	       Provides system-specific clean up of the C runtime environment
	       after running Perl interpreters. This should be called only
	       once, after freeing any remaining Perl interpreters.

		       void    PERL_SYS_TERM()

Functions in file pp_ctl.c
       find_runcv
	       Locate the CV corresponding to the currently executing sub or
	       eval.  If db_seqp is non_null, skip CVs that are in the DB
	       package and populate *db_seqp with the cop sequence number at
	       the point that the DB:: code was entered. (allows debuggers to
	       eval in the scope of the breakpoint rather than in the scope of
	       the debugger itself).

		       CV*     find_runcv(U32 *db_seqp)

Functions in file pp_pack.c
       packlist
	       The engine implementing pack() Perl function.

		       void    packlist(SV *cat, const char *pat, const char *patend, SV **beglist, SV **endlist)

       unpackstring
	       The engine implementing unpack() Perl function. "unpackstring"
	       puts the extracted list items on the stack and returns the
	       number of elements.  Issue "PUTBACK" before and "SPAGAIN" after
	       the call to this function.

		       I32     unpackstring(const char *pat, const char *patend, const char *s, const char *strend, U32 flags)

GV Functions
       GvSV    Return the SV from the GV.

		       SV*     GvSV(GV* gv)

       gv_const_sv
	       If "gv" is a typeglob whose subroutine entry is a constant sub
	       eligible for inlining, or "gv" is a placeholder reference that
	       would be promoted to such a typeglob, then returns the value
	       returned by the sub.  Otherwise, returns NULL.

		       SV*     gv_const_sv(GV* gv)

       gv_fetchmeth
	       Returns the glob with the given "name" and a defined subroutine
	       or "NULL".  The glob lives in the given "stash", or in the
	       stashes accessible via @ISA and UNIVERSAL::.

	       The argument "level" should be either 0 or -1.  If "level==0",
	       as a side-effect creates a glob with the given "name" in the
	       given "stash" which in the case of success contains an alias
	       for the subroutine, and sets up caching info for this glob.

	       This function grants "SUPER" token as a postfix of the stash
	       name. The GV returned from "gv_fetchmeth" may be a method cache
	       entry, which is not visible to Perl code.  So when calling
	       "call_sv", you should not use the GV directly; instead, you
	       should use the method's CV, which can be obtained from the GV
	       with the "GvCV" macro.

		       GV*     gv_fetchmeth(HV* stash, const char* name, STRLEN len, I32 level)

       gv_fetchmethod_autoload
	       Returns the glob which contains the subroutine to call to
	       invoke the method on the "stash".  In fact in the presence of
	       autoloading this may be the glob for "AUTOLOAD".	 In this case
	       the corresponding variable $AUTOLOAD is already setup.

	       The third parameter of "gv_fetchmethod_autoload" determines
	       whether AUTOLOAD lookup is performed if the given method is not
	       present: non-zero means yes, look for AUTOLOAD; zero means no,
	       don't look for AUTOLOAD.	 Calling "gv_fetchmethod" is
	       equivalent to calling "gv_fetchmethod_autoload" with a non-zero
	       "autoload" parameter.

	       These functions grant "SUPER" token as a prefix of the method
	       name. Note that if you want to keep the returned glob for a
	       long time, you need to check for it being "AUTOLOAD", since at
	       the later time the call may load a different subroutine due to
	       $AUTOLOAD changing its value. Use the glob created via a side
	       effect to do this.

	       These functions have the same side-effects and as
	       "gv_fetchmeth" with "level==0".	"name" should be writable if
	       contains ':' or ' ''. The warning against passing the GV
	       returned by "gv_fetchmeth" to "call_sv" apply equally to these
	       functions.

		       GV*     gv_fetchmethod_autoload(HV* stash, const char* name, I32 autoload)

       gv_fetchmeth_autoload
	       Same as gv_fetchmeth(), but looks for autoloaded subroutines
	       too.  Returns a glob for the subroutine.

	       For an autoloaded subroutine without a GV, will create a GV
	       even if "level < 0".  For an autoloaded subroutine without a
	       stub, GvCV() of the result may be zero.

		       GV*     gv_fetchmeth_autoload(HV* stash, const char* name, STRLEN len, I32 level)

       gv_stashpv
	       Returns a pointer to the stash for a specified package.	Uses
	       "strlen" to determine the length of "name", then calls
	       "gv_stashpvn()".

		       HV*     gv_stashpv(const char* name, I32 flags)

       gv_stashpvn
	       Returns a pointer to the stash for a specified package.	The
	       "namelen" parameter indicates the length of the "name", in
	       bytes.  "flags" is passed to "gv_fetchpvn_flags()", so if set
	       to "GV_ADD" then the package will be created if it does not
	       already exist.  If the package does not exist and "flags" is 0
	       (or any other setting that does not create packages) then NULL
	       is returned.

		       HV*     gv_stashpvn(const char* name, U32 namelen, I32 flags)

       gv_stashpvs
	       Like "gv_stashpvn", but takes a literal string instead of a
	       string/length pair.

		       HV*     gv_stashpvs(const char* name, I32 create)

       gv_stashsv
	       Returns a pointer to the stash for a specified package.	See
	       "gv_stashpvn".

		       HV*     gv_stashsv(SV* sv, I32 flags)

Handy Values
       Nullav  Null AV pointer.

       Nullch  Null character pointer.

       Nullcv  Null CV pointer.

       Nullhv  Null HV pointer.

       Nullsv  Null SV pointer.

Hash Manipulation Functions
       get_hv  Returns the HV of the specified Perl hash.  "flags" are passed
	       to "gv_fetchpv". If "GV_ADD" is set and the Perl variable does
	       not exist then it will be created.  If "flags" is zero and the
	       variable does not exist then NULL is returned.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       HV*     get_hv(const char *name, I32 flags)

       HEf_SVKEY
	       This flag, used in the length slot of hash entries and magic
	       structures, specifies the structure contains an "SV*" pointer
	       where a "char*" pointer is to be expected. (For information
	       only--not to be used).

       HeHASH  Returns the computed hash stored in the hash entry.

		       U32     HeHASH(HE* he)

       HeKEY   Returns the actual pointer stored in the key slot of the hash
	       entry. The pointer may be either "char*" or "SV*", depending on
	       the value of "HeKLEN()".	 Can be assigned to.  The "HePV()" or
	       "HeSVKEY()" macros are usually preferable for finding the value
	       of a key.

		       void*   HeKEY(HE* he)

       HeKLEN  If this is negative, and amounts to "HEf_SVKEY", it indicates
	       the entry holds an "SV*" key.  Otherwise, holds the actual
	       length of the key.  Can be assigned to. The "HePV()" macro is
	       usually preferable for finding key lengths.

		       STRLEN  HeKLEN(HE* he)

       HePV    Returns the key slot of the hash entry as a "char*" value,
	       doing any necessary dereferencing of possibly "SV*" keys.  The
	       length of the string is placed in "len" (this is a macro, so do
	       not use &len).  If you do not care about what the length of the
	       key is, you may use the global variable "PL_na", though this is
	       rather less efficient than using a local variable.  Remember
	       though, that hash keys in perl are free to contain embedded
	       nulls, so using "strlen()" or similar is not a good way to find
	       the length of hash keys. This is very similar to the "SvPV()"
	       macro described elsewhere in this document. See also "HeUTF8".

	       If you are using "HePV" to get values to pass to "newSVpvn()"
	       to create a new SV, you should consider using
	       "newSVhek(HeKEY_hek(he))" as it is more efficient.

		       char*   HePV(HE* he, STRLEN len)

       HeSVKEY Returns the key as an "SV*", or "NULL" if the hash entry does
	       not contain an "SV*" key.

		       SV*     HeSVKEY(HE* he)

       HeSVKEY_force
	       Returns the key as an "SV*".  Will create and return a
	       temporary mortal "SV*" if the hash entry contains only a
	       "char*" key.

		       SV*     HeSVKEY_force(HE* he)

       HeSVKEY_set
	       Sets the key to a given "SV*", taking care to set the
	       appropriate flags to indicate the presence of an "SV*" key, and
	       returns the same "SV*".

		       SV*     HeSVKEY_set(HE* he, SV* sv)

       HeUTF8  Returns whether the "char *" value returned by "HePV" is
	       encoded in UTF-8, doing any necessary dereferencing of possibly
	       "SV*" keys.  The value returned will be 0 or non-0, not
	       necessarily 1 (or even a value with any low bits set), so do
	       not blindly assign this to a "bool" variable, as "bool" may be
	       a typedef for "char".

		       char*   HeUTF8(HE* he, STRLEN len)

       HeVAL   Returns the value slot (type "SV*") stored in the hash entry.

		       SV*     HeVAL(HE* he)

       HvNAME  Returns the package name of a stash, or NULL if "stash" isn't a
	       stash.  See "SvSTASH", "CvSTASH".

		       char*   HvNAME(HV* stash)

       hv_assert
	       Check that a hash is in an internally consistent state.

		       void    hv_assert(HV *hv)

       hv_clear
	       Clears a hash, making it empty.

		       void    hv_clear(HV* hv)

       hv_clear_placeholders
	       Clears any placeholders from a hash.  If a restricted hash has
	       any of its keys marked as readonly and the key is subsequently
	       deleted, the key is not actually deleted but is marked by
	       assigning it a value of &PL_sv_placeholder.  This tags it so it
	       will be ignored by future operations such as iterating over the
	       hash, but will still allow the hash to have a value reassigned
	       to the key at some future point.	 This function clears any such
	       placeholder keys from the hash.	See Hash::Util::lock_keys()
	       for an example of its use.

		       void    hv_clear_placeholders(HV *hv)

       hv_delete
	       Deletes a key/value pair in the hash.  The value SV is removed
	       from the hash and returned to the caller.  The "klen" is the
	       length of the key.  The "flags" value will normally be zero; if
	       set to G_DISCARD then NULL will be returned.

		       SV*     hv_delete(HV *hv, const char *key, I32 klen, I32 flags)

       hv_delete_ent
	       Deletes a key/value pair in the hash.  The value SV is removed
	       from the hash and returned to the caller.  The "flags" value
	       will normally be zero; if set to G_DISCARD then NULL will be
	       returned.  "hash" can be a valid precomputed hash value, or 0
	       to ask for it to be computed.

		       SV*     hv_delete_ent(HV *hv, SV *keysv, I32 flags, U32 hash)

       hv_exists
	       Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified hash key
	       exists.	The "klen" is the length of the key.

		       bool    hv_exists(HV *hv, const char *key, I32 klen)

       hv_exists_ent
	       Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified hash key
	       exists. "hash" can be a valid precomputed hash value, or 0 to
	       ask for it to be computed.

		       bool    hv_exists_ent(HV *hv, SV *keysv, U32 hash)

       hv_fetch
	       Returns the SV which corresponds to the specified key in the
	       hash.  The "klen" is the length of the key.  If "lval" is set
	       then the fetch will be part of a store.	Check that the return
	       value is non-null before dereferencing it to an "SV*".

	       See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in
	       perlguts for more information on how to use this function on
	       tied hashes.

		       SV**    hv_fetch(HV *hv, const char *key, I32 klen, I32 lval)

       hv_fetchs
	       Like "hv_fetch", but takes a literal string instead of a
	       string/length pair.

		       SV**    hv_fetchs(HV* tb, const char* key, I32 lval)

       hv_fetch_ent
	       Returns the hash entry which corresponds to the specified key
	       in the hash.  "hash" must be a valid precomputed hash number
	       for the given "key", or 0 if you want the function to compute
	       it.  IF "lval" is set then the fetch will be part of a store.
	       Make sure the return value is non-null before accessing it.
	       The return value when "tb" is a tied hash is a pointer to a
	       static location, so be sure to make a copy of the structure if
	       you need to store it somewhere.

	       See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in
	       perlguts for more information on how to use this function on
	       tied hashes.

		       HE*     hv_fetch_ent(HV *hv, SV *keysv, I32 lval, U32 hash)

       hv_iterinit
	       Prepares a starting point to traverse a hash table.  Returns
	       the number of keys in the hash (i.e. the same as "HvKEYS(tb)").
	       The return value is currently only meaningful for hashes
	       without tie magic.

	       NOTE: Before version 5.004_65, "hv_iterinit" used to return the
	       number of hash buckets that happen to be in use.	 If you still
	       need that esoteric value, you can get it through the macro
	       "HvFILL(tb)".

		       I32     hv_iterinit(HV *hv)

       hv_iterkey
	       Returns the key from the current position of the hash iterator.
	       See "hv_iterinit".

		       char*   hv_iterkey(HE* entry, I32* retlen)

       hv_iterkeysv
	       Returns the key as an "SV*" from the current position of the
	       hash iterator.  The return value will always be a mortal copy
	       of the key.  Also see "hv_iterinit".

		       SV*     hv_iterkeysv(HE* entry)

       hv_iternext
	       Returns entries from a hash iterator.  See "hv_iterinit".

	       You may call "hv_delete" or "hv_delete_ent" on the hash entry
	       that the iterator currently points to, without losing your
	       place or invalidating your iterator.  Note that in this case
	       the current entry is deleted from the hash with your iterator
	       holding the last reference to it.  Your iterator is flagged to
	       free the entry on the next call to "hv_iternext", so you must
	       not discard your iterator immediately else the entry will leak
	       - call "hv_iternext" to trigger the resource deallocation.

		       HE*     hv_iternext(HV *hv)

       hv_iternextsv
	       Performs an "hv_iternext", "hv_iterkey", and "hv_iterval" in
	       one operation.

		       SV*     hv_iternextsv(HV *hv, char **key, I32 *retlen)

       hv_iternext_flags
	       Returns entries from a hash iterator.  See "hv_iterinit" and
	       "hv_iternext".  The "flags" value will normally be zero; if
	       HV_ITERNEXT_WANTPLACEHOLDERS is set the placeholders keys (for
	       restricted hashes) will be returned in addition to normal keys.
	       By default placeholders are automatically skipped over.
	       Currently a placeholder is implemented with a value that is
	       &Perl_sv_placeholder. Note that the implementation of
	       placeholders and restricted hashes may change, and the
	       implementation currently is insufficiently abstracted for any
	       change to be tidy.

	       NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be
	       removed without notice.

		       HE*     hv_iternext_flags(HV *hv, I32 flags)

       hv_iterval
	       Returns the value from the current position of the hash
	       iterator.  See "hv_iterkey".

		       SV*     hv_iterval(HV *hv, HE *entry)

       hv_magic
	       Adds magic to a hash.  See "sv_magic".

		       void    hv_magic(HV *hv, GV *gv, int how)

       hv_scalar
	       Evaluates the hash in scalar context and returns the result.
	       Handles magic when the hash is tied.

		       SV*     hv_scalar(HV *hv)

       hv_store
	       Stores an SV in a hash.	The hash key is specified as "key" and
	       "klen" is the length of the key.	 The "hash" parameter is the
	       precomputed hash value; if it is zero then Perl will compute
	       it.  The return value will be NULL if the operation failed or
	       if the value did not need to be actually stored within the hash
	       (as in the case of tied hashes).	 Otherwise it can be
	       dereferenced to get the original "SV*".	Note that the caller
	       is responsible for suitably incrementing the reference count of
	       "val" before the call, and decrementing it if the function
	       returned NULL.  Effectively a successful hv_store takes
	       ownership of one reference to "val".  This is usually what you
	       want; a newly created SV has a reference count of one, so if
	       all your code does is create SVs then store them in a hash,
	       hv_store will own the only reference to the new SV, and your
	       code doesn't need to do anything further to tidy up.  hv_store
	       is not implemented as a call to hv_store_ent, and does not
	       create a temporary SV for the key, so if your key data is not
	       already in SV form then use hv_store in preference to
	       hv_store_ent.

	       See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in
	       perlguts for more information on how to use this function on
	       tied hashes.

		       SV**    hv_store(HV *hv, const char *key, I32 klen, SV *val, U32 hash)

       hv_stores
	       Like "hv_store", but takes a literal string instead of a
	       string/length pair and omits the hash parameter.

		       SV**    hv_stores(HV* tb, const char* key, NULLOK SV* val)

       hv_store_ent
	       Stores "val" in a hash.	The hash key is specified as "key".
	       The "hash" parameter is the precomputed hash value; if it is
	       zero then Perl will compute it.	The return value is the new
	       hash entry so created.  It will be NULL if the operation failed
	       or if the value did not need to be actually stored within the
	       hash (as in the case of tied hashes).  Otherwise the contents
	       of the return value can be accessed using the "He?" macros
	       described here.	Note that the caller is responsible for
	       suitably incrementing the reference count of "val" before the
	       call, and decrementing it if the function returned NULL.
	       Effectively a successful hv_store_ent takes ownership of one
	       reference to "val".  This is usually what you want; a newly
	       created SV has a reference count of one, so if all your code
	       does is create SVs then store them in a hash, hv_store will own
	       the only reference to the new SV, and your code doesn't need to
	       do anything further to tidy up.	Note that hv_store_ent only
	       reads the "key"; unlike "val" it does not take ownership of it,
	       so maintaining the correct reference count on "key" is entirely
	       the caller's responsibility.  hv_store is not implemented as a
	       call to hv_store_ent, and does not create a temporary SV for
	       the key, so if your key data is not already in SV form then use
	       hv_store in preference to hv_store_ent.

	       See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in
	       perlguts for more information on how to use this function on
	       tied hashes.

		       HE*     hv_store_ent(HV *hv, SV *key, SV *val, U32 hash)

       hv_undef
	       Undefines the hash.

		       void    hv_undef(HV *hv)

       newHV   Creates a new HV.  The reference count is set to 1.

		       HV*     newHV()

Magical Functions
       mg_clear
	       Clear something magical that the SV represents.	See
	       "sv_magic".

		       int     mg_clear(SV* sv)

       mg_copy Copies the magic from one SV to another.	 See "sv_magic".

		       int     mg_copy(SV *sv, SV *nsv, const char *key, I32 klen)

       mg_find Finds the magic pointer for type matching the SV.  See
	       "sv_magic".

		       MAGIC*  mg_find(const SV* sv, int type)

       mg_free Free any magic storage used by the SV.  See "sv_magic".

		       int     mg_free(SV* sv)

       mg_get  Do magic after a value is retrieved from the SV.	 See
	       "sv_magic".

		       int     mg_get(SV* sv)

       mg_length
	       Report on the SV's length.  See "sv_magic".

		       U32     mg_length(SV* sv)

       mg_magical
	       Turns on the magical status of an SV.  See "sv_magic".

		       void    mg_magical(SV* sv)

       mg_set  Do magic after a value is assigned to the SV.  See "sv_magic".

		       int     mg_set(SV* sv)

       SvGETMAGIC
	       Invokes "mg_get" on an SV if it has 'get' magic.	 This macro
	       evaluates its argument more than once.

		       void    SvGETMAGIC(SV* sv)

       SvLOCK  Arranges for a mutual exclusion lock to be obtained on sv if a
	       suitable module has been loaded.

		       void    SvLOCK(SV* sv)

       SvSETMAGIC
	       Invokes "mg_set" on an SV if it has 'set' magic.	 This macro
	       evaluates its argument more than once.

		       void    SvSETMAGIC(SV* sv)

       SvSetMagicSV
	       Like "SvSetSV", but does any set magic required afterwards.

		       void    SvSetMagicSV(SV* dsb, SV* ssv)

       SvSetMagicSV_nosteal
	       Like "SvSetSV_nosteal", but does any set magic required
	       afterwards.

		       void    SvSetMagicSV_nosteal(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       SvSetSV Calls "sv_setsv" if dsv is not the same as ssv.	May evaluate
	       arguments more than once.

		       void    SvSetSV(SV* dsb, SV* ssv)

       SvSetSV_nosteal
	       Calls a non-destructive version of "sv_setsv" if dsv is not the
	       same as ssv. May evaluate arguments more than once.

		       void    SvSetSV_nosteal(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       SvSHARE Arranges for sv to be shared between threads if a suitable
	       module has been loaded.

		       void    SvSHARE(SV* sv)

       SvUNLOCK
	       Releases a mutual exclusion lock on sv if a suitable module has
	       been loaded.

		       void    SvUNLOCK(SV* sv)

Memory Management
       Copy    The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "memcpy" function.	The
	       "src" is the source, "dest" is the destination, "nitems" is the
	       number of items, and "type" is the type.	 May fail on
	       overlapping copies.  See also "Move".

		       void    Copy(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)

       CopyD   Like "Copy" but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers
	       to tail-call optimise.

		       void *  CopyD(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)

       Move    The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "memmove" function.	 The
	       "src" is the source, "dest" is the destination, "nitems" is the
	       number of items, and "type" is the type.	 Can do overlapping
	       moves.  See also "Copy".

		       void    Move(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)

       MoveD   Like "Move" but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers
	       to tail-call optimise.

		       void *  MoveD(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)

       Newx    The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "malloc" function.

	       In 5.9.3, Newx() and friends replace the older New() API, and
	       drops the first parameter, x, a debug aid which allowed callers
	       to identify themselves.	This aid has been superseded by a new
	       build option, PERL_MEM_LOG (see "PERL_MEM_LOG" in perlhack).
	       The older API is still there for use in XS modules supporting
	       older perls.

		       void    Newx(void* ptr, int nitems, type)

       Newxc   The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "malloc" function, with
	       cast.  See also "Newx".

		       void    Newxc(void* ptr, int nitems, type, cast)

       Newxz   The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "malloc" function.	The
	       allocated memory is zeroed with "memzero".  See also "Newx".

		       void    Newxz(void* ptr, int nitems, type)

       Poison  PoisonWith(0xEF) for catching access to freed memory.

		       void    Poison(void* dest, int nitems, type)

       PoisonFree
	       PoisonWith(0xEF) for catching access to freed memory.

		       void    PoisonFree(void* dest, int nitems, type)

       PoisonNew
	       PoisonWith(0xAB) for catching access to allocated but
	       uninitialized memory.

		       void    PoisonNew(void* dest, int nitems, type)

       PoisonWith
	       Fill up memory with a byte pattern (a byte repeated over and
	       over again) that hopefully catches attempts to access
	       uninitialized memory.

		       void    PoisonWith(void* dest, int nitems, type, U8 byte)

       Renew   The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "realloc" function.

		       void    Renew(void* ptr, int nitems, type)

       Renewc  The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "realloc" function, with
	       cast.

		       void    Renewc(void* ptr, int nitems, type, cast)

       Safefree
	       The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "free" function.

		       void    Safefree(void* ptr)

       savepv  Perl's version of "strdup()". Returns a pointer to a newly
	       allocated string which is a duplicate of "pv". The size of the
	       string is determined by "strlen()". The memory allocated for
	       the new string can be freed with the "Safefree()" function.

		       char*   savepv(const char* pv)

       savepvn Perl's version of what "strndup()" would be if it existed.
	       Returns a pointer to a newly allocated string which is a
	       duplicate of the first "len" bytes from "pv", plus a trailing
	       NUL byte. The memory allocated for the new string can be freed
	       with the "Safefree()" function.

		       char*   savepvn(const char* pv, I32 len)

       savepvs Like "savepvn", but takes a literal string instead of a
	       string/length pair.

		       char*   savepvs(const char* s)

       savesharedpv
	       A version of "savepv()" which allocates the duplicate string in
	       memory which is shared between threads.

		       char*   savesharedpv(const char* pv)

       savesharedpvn
	       A version of "savepvn()" which allocates the duplicate string
	       in memory which is shared between threads. (With the specific
	       difference that a NULL pointer is not acceptable)

		       char*   savesharedpvn(const char *const pv, const STRLEN len)

       savesvpv
	       A version of "savepv()"/"savepvn()" which gets the string to
	       duplicate from the passed in SV using "SvPV()"

		       char*   savesvpv(SV* sv)

       StructCopy
	       This is an architecture-independent macro to copy one structure
	       to another.

		       void    StructCopy(type src, type dest, type)

       Zero    The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "memzero" function.	 The
	       "dest" is the destination, "nitems" is the number of items, and
	       "type" is the type.

		       void    Zero(void* dest, int nitems, type)

       ZeroD   Like "Zero" but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers
	       to tail-call optimise.

		       void *  ZeroD(void* dest, int nitems, type)

Miscellaneous Functions
       fbm_compile
	       Analyses the string in order to make fast searches on it using
	       fbm_instr() -- the Boyer-Moore algorithm.

		       void    fbm_compile(SV* sv, U32 flags)

       fbm_instr
	       Returns the location of the SV in the string delimited by "str"
	       and "strend".  It returns "NULL" if the string can't be found.
	       The "sv" does not have to be fbm_compiled, but the search will
	       not be as fast then.

		       char*   fbm_instr(unsigned char* big, unsigned char* bigend, SV* littlestr, U32 flags)

       form    Takes a sprintf-style format pattern and conventional (non-SV)
	       arguments and returns the formatted string.

		   (char *) Perl_form(pTHX_ const char* pat, ...)

	       can be used any place a string (char *) is required:

		   char * s = Perl_form("%d.%d",major,minor);

	       Uses a single private buffer so if you want to format several
	       strings you must explicitly copy the earlier strings away (and
	       free the copies when you are done).

		       char*   form(const char* pat, ...)

       getcwd_sv
	       Fill the sv with current working directory

		       int     getcwd_sv(SV* sv)

       my_snprintf
	       The C library "snprintf" functionality, if available and
	       standards-compliant (uses "vsnprintf", actually).  However, if
	       the "vsnprintf" is not available, will unfortunately use the
	       unsafe "vsprintf" which can overrun the buffer (there is an
	       overrun check, but that may be too late).  Consider using
	       "sv_vcatpvf" instead, or getting "vsnprintf".

		       int     my_snprintf(char *buffer, const Size_t len, const char *format, ...)

       my_sprintf
	       The C library "sprintf", wrapped if necessary, to ensure that
	       it will return the length of the string written to the buffer.
	       Only rare pre-ANSI systems need the wrapper function - usually
	       this is a direct call to "sprintf".

		       int     my_sprintf(char *buffer, const char *pat, ...)

       my_vsnprintf
	       The C library "vsnprintf" if available and standards-compliant.
	       However, if if the "vsnprintf" is not available, will
	       unfortunately use the unsafe "vsprintf" which can overrun the
	       buffer (there is an overrun check, but that may be too late).
	       Consider using "sv_vcatpvf" instead, or getting "vsnprintf".

		       int     my_vsnprintf(char *buffer, const Size_t len, const char *format, va_list ap)

       new_version
	       Returns a new version object based on the passed in SV:

		   SV *sv = new_version(SV *ver);

	       Does not alter the passed in ver SV.  See "upg_version" if you
	       want to upgrade the SV.

		       SV*     new_version(SV *ver)

       scan_version
	       Returns a pointer to the next character after the parsed
	       version string, as well as upgrading the passed in SV to an RV.

	       Function must be called with an already existing SV like

		   sv = newSV(0);
		   s = scan_version(s, SV *sv, bool qv);

	       Performs some preprocessing to the string to ensure that it has
	       the correct characteristics of a version.  Flags the object if
	       it contains an underscore (which denotes this is an alpha
	       version).  The boolean qv denotes that the version should be
	       interpreted as if it had multiple decimals, even if it doesn't.

		       const char*     scan_version(const char *s, SV *rv, bool qv)

       strEQ   Test two strings to see if they are equal.  Returns true or
	       false.

		       bool    strEQ(char* s1, char* s2)

       strGE   Test two strings to see if the first, "s1", is greater than or
	       equal to the second, "s2".  Returns true or false.

		       bool    strGE(char* s1, char* s2)

       strGT   Test two strings to see if the first, "s1", is greater than the
	       second, "s2".  Returns true or false.

		       bool    strGT(char* s1, char* s2)

       strLE   Test two strings to see if the first, "s1", is less than or
	       equal to the second, "s2".  Returns true or false.

		       bool    strLE(char* s1, char* s2)

       strLT   Test two strings to see if the first, "s1", is less than the
	       second, "s2".  Returns true or false.

		       bool    strLT(char* s1, char* s2)

       strNE   Test two strings to see if they are different.  Returns true or
	       false.

		       bool    strNE(char* s1, char* s2)

       strnEQ  Test two strings to see if they are equal.  The "len" parameter
	       indicates the number of bytes to compare.  Returns true or
	       false. (A wrapper for "strncmp").

		       bool    strnEQ(char* s1, char* s2, STRLEN len)

       strnNE  Test two strings to see if they are different.  The "len"
	       parameter indicates the number of bytes to compare.  Returns
	       true or false. (A wrapper for "strncmp").

		       bool    strnNE(char* s1, char* s2, STRLEN len)

       sv_destroyable
	       Dummy routine which reports that object can be destroyed when
	       there is no sharing module present.  It ignores its single SV
	       argument, and returns 'true'.  Exists to avoid test for a NULL
	       function pointer and because it could potentially warn under
	       some level of strict-ness.

		       bool    sv_destroyable(SV *sv)

       sv_nosharing
	       Dummy routine which "shares" an SV when there is no sharing
	       module present.	Or "locks" it. Or "unlocks" it. In other
	       words, ignores its single SV argument.  Exists to avoid test
	       for a NULL function pointer and because it could potentially
	       warn under some level of strict-ness.

		       void    sv_nosharing(SV *sv)

       upg_version
	       In-place upgrade of the supplied SV to a version object.

		   SV *sv = upg_version(SV *sv, bool qv);

	       Returns a pointer to the upgraded SV.  Set the boolean qv if
	       you want to force this SV to be interpreted as an "extended"
	       version.

		       SV*     upg_version(SV *ver, bool qv)

       vcmp    Version object aware cmp.  Both operands must already have been
	       converted into version objects.

		       int     vcmp(SV *lhv, SV *rhv)

       vnormal Accepts a version object and returns the normalized string
	       representation.	Call like:

		   sv = vnormal(rv);

	       NOTE: you can pass either the object directly or the SV
	       contained within the RV.

		       SV*     vnormal(SV *vs)

       vnumify Accepts a version object and returns the normalized floating
	       point representation.  Call like:

		   sv = vnumify(rv);

	       NOTE: you can pass either the object directly or the SV
	       contained within the RV.

		       SV*     vnumify(SV *vs)

       vstringify
	       In order to maintain maximum compatibility with earlier
	       versions of Perl, this function will return either the floating
	       point notation or the multiple dotted notation, depending on
	       whether the original version contained 1 or more dots,
	       respectively

		       SV*     vstringify(SV *vs)

       vverify Validates that the SV contains a valid version object.

		   bool vverify(SV *vobj);

	       Note that it only confirms the bare minimum structure (so as
	       not to get confused by derived classes which may contain
	       additional hash entries):

		       bool    vverify(SV *vs)

MRO Functions
       mro_get_linear_isa
	       Returns either "mro_get_linear_isa_c3" or
	       "mro_get_linear_isa_dfs" for the given stash, dependant upon
	       which MRO is in effect for that stash.  The return value is a
	       read-only AV*.

	       You are responsible for "SvREFCNT_inc()" on the return value if
	       you plan to store it anywhere semi-permanently (otherwise it
	       might be deleted out from under you the next time the cache is
	       invalidated).

		       AV*     mro_get_linear_isa(HV* stash)

       mro_method_changed_in
	       Invalidates method caching on any child classes of the given
	       stash, so that they might notice the changes in this one.

	       Ideally, all instances of "PL_sub_generation++" in perl source
	       outside of "mro.c" should be replaced by calls to this.

	       Perl automatically handles most of the common ways a method
	       might be redefined.  However, there are a few ways you could
	       change a method in a stash without the cache code noticing, in
	       which case you need to call this method afterwards:

	       1) Directly manipulating the stash HV entries from XS code.

	       2) Assigning a reference to a readonly scalar constant into a
	       stash entry in order to create a constant subroutine (like
	       constant.pm does).

	       This same method is available from pure perl via,
	       "mro::method_changed_in(classname)".

		       void    mro_method_changed_in(HV* stash)

Multicall Functions
       dMULTICALL
	       Declare local variables for a multicall. See "Lightweight
	       Callbacks" in perlcall.

			       dMULTICALL;

       MULTICALL
	       Make a lightweight callback. See "Lightweight Callbacks" in
	       perlcall.

			       MULTICALL;

       POP_MULTICALL
	       Closing bracket for a lightweight callback.  See "Lightweight
	       Callbacks" in perlcall.

			       POP_MULTICALL;

       PUSH_MULTICALL
	       Opening bracket for a lightweight callback.  See "Lightweight
	       Callbacks" in perlcall.

			       PUSH_MULTICALL;

Numeric functions
       grok_bin
	       converts a string representing a binary number to numeric form.

	       On entry start and *len give the string to scan, *flags gives
	       conversion flags, and result should be NULL or a pointer to an
	       NV.  The scan stops at the end of the string, or the first
	       invalid character.  Unless "PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT" is set
	       in *flags, encountering an invalid character will also trigger
	       a warning.  On return *len is set to the length of the scanned
	       string, and *flags gives output flags.

	       If the value is <= "UV_MAX" it is returned as a UV, the output
	       flags are clear, and nothing is written to *result. If the
	       value is > UV_MAX "grok_bin" returns UV_MAX, sets
	       "PERL_SCAN_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX" in the output flags, and writes
	       the value to *result (or the value is discarded if result is
	       NULL).

	       The binary number may optionally be prefixed with "0b" or "b"
	       unless "PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX" is set in *flags on entry.
	       If "PERL_SCAN_ALLOW_UNDERSCORES" is set in *flags then the
	       binary number may use '_' characters to separate digits.

		       UV      grok_bin(const char* start, STRLEN* len_p, I32* flags, NV *result)

       grok_hex
	       converts a string representing a hex number to numeric form.

	       On entry start and *len give the string to scan, *flags gives
	       conversion flags, and result should be NULL or a pointer to an
	       NV.  The scan stops at the end of the string, or the first
	       invalid character.  Unless "PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT" is set
	       in *flags, encountering an invalid character will also trigger
	       a warning.  On return *len is set to the length of the scanned
	       string, and *flags gives output flags.

	       If the value is <= UV_MAX it is returned as a UV, the output
	       flags are clear, and nothing is written to *result. If the
	       value is > UV_MAX "grok_hex" returns UV_MAX, sets
	       "PERL_SCAN_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX" in the output flags, and writes
	       the value to *result (or the value is discarded if result is
	       NULL).

	       The hex number may optionally be prefixed with "0x" or "x"
	       unless "PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX" is set in *flags on entry.
	       If "PERL_SCAN_ALLOW_UNDERSCORES" is set in *flags then the hex
	       number may use '_' characters to separate digits.

		       UV      grok_hex(const char* start, STRLEN* len_p, I32* flags, NV *result)

       grok_number
	       Recognise (or not) a number.  The type of the number is
	       returned (0 if unrecognised), otherwise it is a bit-ORed
	       combination of IS_NUMBER_IN_UV, IS_NUMBER_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX,
	       IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT, IS_NUMBER_NEG, IS_NUMBER_INFINITY,
	       IS_NUMBER_NAN (defined in perl.h).

	       If the value of the number can fit an in UV, it is returned in
	       the *valuep IS_NUMBER_IN_UV will be set to indicate that
	       *valuep is valid, IS_NUMBER_IN_UV will never be set unless
	       *valuep is valid, but *valuep may have been assigned to during
	       processing even though IS_NUMBER_IN_UV is not set on return.
	       If valuep is NULL, IS_NUMBER_IN_UV will be set for the same
	       cases as when valuep is non-NULL, but no actual assignment (or
	       SEGV) will occur.

	       IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT will be set with IS_NUMBER_IN_UV if trailing
	       decimals were seen (in which case *valuep gives the true value
	       truncated to an integer), and IS_NUMBER_NEG if the number is
	       negative (in which case *valuep holds the absolute value).
	       IS_NUMBER_IN_UV is not set if e notation was used or the number
	       is larger than a UV.

		       int     grok_number(const char *pv, STRLEN len, UV *valuep)

       grok_numeric_radix
	       Scan and skip for a numeric decimal separator (radix).

		       bool    grok_numeric_radix(const char **sp, const char *send)

       grok_oct
	       converts a string representing an octal number to numeric form.

	       On entry start and *len give the string to scan, *flags gives
	       conversion flags, and result should be NULL or a pointer to an
	       NV.  The scan stops at the end of the string, or the first
	       invalid character.  Unless "PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT" is set
	       in *flags, encountering an invalid character will also trigger
	       a warning.  On return *len is set to the length of the scanned
	       string, and *flags gives output flags.

	       If the value is <= UV_MAX it is returned as a UV, the output
	       flags are clear, and nothing is written to *result. If the
	       value is > UV_MAX "grok_oct" returns UV_MAX, sets
	       "PERL_SCAN_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX" in the output flags, and writes
	       the value to *result (or the value is discarded if result is
	       NULL).

	       If "PERL_SCAN_ALLOW_UNDERSCORES" is set in *flags then the
	       octal number may use '_' characters to separate digits.

		       UV      grok_oct(const char* start, STRLEN* len_p, I32* flags, NV *result)

       Perl_signbit
	       Return a non-zero integer if the sign bit on an NV is set, and
	       0 if it is not.

	       If Configure detects this system has a signbit() that will work
	       with our NVs, then we just use it via the #define in perl.h.
	       Otherwise, fall back on this implementation.  As a first pass,
	       this gets everything right except -0.0.	Alas, catching -0.0 is
	       the main use for this function, so this is not too helpful yet.
	       Still, at least we have the scaffolding in place to support
	       other systems, should that prove useful.

	       Configure notes:	 This function is called 'Perl_signbit'
	       instead of a plain 'signbit' because it is easy to imagine a
	       system having a signbit() function or macro that doesn't happen
	       to work with our particular choice of NVs.  We shouldn't just
	       re-#define signbit as Perl_signbit and expect the standard
	       system headers to be happy.  Also, this is a no-context
	       function (no pTHX_) because Perl_signbit() is usually
	       re-#defined in perl.h as a simple macro call to the system's
	       signbit().  Users should just always call Perl_signbit().

	       NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be
	       removed without notice.

		       int     Perl_signbit(NV f)

       scan_bin
	       For backwards compatibility. Use "grok_bin" instead.

		       NV      scan_bin(const char* start, STRLEN len, STRLEN* retlen)

       scan_hex
	       For backwards compatibility. Use "grok_hex" instead.

		       NV      scan_hex(const char* start, STRLEN len, STRLEN* retlen)

       scan_oct
	       For backwards compatibility. Use "grok_oct" instead.

		       NV      scan_oct(const char* start, STRLEN len, STRLEN* retlen)

Optree Manipulation Functions
       cv_const_sv
	       If "cv" is a constant sub eligible for inlining. returns the
	       constant value returned by the sub.  Otherwise, returns NULL.

	       Constant subs can be created with "newCONSTSUB" or as described
	       in "Constant Functions" in perlsub.

		       SV*     cv_const_sv(CV* cv)

       newCONSTSUB
	       Creates a constant sub equivalent to Perl "sub FOO () { 123 }"
	       which is eligible for inlining at compile-time.

		       CV*     newCONSTSUB(HV* stash, const char* name, SV* sv)

       newXS   Used by "xsubpp" to hook up XSUBs as Perl subs.	filename needs
	       to be static storage, as it is used directly as CvFILE(),
	       without a copy being made.

Pad Data Structures
       pad_sv  Get the value at offset po in the current pad.  Use macro
	       PAD_SV instead of calling this function directly.

		       SV*     pad_sv(PADOFFSET po)

Per-Interpreter Variables
       PL_modglobal
	       "PL_modglobal" is a general purpose, interpreter global HV for
	       use by extensions that need to keep information on a per-
	       interpreter basis.  In a pinch, it can also be used as a symbol
	       table for extensions to share data among each other.  It is a
	       good idea to use keys prefixed by the package name of the
	       extension that owns the data.

		       HV*     PL_modglobal

       PL_na   A convenience variable which is typically used with "SvPV" when
	       one doesn't care about the length of the string.	 It is usually
	       more efficient to either declare a local variable and use that
	       instead or to use the "SvPV_nolen" macro.

		       STRLEN  PL_na

       PL_sv_no
	       This is the "false" SV.	See "PL_sv_yes".  Always refer to this
	       as &PL_sv_no.

		       SV      PL_sv_no

       PL_sv_undef
	       This is the "undef" SV.	Always refer to this as &PL_sv_undef.

		       SV      PL_sv_undef

       PL_sv_yes
	       This is the "true" SV.  See "PL_sv_no".	Always refer to this
	       as &PL_sv_yes.

		       SV      PL_sv_yes

REGEXP Functions
       SvRX    Convenience macro to get the REGEXP from a SV. This is
	       approximately equivalent to the following snippet:

		   if (SvMAGICAL(sv))
		       mg_get(sv);
		   if (SvROK(sv) &&
		       (tmpsv = (SV*)SvRV(sv)) &&
		       SvTYPE(tmpsv) == SVt_PVMG &&
		       (tmpmg = mg_find(tmpsv, PERL_MAGIC_qr)))
		   {
		       return (REGEXP *)tmpmg->mg_obj;
		   }

	       NULL will be returned if a REGEXP* is not found.

		       REGEXP *	       SvRX(SV *sv)

       SvRXOK  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains qr magic
	       (PERL_MAGIC_qr).

	       If you want to do something with the REGEXP* later use SvRX
	       instead and check for NULL.

		       bool    SvRXOK(SV* sv)

Simple Exception Handling Macros
       dXCPT   Set up necessary local variables for exception handling.	 See
	       "Exception Handling" in perlguts.

			       dXCPT;

       XCPT_CATCH
	       Introduces a catch block.  See "Exception Handling" in
	       perlguts.

       XCPT_RETHROW
	       Rethrows a previously caught exception.	See "Exception
	       Handling" in perlguts.

			       XCPT_RETHROW;

       XCPT_TRY_END
	       Ends a try block.  See "Exception Handling" in perlguts.

       XCPT_TRY_START
	       Starts a try block.  See "Exception Handling" in perlguts.

Stack Manipulation Macros
       dMARK   Declare a stack marker variable, "mark", for the XSUB.  See
	       "MARK" and "dORIGMARK".

			       dMARK;

       dORIGMARK
	       Saves the original stack mark for the XSUB.  See "ORIGMARK".

			       dORIGMARK;

       dSP     Declares a local copy of perl's stack pointer for the XSUB,
	       available via the "SP" macro.  See "SP".

			       dSP;

       EXTEND  Used to extend the argument stack for an XSUB's return values.
	       Once used, guarantees that there is room for at least "nitems"
	       to be pushed onto the stack.

		       void    EXTEND(SP, int nitems)

       MARK    Stack marker variable for the XSUB.  See "dMARK".

       mPUSHi  Push an integer onto the stack.	The stack must have room for
	       this element.  Does not use "TARG".  See also "PUSHi",
	       "mXPUSHi" and "XPUSHi".

		       void    mPUSHi(IV iv)

       mPUSHn  Push a double onto the stack.  The stack must have room for
	       this element.  Does not use "TARG".  See also "PUSHn",
	       "mXPUSHn" and "XPUSHn".

		       void    mPUSHn(NV nv)

       mPUSHp  Push a string onto the stack.  The stack must have room for
	       this element.  The "len" indicates the length of the string.
	       Does not use "TARG".  See also "PUSHp", "mXPUSHp" and "XPUSHp".

		       void    mPUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)

       mPUSHs  Push an SV onto the stack and mortalizes the SV.	 The stack
	       must have room for this element.	 Does not use "TARG".  See
	       also "PUSHs" and "mXPUSHs".

		       void    mPUSHs(SV* sv)

       mPUSHu  Push an unsigned integer onto the stack.	 The stack must have
	       room for this element.  Does not use "TARG".  See also "PUSHu",
	       "mXPUSHu" and "XPUSHu".

		       void    mPUSHu(UV uv)

       mXPUSHi Push an integer onto the stack, extending the stack if
	       necessary.  Does not use "TARG".	 See also "XPUSHi", "mPUSHi"
	       and "PUSHi".

		       void    mXPUSHi(IV iv)

       mXPUSHn Push a double onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.
	       Does not use "TARG".  See also "XPUSHn", "mPUSHn" and "PUSHn".

		       void    mXPUSHn(NV nv)

       mXPUSHp Push a string onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.
	       The "len" indicates the length of the string.  Does not use
	       "TARG".	See also "XPUSHp", "mPUSHp" and "PUSHp".

		       void    mXPUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)

       mXPUSHs Push an SV onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary and
	       mortalizes the SV.  Does not use "TARG".	 See also "XPUSHs" and
	       "mPUSHs".

		       void    mXPUSHs(SV* sv)

       mXPUSHu Push an unsigned integer onto the stack, extending the stack if
	       necessary.  Does not use "TARG".	 See also "XPUSHu", "mPUSHu"
	       and "PUSHu".

		       void    mXPUSHu(UV uv)

       ORIGMARK
	       The original stack mark for the XSUB.  See "dORIGMARK".

       POPi    Pops an integer off the stack.

		       IV      POPi

       POPl    Pops a long off the stack.

		       long    POPl

       POPn    Pops a double off the stack.

		       NV      POPn

       POPp    Pops a string off the stack. Deprecated. New code should use
	       POPpx.

		       char*   POPp

       POPpbytex
	       Pops a string off the stack which must consist of bytes i.e.
	       characters < 256.

		       char*   POPpbytex

       POPpx   Pops a string off the stack.

		       char*   POPpx

       POPs    Pops an SV off the stack.

		       SV*     POPs

       PUSHi   Push an integer onto the stack.	The stack must have room for
	       this element.  Handles 'set' magic.  Uses "TARG", so "dTARGET"
	       or "dXSTARG" should be called to declare it.  Do not call
	       multiple "TARG"-oriented macros to return lists from XSUB's -
	       see "mPUSHi" instead.  See also "XPUSHi" and "mXPUSHi".

		       void    PUSHi(IV iv)

       PUSHMARK
	       Opening bracket for arguments on a callback.  See "PUTBACK" and
	       perlcall.

		       void    PUSHMARK(SP)

       PUSHmortal
	       Push a new mortal SV onto the stack.  The stack must have room
	       for this element.  Does not use "TARG".	See also "PUSHs",
	       "XPUSHmortal" and "XPUSHs".

		       void    PUSHmortal()

       PUSHn   Push a double onto the stack.  The stack must have room for
	       this element.  Handles 'set' magic.  Uses "TARG", so "dTARGET"
	       or "dXSTARG" should be called to declare it.  Do not call
	       multiple "TARG"-oriented macros to return lists from XSUB's -
	       see "mPUSHn" instead.  See also "XPUSHn" and "mXPUSHn".

		       void    PUSHn(NV nv)

       PUSHp   Push a string onto the stack.  The stack must have room for
	       this element.  The "len" indicates the length of the string.
	       Handles 'set' magic.  Uses "TARG", so "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG"
	       should be called to declare it.	Do not call multiple
	       "TARG"-oriented macros to return lists from XSUB's - see
	       "mPUSHp" instead.  See also "XPUSHp" and "mXPUSHp".

		       void    PUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)

       PUSHs   Push an SV onto the stack.  The stack must have room for this
	       element.	 Does not handle 'set' magic.  Does not use "TARG".
	       See also "PUSHmortal", "XPUSHs" and "XPUSHmortal".

		       void    PUSHs(SV* sv)

       PUSHu   Push an unsigned integer onto the stack.	 The stack must have
	       room for this element.  Handles 'set' magic.  Uses "TARG", so
	       "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG" should be called to declare it.  Do not
	       call multiple "TARG"-oriented macros to return lists from
	       XSUB's - see "mPUSHu" instead.  See also "XPUSHu" and
	       "mXPUSHu".

		       void    PUSHu(UV uv)

       PUTBACK Closing bracket for XSUB arguments.  This is usually handled by
	       "xsubpp".  See "PUSHMARK" and perlcall for other uses.

			       PUTBACK;

       SP      Stack pointer.  This is usually handled by "xsubpp".  See "dSP"
	       and "SPAGAIN".

       SPAGAIN Refetch the stack pointer.  Used after a callback.  See
	       perlcall.

			       SPAGAIN;

       XPUSHi  Push an integer onto the stack, extending the stack if
	       necessary.  Handles 'set' magic.	 Uses "TARG", so "dTARGET" or
	       "dXSTARG" should be called to declare it.  Do not call multiple
	       "TARG"-oriented macros to return lists from XSUB's - see
	       "mXPUSHi" instead.  See also "PUSHi" and "mPUSHi".

		       void    XPUSHi(IV iv)

       XPUSHmortal
	       Push a new mortal SV onto the stack, extending the stack if
	       necessary.  Does not use "TARG".	 See also "XPUSHs",
	       "PUSHmortal" and "PUSHs".

		       void    XPUSHmortal()

       XPUSHn  Push a double onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.
	       Handles 'set' magic.  Uses "TARG", so "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG"
	       should be called to declare it.	Do not call multiple
	       "TARG"-oriented macros to return lists from XSUB's - see
	       "mXPUSHn" instead.  See also "PUSHn" and "mPUSHn".

		       void    XPUSHn(NV nv)

       XPUSHp  Push a string onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.
	       The "len" indicates the length of the string.  Handles 'set'
	       magic.  Uses "TARG", so "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG" should be called
	       to declare it.  Do not call multiple "TARG"-oriented macros to
	       return lists from XSUB's - see "mXPUSHp" instead.  See also
	       "PUSHp" and "mPUSHp".

		       void    XPUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)

       XPUSHs  Push an SV onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.
	       Does not handle 'set' magic.  Does not use "TARG".  See also
	       "XPUSHmortal", "PUSHs" and "PUSHmortal".

		       void    XPUSHs(SV* sv)

       XPUSHu  Push an unsigned integer onto the stack, extending the stack if
	       necessary.  Handles 'set' magic.	 Uses "TARG", so "dTARGET" or
	       "dXSTARG" should be called to declare it.  Do not call multiple
	       "TARG"-oriented macros to return lists from XSUB's - see
	       "mXPUSHu" instead.  See also "PUSHu" and "mPUSHu".

		       void    XPUSHu(UV uv)

       XSRETURN
	       Return from XSUB, indicating number of items on the stack.
	       This is usually handled by "xsubpp".

		       void    XSRETURN(int nitems)

       XSRETURN_EMPTY
	       Return an empty list from an XSUB immediately.

			       XSRETURN_EMPTY;

       XSRETURN_IV
	       Return an integer from an XSUB immediately.  Uses "XST_mIV".

		       void    XSRETURN_IV(IV iv)

       XSRETURN_NO
	       Return &PL_sv_no from an XSUB immediately.  Uses "XST_mNO".

			       XSRETURN_NO;

       XSRETURN_NV
	       Return a double from an XSUB immediately.  Uses "XST_mNV".

		       void    XSRETURN_NV(NV nv)

       XSRETURN_PV
	       Return a copy of a string from an XSUB immediately.  Uses
	       "XST_mPV".

		       void    XSRETURN_PV(char* str)

       XSRETURN_UNDEF
	       Return &PL_sv_undef from an XSUB immediately.  Uses
	       "XST_mUNDEF".

			       XSRETURN_UNDEF;

       XSRETURN_UV
	       Return an integer from an XSUB immediately.  Uses "XST_mUV".

		       void    XSRETURN_UV(IV uv)

       XSRETURN_YES
	       Return &PL_sv_yes from an XSUB immediately.  Uses "XST_mYES".

			       XSRETURN_YES;

       XST_mIV Place an integer into the specified position "pos" on the
	       stack.  The value is stored in a new mortal SV.

		       void    XST_mIV(int pos, IV iv)

       XST_mNO Place &PL_sv_no into the specified position "pos" on the stack.

		       void    XST_mNO(int pos)

       XST_mNV Place a double into the specified position "pos" on the stack.
	       The value is stored in a new mortal SV.

		       void    XST_mNV(int pos, NV nv)

       XST_mPV Place a copy of a string into the specified position "pos" on
	       the stack.  The value is stored in a new mortal SV.

		       void    XST_mPV(int pos, char* str)

       XST_mUNDEF
	       Place &PL_sv_undef into the specified position "pos" on the
	       stack.

		       void    XST_mUNDEF(int pos)

       XST_mYES
	       Place &PL_sv_yes into the specified position "pos" on the
	       stack.

		       void    XST_mYES(int pos)

SV Flags
       svtype  An enum of flags for Perl types.	 These are found in the file
	       sv.h in the "svtype" enum.  Test these flags with the "SvTYPE"
	       macro.

       SVt_IV  Integer type flag for scalars.  See "svtype".

       SVt_NV  Double type flag for scalars.  See "svtype".

       SVt_PV  Pointer type flag for scalars.  See "svtype".

       SVt_PVAV
	       Type flag for arrays.  See "svtype".

       SVt_PVCV
	       Type flag for code refs.	 See "svtype".

       SVt_PVHV
	       Type flag for hashes.  See "svtype".

       SVt_PVMG
	       Type flag for blessed scalars.  See "svtype".

SV Manipulation Functions
       croak_xs_usage
	       A specialised variant of "croak()" for emitting the usage
	       message for xsubs

		   croak_xs_usage(cv, "eee_yow");

	       works out the package name and subroutine name from "cv", and
	       then calls "croak()". Hence if "cv" is &ouch::awk, it would
	       call "croak" as:

		   Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Usage %s::%s(%s)", "ouch" "awk", "eee_yow");

		       void    croak_xs_usage(const CV *const cv, const char *const params)

       get_sv  Returns the SV of the specified Perl scalar.  "flags" are
	       passed to "gv_fetchpv". If "GV_ADD" is set and the Perl
	       variable does not exist then it will be created.	 If "flags" is
	       zero and the variable does not exist then NULL is returned.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       SV*     get_sv(const char *name, I32 flags)

       newRV_inc
	       Creates an RV wrapper for an SV.	 The reference count for the
	       original SV is incremented.

		       SV*     newRV_inc(SV* sv)

       newSVpvn_utf8
	       Creates a new SV and copies a string into it.  If utf8 is true,
	       calls "SvUTF8_on" on the new SV.	 Implemented as a wrapper
	       around "newSVpvn_flags".

		       SV*     newSVpvn_utf8(NULLOK const char* s, STRLEN len, U32 utf8)

       SvCUR   Returns the length of the string which is in the SV.  See
	       "SvLEN".

		       STRLEN  SvCUR(SV* sv)

       SvCUR_set
	       Set the current length of the string which is in the SV.	 See
	       "SvCUR" and "SvIV_set".

		       void    SvCUR_set(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvEND   Returns a pointer to the last character in the string which is
	       in the SV.  See "SvCUR".	 Access the character as *(SvEND(sv)).

		       char*   SvEND(SV* sv)

       SvGAMAGIC
	       Returns true if the SV has get magic or overloading. If either
	       is true then the scalar is active data, and has the potential
	       to return a new value every time it is accessed. Hence you must
	       be careful to only read it once per user logical operation and
	       work with that returned value. If neither is true then the
	       scalar's value cannot change unless written to.

		       U32     SvGAMAGIC(SV* sv)

       SvGROW  Expands the character buffer in the SV so that it has room for
	       the indicated number of bytes (remember to reserve space for an
	       extra trailing NUL character).  Calls "sv_grow" to perform the
	       expansion if necessary.	Returns a pointer to the character
	       buffer.

		       char *  SvGROW(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvIOK   Returns a U32 value indicating whether the SV contains an
	       integer.

		       U32     SvIOK(SV* sv)

       SvIOKp  Returns a U32 value indicating whether the SV contains an
	       integer.	 Checks the private setting.  Use "SvIOK" instead.

		       U32     SvIOKp(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_notUV
	       Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a signed
	       integer.

		       bool    SvIOK_notUV(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_off
	       Unsets the IV status of an SV.

		       void    SvIOK_off(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_on
	       Tells an SV that it is an integer.

		       void    SvIOK_on(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_only
	       Tells an SV that it is an integer and disables all other OK
	       bits.

		       void    SvIOK_only(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_only_UV
	       Tells and SV that it is an unsigned integer and disables all
	       other OK bits.

		       void    SvIOK_only_UV(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_UV
	       Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains an
	       unsigned integer.

		       bool    SvIOK_UV(SV* sv)

       SvIsCOW Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is Copy-On-Write.
	       (either shared hash key scalars, or full Copy On Write scalars
	       if 5.9.0 is configured for COW)

		       bool    SvIsCOW(SV* sv)

       SvIsCOW_shared_hash
	       Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is Copy-On-Write
	       shared hash key scalar.

		       bool    SvIsCOW_shared_hash(SV* sv)

       SvIV    Coerces the given SV to an integer and returns it. See "SvIVx"
	       for a version which guarantees to evaluate sv only once.

		       IV      SvIV(SV* sv)

       SvIVX   Returns the raw value in the SV's IV slot, without checks or
	       conversions.  Only use when you are sure SvIOK is true. See
	       also "SvIV()".

		       IV      SvIVX(SV* sv)

       SvIVx   Coerces the given SV to an integer and returns it. Guarantees
	       to evaluate "sv" only once. Only use this if "sv" is an
	       expression with side effects, otherwise use the more efficient
	       "SvIV".

		       IV      SvIVx(SV* sv)

       SvIV_nomg
	       Like "SvIV" but doesn't process magic.

		       IV      SvIV_nomg(SV* sv)

       SvIV_set
	       Set the value of the IV pointer in sv to val.  It is possible
	       to perform the same function of this macro with an lvalue
	       assignment to "SvIVX".  With future Perls, however, it will be
	       more efficient to use "SvIV_set" instead of the lvalue
	       assignment to "SvIVX".

		       void    SvIV_set(SV* sv, IV val)

       SvLEN   Returns the size of the string buffer in the SV, not including
	       any part attributable to "SvOOK".  See "SvCUR".

		       STRLEN  SvLEN(SV* sv)

       SvLEN_set
	       Set the actual length of the string which is in the SV.	See
	       "SvIV_set".

		       void    SvLEN_set(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvMAGIC_set
	       Set the value of the MAGIC pointer in sv to val.	 See
	       "SvIV_set".

		       void    SvMAGIC_set(SV* sv, MAGIC* val)

       SvNIOK  Returns a U32 value indicating whether the SV contains a
	       number, integer or double.

		       U32     SvNIOK(SV* sv)

       SvNIOKp Returns a U32 value indicating whether the SV contains a
	       number, integer or double.  Checks the private setting.	Use
	       "SvNIOK" instead.

		       U32     SvNIOKp(SV* sv)

       SvNIOK_off
	       Unsets the NV/IV status of an SV.

		       void    SvNIOK_off(SV* sv)

       SvNOK   Returns a U32 value indicating whether the SV contains a
	       double.

		       U32     SvNOK(SV* sv)

       SvNOKp  Returns a U32 value indicating whether the SV contains a
	       double.	Checks the private setting.  Use "SvNOK" instead.

		       U32     SvNOKp(SV* sv)

       SvNOK_off
	       Unsets the NV status of an SV.

		       void    SvNOK_off(SV* sv)

       SvNOK_on
	       Tells an SV that it is a double.

		       void    SvNOK_on(SV* sv)

       SvNOK_only
	       Tells an SV that it is a double and disables all other OK bits.

		       void    SvNOK_only(SV* sv)

       SvNV    Coerce the given SV to a double and return it. See "SvNVx" for
	       a version which guarantees to evaluate sv only once.

		       NV      SvNV(SV* sv)

       SvNVX   Returns the raw value in the SV's NV slot, without checks or
	       conversions.  Only use when you are sure SvNOK is true. See
	       also "SvNV()".

		       NV      SvNVX(SV* sv)

       SvNVx   Coerces the given SV to a double and returns it. Guarantees to
	       evaluate "sv" only once. Only use this if "sv" is an expression
	       with side effects, otherwise use the more efficient "SvNV".

		       NV      SvNVx(SV* sv)

       SvNV_set
	       Set the value of the NV pointer in sv to val.  See "SvIV_set".

		       void    SvNV_set(SV* sv, NV val)

       SvOK    Returns a U32 value indicating whether the value is defined.
	       This is only meaningful for scalars.

		       U32     SvOK(SV* sv)

       SvOOK   Returns a U32 indicating whether the SvIVX is a valid offset
	       value for the SvPVX.  This hack is used internally to speed up
	       removal of characters from the beginning of a SvPV.  When SvOOK
	       is true, then the start of the allocated string buffer is
	       really (SvPVX - SvIVX).

		       U32     SvOOK(SV* sv)

       SvPOK   Returns a U32 value indicating whether the SV contains a
	       character string.

		       U32     SvPOK(SV* sv)

       SvPOKp  Returns a U32 value indicating whether the SV contains a
	       character string.  Checks the private setting.  Use "SvPOK"
	       instead.

		       U32     SvPOKp(SV* sv)

       SvPOK_off
	       Unsets the PV status of an SV.

		       void    SvPOK_off(SV* sv)

       SvPOK_on
	       Tells an SV that it is a string.

		       void    SvPOK_on(SV* sv)

       SvPOK_only
	       Tells an SV that it is a string and disables all other OK bits.
	       Will also turn off the UTF-8 status.

		       void    SvPOK_only(SV* sv)

       SvPOK_only_UTF8
	       Tells an SV that it is a string and disables all other OK bits,
	       and leaves the UTF-8 status as it was.

		       void    SvPOK_only_UTF8(SV* sv)

       SvPV    Returns a pointer to the string in the SV, or a stringified
	       form of the SV if the SV does not contain a string.  The SV may
	       cache the stringified version becoming "SvPOK".	Handles 'get'
	       magic. See also "SvPVx" for a version which guarantees to
	       evaluate sv only once.

		       char*   SvPV(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVbyte
	       Like "SvPV", but converts sv to byte representation first if
	       necessary.

		       char*   SvPVbyte(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVbytex
	       Like "SvPV", but converts sv to byte representation first if
	       necessary.  Guarantees to evaluate sv only once; use the more
	       efficient "SvPVbyte" otherwise.

		       char*   SvPVbytex(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVbytex_force
	       Like "SvPV_force", but converts sv to byte representation first
	       if necessary.  Guarantees to evaluate sv only once; use the
	       more efficient "SvPVbyte_force" otherwise.

		       char*   SvPVbytex_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVbyte_force
	       Like "SvPV_force", but converts sv to byte representation first
	       if necessary.

		       char*   SvPVbyte_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVbyte_nolen
	       Like "SvPV_nolen", but converts sv to byte representation first
	       if necessary.

		       char*   SvPVbyte_nolen(SV* sv)

       SvPVutf8
	       Like "SvPV", but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary.

		       char*   SvPVutf8(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVutf8x
	       Like "SvPV", but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary.
	       Guarantees to evaluate sv only once; use the more efficient
	       "SvPVutf8" otherwise.

		       char*   SvPVutf8x(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVutf8x_force
	       Like "SvPV_force", but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary.
	       Guarantees to evaluate sv only once; use the more efficient
	       "SvPVutf8_force" otherwise.

		       char*   SvPVutf8x_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVutf8_force
	       Like "SvPV_force", but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary.

		       char*   SvPVutf8_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVutf8_nolen
	       Like "SvPV_nolen", but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary.

		       char*   SvPVutf8_nolen(SV* sv)

       SvPVX   Returns a pointer to the physical string in the SV.  The SV
	       must contain a string.

		       char*   SvPVX(SV* sv)

       SvPVx   A version of "SvPV" which guarantees to evaluate "sv" only
	       once.  Only use this if "sv" is an expression with side
	       effects, otherwise use the more efficient "SvPVX".

		       char*   SvPVx(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPV_force
	       Like "SvPV" but will force the SV into containing just a string
	       ("SvPOK_only").	You want force if you are going to update the
	       "SvPVX" directly.

		       char*   SvPV_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPV_force_nomg
	       Like "SvPV" but will force the SV into containing just a string
	       ("SvPOK_only").	You want force if you are going to update the
	       "SvPVX" directly. Doesn't process magic.

		       char*   SvPV_force_nomg(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPV_nolen
	       Returns a pointer to the string in the SV, or a stringified
	       form of the SV if the SV does not contain a string.  The SV may
	       cache the stringified form becoming "SvPOK".  Handles 'get'
	       magic.

		       char*   SvPV_nolen(SV* sv)

       SvPV_nomg
	       Like "SvPV" but doesn't process magic.

		       char*   SvPV_nomg(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPV_set
	       Set the value of the PV pointer in sv to val.  See "SvIV_set".

		       void    SvPV_set(SV* sv, char* val)

       SvREFCNT
	       Returns the value of the object's reference count.

		       U32     SvREFCNT(SV* sv)

       SvREFCNT_dec
	       Decrements the reference count of the given SV.

		       void    SvREFCNT_dec(SV* sv)

       SvREFCNT_inc
	       Increments the reference count of the given SV.

	       All of the following SvREFCNT_inc* macros are optimized
	       versions of SvREFCNT_inc, and can be replaced with
	       SvREFCNT_inc.

		       SV*     SvREFCNT_inc(SV* sv)

       SvREFCNT_inc_NN
	       Same as SvREFCNT_inc, but can only be used if you know sv is
	       not NULL.  Since we don't have to check the NULLness, it's
	       faster and smaller.

		       SV*     SvREFCNT_inc_NN(SV* sv)

       SvREFCNT_inc_simple
	       Same as SvREFCNT_inc, but can only be used with expressions
	       without side effects.  Since we don't have to store a temporary
	       value, it's faster.

		       SV*     SvREFCNT_inc_simple(SV* sv)

       SvREFCNT_inc_simple_NN
	       Same as SvREFCNT_inc_simple, but can only be used if you know
	       sv is not NULL.	Since we don't have to check the NULLness,
	       it's faster and smaller.

		       SV*     SvREFCNT_inc_simple_NN(SV* sv)

       SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void
	       Same as SvREFCNT_inc_simple, but can only be used if you don't
	       need the return value.  The macro doesn't need to return a
	       meaningful value.

		       void    SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void(SV* sv)

       SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN
	       Same as SvREFCNT_inc, but can only be used if you don't need
	       the return value, and you know that sv is not NULL.  The macro
	       doesn't need to return a meaningful value, or check for
	       NULLness, so it's smaller and faster.

		       void    SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(SV* sv)

       SvREFCNT_inc_void
	       Same as SvREFCNT_inc, but can only be used if you don't need
	       the return value.  The macro doesn't need to return a
	       meaningful value.

		       void    SvREFCNT_inc_void(SV* sv)

       SvREFCNT_inc_void_NN
	       Same as SvREFCNT_inc, but can only be used if you don't need
	       the return value, and you know that sv is not NULL.  The macro
	       doesn't need to return a meaningful value, or check for
	       NULLness, so it's smaller and faster.

		       void    SvREFCNT_inc_void_NN(SV* sv)

       SvROK   Tests if the SV is an RV.

		       U32     SvROK(SV* sv)

       SvROK_off
	       Unsets the RV status of an SV.

		       void    SvROK_off(SV* sv)

       SvROK_on
	       Tells an SV that it is an RV.

		       void    SvROK_on(SV* sv)

       SvRV    Dereferences an RV to return the SV.

		       SV*     SvRV(SV* sv)

       SvRV_set
	       Set the value of the RV pointer in sv to val.  See "SvIV_set".

		       void    SvRV_set(SV* sv, SV* val)

       SvSTASH Returns the stash of the SV.

		       HV*     SvSTASH(SV* sv)

       SvSTASH_set
	       Set the value of the STASH pointer in sv to val.	 See
	       "SvIV_set".

		       void    SvSTASH_set(SV* sv, HV* val)

       SvTAINT Taints an SV if tainting is enabled.

		       void    SvTAINT(SV* sv)

       SvTAINTED
	       Checks to see if an SV is tainted. Returns TRUE if it is, FALSE
	       if not.

		       bool    SvTAINTED(SV* sv)

       SvTAINTED_off
	       Untaints an SV. Be very careful with this routine, as it short-
	       circuits some of Perl's fundamental security features. XS
	       module authors should not use this function unless they fully
	       understand all the implications of unconditionally untainting
	       the value. Untainting should be done in the standard perl
	       fashion, via a carefully crafted regexp, rather than directly
	       untainting variables.

		       void    SvTAINTED_off(SV* sv)

       SvTAINTED_on
	       Marks an SV as tainted if tainting is enabled.

		       void    SvTAINTED_on(SV* sv)

       SvTRUE  Returns a boolean indicating whether Perl would evaluate the SV
	       as true or false.  See SvOK() for a defined/undefined test.
	       Does not handle 'get' magic.

		       bool    SvTRUE(SV* sv)

       SvTYPE  Returns the type of the SV.  See "svtype".

		       svtype  SvTYPE(SV* sv)

       SvUOK   Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains an
	       unsigned integer.

		       bool    SvUOK(SV* sv)

       SvUPGRADE
	       Used to upgrade an SV to a more complex form.  Uses
	       "sv_upgrade" to perform the upgrade if necessary.  See
	       "svtype".

		       void    SvUPGRADE(SV* sv, svtype type)

       SvUTF8  Returns a U32 value indicating whether the SV contains UTF-8
	       encoded data.  Call this after SvPV() in case any call to
	       string overloading updates the internal flag.

		       U32     SvUTF8(SV* sv)

       SvUTF8_off
	       Unsets the UTF-8 status of an SV.

		       void    SvUTF8_off(SV *sv)

       SvUTF8_on
	       Turn on the UTF-8 status of an SV (the data is not changed,
	       just the flag).	Do not use frivolously.

		       void    SvUTF8_on(SV *sv)

       SvUV    Coerces the given SV to an unsigned integer and returns it.
	       See "SvUVx" for a version which guarantees to evaluate sv only
	       once.

		       UV      SvUV(SV* sv)

       SvUVX   Returns the raw value in the SV's UV slot, without checks or
	       conversions.  Only use when you are sure SvIOK is true. See
	       also "SvUV()".

		       UV      SvUVX(SV* sv)

       SvUVx   Coerces the given SV to an unsigned integer and returns it.
	       Guarantees to "sv" only once. Only use this if "sv" is an
	       expression with side effects, otherwise use the more efficient
	       "SvUV".

		       UV      SvUVx(SV* sv)

       SvUV_nomg
	       Like "SvUV" but doesn't process magic.

		       UV      SvUV_nomg(SV* sv)

       SvUV_set
	       Set the value of the UV pointer in sv to val.  See "SvIV_set".

		       void    SvUV_set(SV* sv, UV val)

       SvVOK   Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a
	       v-string.

		       bool    SvVOK(SV* sv)

       sv_catpvn_nomg
	       Like "sv_catpvn" but doesn't process magic.

		       void    sv_catpvn_nomg(SV* sv, const char* ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_catsv_nomg
	       Like "sv_catsv" but doesn't process magic.

		       void    sv_catsv_nomg(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       sv_derived_from
	       Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is derived from the
	       specified class at the C level.	To check derivation at the
	       Perl level, call "isa()" as a normal Perl method.

		       bool    sv_derived_from(SV* sv, const char* name)

       sv_does Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV performs a
	       specific, named role.  The SV can be a Perl object or the name
	       of a Perl class.

		       bool    sv_does(SV* sv, const char* name)

       sv_report_used
	       Dump the contents of all SVs not yet freed. (Debugging aid).

		       void    sv_report_used()

       sv_setsv_nomg
	       Like "sv_setsv" but doesn't process magic.

		       void    sv_setsv_nomg(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg
	       Like sv_utf8_upgrade, but doesn't do magic on "sv"

		       STRLEN  sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg(NN SV *sv)

SV-Body Allocation
       looks_like_number
	       Test if the content of an SV looks like a number (or is a
	       number).	 "Inf" and "Infinity" are treated as numbers (so will
	       not issue a non-numeric warning), even if your atof() doesn't
	       grok them.

		       I32     looks_like_number(SV* sv)

       newRV_noinc
	       Creates an RV wrapper for an SV.	 The reference count for the
	       original SV is not incremented.

		       SV*     newRV_noinc(SV* sv)

       newSV   Creates a new SV.  A non-zero "len" parameter indicates the
	       number of bytes of preallocated string space the SV should
	       have.  An extra byte for a trailing NUL is also reserved.
	       (SvPOK is not set for the SV even if string space is
	       allocated.)  The reference count for the new SV is set to 1.

	       In 5.9.3, newSV() replaces the older NEWSV() API, and drops the
	       first parameter, x, a debug aid which allowed callers to
	       identify themselves.  This aid has been superseded by a new
	       build option, PERL_MEM_LOG (see "PERL_MEM_LOG" in perlhack).
	       The older API is still there for use in XS modules supporting
	       older perls.

		       SV*     newSV(STRLEN len)

       newSVhek
	       Creates a new SV from the hash key structure.  It will generate
	       scalars that point to the shared string table where possible.
	       Returns a new (undefined) SV if the hek is NULL.

		       SV*     newSVhek(const HEK *hek)

       newSViv Creates a new SV and copies an integer into it.	The reference
	       count for the SV is set to 1.

		       SV*     newSViv(IV i)

       newSVnv Creates a new SV and copies a floating point value into it.
	       The reference count for the SV is set to 1.

		       SV*     newSVnv(NV n)

       newSVpv Creates a new SV and copies a string into it.  The reference
	       count for the SV is set to 1.  If "len" is zero, Perl will
	       compute the length using strlen().  For efficiency, consider
	       using "newSVpvn" instead.

		       SV*     newSVpv(const char* s, STRLEN len)

       newSVpvf
	       Creates a new SV and initializes it with the string formatted
	       like "sprintf".

		       SV*     newSVpvf(const char* pat, ...)

       newSVpvn
	       Creates a new SV and copies a string into it.  The reference
	       count for the SV is set to 1.  Note that if "len" is zero, Perl
	       will create a zero length string.  You are responsible for
	       ensuring that the source string is at least "len" bytes long.
	       If the "s" argument is NULL the new SV will be undefined.

		       SV*     newSVpvn(const char* s, STRLEN len)

       newSVpvn_flags
	       Creates a new SV and copies a string into it.  The reference
	       count for the SV is set to 1.  Note that if "len" is zero, Perl
	       will create a zero length string.  You are responsible for
	       ensuring that the source string is at least "len" bytes long.
	       If the "s" argument is NULL the new SV will be undefined.
	       Currently the only flag bits accepted are "SVf_UTF8" and
	       "SVs_TEMP".  If "SVs_TEMP" is set, then "sv2mortal()" is called
	       on the result before returning. If "SVf_UTF8" is set, then it
	       will be set on the new SV.  "newSVpvn_utf8()" is a convenience
	       wrapper for this function, defined as

		   #define newSVpvn_utf8(s, len, u)		       \
		       newSVpvn_flags((s), (len), (u) ? SVf_UTF8 : 0)

		       SV*     newSVpvn_flags(const char* s, STRLEN len, U32 flags)

       newSVpvn_share
	       Creates a new SV with its SvPVX_const pointing to a shared
	       string in the string table. If the string does not already
	       exist in the table, it is created first.	 Turns on READONLY and
	       FAKE. If the "hash" parameter is non-zero, that value is used;
	       otherwise the hash is computed. The string's hash can be later
	       be retrieved from the SV with the "SvSHARED_HASH()" macro. The
	       idea here is that as the string table is used for shared hash
	       keys these strings will have SvPVX_const == HeKEY and hash
	       lookup will avoid string compare.

		       SV*     newSVpvn_share(const char* s, I32 len, U32 hash)

       newSVpvs
	       Like "newSVpvn", but takes a literal string instead of a
	       string/length pair.

		       SV*     newSVpvs(const char* s)

       newSVpvs_flags
	       Like "newSVpvn_flags", but takes a literal string instead of a
	       string/length pair.

		       SV*     newSVpvs_flags(const char* s, U32 flags)

       newSVpvs_share
	       Like "newSVpvn_share", but takes a literal string instead of a
	       string/length pair and omits the hash parameter.

		       SV*     newSVpvs_share(const char* s)

       newSVrv Creates a new SV for the RV, "rv", to point to.	If "rv" is not
	       an RV then it will be upgraded to one.  If "classname" is non-
	       null then the new SV will be blessed in the specified package.
	       The new SV is returned and its reference count is 1.

		       SV*     newSVrv(SV* rv, const char* classname)

       newSVsv Creates a new SV which is an exact duplicate of the original
	       SV.  (Uses "sv_setsv").

		       SV*     newSVsv(SV* old)

       newSVuv Creates a new SV and copies an unsigned integer into it.	 The
	       reference count for the SV is set to 1.

		       SV*     newSVuv(UV u)

       newSV_type
	       Creates a new SV, of the type specified.	 The reference count
	       for the new SV is set to 1.

		       SV*     newSV_type(svtype type)

       sv_2bool
	       This function is only called on magical items, and is only used
	       by sv_true() or its macro equivalent.

		       bool    sv_2bool(SV* sv)

       sv_2cv  Using various gambits, try to get a CV from an SV; in addition,
	       try if possible to set *st and *gvp to the stash and GV
	       associated with it.  The flags in "lref" are passed to
	       sv_fetchsv.

		       CV*     sv_2cv(SV* sv, HV** st, GV** gvp, I32 lref)

       sv_2io  Using various gambits, try to get an IO from an SV: the IO slot
	       if its a GV; or the recursive result if we're an RV; or the IO
	       slot of the symbol named after the PV if we're a string.

		       IO*     sv_2io(SV* sv)

       sv_2iv_flags
	       Return the integer value of an SV, doing any necessary string
	       conversion.  If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get()
	       first.  Normally used via the "SvIV(sv)" and "SvIVx(sv)"
	       macros.

		       IV      sv_2iv_flags(SV* sv, I32 flags)

       sv_2mortal
	       Marks an existing SV as mortal.	The SV will be destroyed
	       "soon", either by an explicit call to FREETMPS, or by an
	       implicit call at places such as statement boundaries.  SvTEMP()
	       is turned on which means that the SV's string buffer can be
	       "stolen" if this SV is copied. See also "sv_newmortal" and
	       "sv_mortalcopy".

		       SV*     sv_2mortal(SV* sv)

       sv_2nv  Return the num value of an SV, doing any necessary string or
	       integer conversion, magic etc. Normally used via the "SvNV(sv)"
	       and "SvNVx(sv)" macros.

		       NV      sv_2nv(SV* sv)

       sv_2pvbyte
	       Return a pointer to the byte-encoded representation of the SV,
	       and set *lp to its length.  May cause the SV to be downgraded
	       from UTF-8 as a side-effect.

	       Usually accessed via the "SvPVbyte" macro.

		       char*   sv_2pvbyte(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

       sv_2pvutf8
	       Return a pointer to the UTF-8-encoded representation of the SV,
	       and set *lp to its length.  May cause the SV to be upgraded to
	       UTF-8 as a side-effect.

	       Usually accessed via the "SvPVutf8" macro.

		       char*   sv_2pvutf8(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

       sv_2pv_flags
	       Returns a pointer to the string value of an SV, and sets *lp to
	       its length.  If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get()
	       first. Coerces sv to a string if necessary.  Normally invoked
	       via the "SvPV_flags" macro. "sv_2pv()" and "sv_2pv_nomg"
	       usually end up here too.

		       char*   sv_2pv_flags(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp, I32 flags)

       sv_2uv_flags
	       Return the unsigned integer value of an SV, doing any necessary
	       string conversion.  If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an
	       mg_get() first.	Normally used via the "SvUV(sv)" and
	       "SvUVx(sv)" macros.

		       UV      sv_2uv_flags(SV* sv, I32 flags)

       sv_backoff
	       Remove any string offset. You should normally use the
	       "SvOOK_off" macro wrapper instead.

		       int     sv_backoff(SV* sv)

       sv_bless
	       Blesses an SV into a specified package.	The SV must be an RV.
	       The package must be designated by its stash (see
	       "gv_stashpv()").	 The reference count of the SV is unaffected.

		       SV*     sv_bless(SV* sv, HV* stash)

       sv_catpv
	       Concatenates the string onto the end of the string which is in
	       the SV.	If the SV has the UTF-8 status set, then the bytes
	       appended should be valid UTF-8.	Handles 'get' magic, but not
	       'set' magic.  See "sv_catpv_mg".

		       void    sv_catpv(SV* sv, const char* ptr)

       sv_catpvf
	       Processes its arguments like "sprintf" and appends the
	       formatted output to an SV.  If the appended data contains
	       "wide" characters (including, but not limited to, SVs with a
	       UTF-8 PV formatted with %s, and characters >255 formatted with
	       %c), the original SV might get upgraded to UTF-8.  Handles
	       'get' magic, but not 'set' magic.  See "sv_catpvf_mg". If the
	       original SV was UTF-8, the pattern should be valid UTF-8; if
	       the original SV was bytes, the pattern should be too.

		       void    sv_catpvf(SV* sv, const char* pat, ...)

       sv_catpvf_mg
	       Like "sv_catpvf", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_catpvf_mg(SV *sv, const char* pat, ...)

       sv_catpvn
	       Concatenates the string onto the end of the string which is in
	       the SV.	The "len" indicates number of bytes to copy.  If the
	       SV has the UTF-8 status set, then the bytes appended should be
	       valid UTF-8.  Handles 'get' magic, but not 'set' magic.	See
	       "sv_catpvn_mg".

		       void    sv_catpvn(SV *dsv, const char *sstr, STRLEN len)

       sv_catpvn_flags
	       Concatenates the string onto the end of the string which is in
	       the SV.	The "len" indicates number of bytes to copy.  If the
	       SV has the UTF-8 status set, then the bytes appended should be
	       valid UTF-8.  If "flags" has "SV_GMAGIC" bit set, will "mg_get"
	       on "dsv" if appropriate, else not. "sv_catpvn" and
	       "sv_catpvn_nomg" are implemented in terms of this function.

		       void    sv_catpvn_flags(SV *dstr, const char *sstr, STRLEN len, I32 flags)

       sv_catpvs
	       Like "sv_catpvn", but takes a literal string instead of a
	       string/length pair.

		       void    sv_catpvs(SV* sv, const char* s)

       sv_catpv_mg
	       Like "sv_catpv", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_catpv_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr)

       sv_catsv
	       Concatenates the string from SV "ssv" onto the end of the
	       string in SV "dsv".  Modifies "dsv" but not "ssv".  Handles
	       'get' magic, but not 'set' magic.  See "sv_catsv_mg".

		       void    sv_catsv(SV *dstr, SV *sstr)

       sv_catsv_flags
	       Concatenates the string from SV "ssv" onto the end of the
	       string in SV "dsv".  Modifies "dsv" but not "ssv".  If "flags"
	       has "SV_GMAGIC" bit set, will "mg_get" on the SVs if
	       appropriate, else not. "sv_catsv" and "sv_catsv_nomg" are
	       implemented in terms of this function.

		       void    sv_catsv_flags(SV* dsv, SV* ssv, I32 flags)

       sv_chop Efficient removal of characters from the beginning of the
	       string buffer.  SvPOK(sv) must be true and the "ptr" must be a
	       pointer to somewhere inside the string buffer.  The "ptr"
	       becomes the first character of the adjusted string. Uses the
	       "OOK hack".  Beware: after this function returns, "ptr" and
	       SvPVX_const(sv) may no longer refer to the same chunk of data.

		       void    sv_chop(SV* sv, const char* ptr)

       sv_clear
	       Clear an SV: call any destructors, free up any memory used by
	       the body, and free the body itself. The SV's head is not freed,
	       although its type is set to all 1's so that it won't
	       inadvertently be assumed to be live during global destruction
	       etc.  This function should only be called when REFCNT is zero.
	       Most of the time you'll want to call "sv_free()" (or its macro
	       wrapper "SvREFCNT_dec") instead.

		       void    sv_clear(SV* sv)

       sv_cmp  Compares the strings in two SVs.	 Returns -1, 0, or 1
	       indicating whether the string in "sv1" is less than, equal to,
	       or greater than the string in "sv2". Is UTF-8 and 'use bytes'
	       aware, handles get magic, and will coerce its args to strings
	       if necessary.  See also "sv_cmp_locale".

		       I32     sv_cmp(SV* sv1, SV* sv2)

       sv_cmp_locale
	       Compares the strings in two SVs in a locale-aware manner. Is
	       UTF-8 and 'use bytes' aware, handles get magic, and will coerce
	       its args to strings if necessary.  See also "sv_cmp".

		       I32     sv_cmp_locale(SV* sv1, SV* sv2)

       sv_collxfrm
	       Add Collate Transform magic to an SV if it doesn't already have
	       it.

	       Any scalar variable may carry PERL_MAGIC_collxfrm magic that
	       contains the scalar data of the variable, but transformed to
	       such a format that a normal memory comparison can be used to
	       compare the data according to the locale settings.

		       char*   sv_collxfrm(SV* sv, STRLEN* nxp)

       sv_copypv
	       Copies a stringified representation of the source SV into the
	       destination SV.	Automatically performs any necessary mg_get
	       and coercion of numeric values into strings.  Guaranteed to
	       preserve UTF8 flag even from overloaded objects.	 Similar in
	       nature to sv_2pv[_flags] but operates directly on an SV instead
	       of just the string.  Mostly uses sv_2pv_flags to do its work,
	       except when that would lose the UTF-8'ness of the PV.

		       void    sv_copypv(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       sv_dec  Auto-decrement of the value in the SV, doing string to numeric
	       conversion if necessary. Handles 'get' magic.

		       void    sv_dec(SV* sv)

       sv_eq   Returns a boolean indicating whether the strings in the two SVs
	       are identical. Is UTF-8 and 'use bytes' aware, handles get
	       magic, and will coerce its args to strings if necessary.

		       I32     sv_eq(SV* sv1, SV* sv2)

       sv_force_normal_flags
	       Undo various types of fakery on an SV: if the PV is a shared
	       string, make a private copy; if we're a ref, stop refing; if
	       we're a glob, downgrade to an xpvmg; if we're a copy-on-write
	       scalar, this is the on-write time when we do the copy, and is
	       also used locally. If "SV_COW_DROP_PV" is set then a copy-on-
	       write scalar drops its PV buffer (if any) and becomes SvPOK_off
	       rather than making a copy. (Used where this scalar is about to
	       be set to some other value.) In addition, the "flags" parameter
	       gets passed to "sv_unref_flags()" when unrefing.
	       "sv_force_normal" calls this function with flags set to 0.

		       void    sv_force_normal_flags(SV *sv, U32 flags)

       sv_free Decrement an SV's reference count, and if it drops to zero,
	       call "sv_clear" to invoke destructors and free up any memory
	       used by the body; finally, deallocate the SV's head itself.
	       Normally called via a wrapper macro "SvREFCNT_dec".

		       void    sv_free(SV* sv)

       sv_gets Get a line from the filehandle and store it into the SV,
	       optionally appending to the currently-stored string.

		       char*   sv_gets(SV* sv, PerlIO* fp, I32 append)

       sv_grow Expands the character buffer in the SV.	If necessary, uses
	       "sv_unref" and upgrades the SV to "SVt_PV".  Returns a pointer
	       to the character buffer.	 Use the "SvGROW" wrapper instead.

		       char*   sv_grow(SV* sv, STRLEN newlen)

       sv_inc  Auto-increment of the value in the SV, doing string to numeric
	       conversion if necessary. Handles 'get' magic.

		       void    sv_inc(SV* sv)

       sv_insert
	       Inserts a string at the specified offset/length within the SV.
	       Similar to the Perl substr() function. Handles get magic.

		       void    sv_insert(SV *bigstr, STRLEN offset, STRLEN len, const char *little, STRLEN littlelen)

       sv_insert_flags
	       Same as "sv_insert", but the extra "flags" are passed the
	       "SvPV_force_flags" that applies to "bigstr".

		       void    sv_insert_flags(SV *const bigstr, const STRLEN offset, const STRLEN len, const char *const little, const STRLEN littlelen, const U32 flags)

       sv_isa  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is blessed into the
	       specified class.	 This does not check for subtypes; use
	       "sv_derived_from" to verify an inheritance relationship.

		       int     sv_isa(SV* sv, const char* name)

       sv_isobject
	       Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is an RV pointing
	       to a blessed object.  If the SV is not an RV, or if the object
	       is not blessed, then this will return false.

		       int     sv_isobject(SV* sv)

       sv_len  Returns the length of the string in the SV. Handles magic and
	       type coercion.  See also "SvCUR", which gives raw access to the
	       xpv_cur slot.

		       STRLEN  sv_len(SV* sv)

       sv_len_utf8
	       Returns the number of characters in the string in an SV,
	       counting wide UTF-8 bytes as a single character. Handles magic
	       and type coercion.

		       STRLEN  sv_len_utf8(SV* sv)

       sv_magic
	       Adds magic to an SV. First upgrades "sv" to type "SVt_PVMG" if
	       necessary, then adds a new magic item of type "how" to the head
	       of the magic list.

	       See "sv_magicext" (which "sv_magic" now calls) for a
	       description of the handling of the "name" and "namlen"
	       arguments.

	       You need to use "sv_magicext" to add magic to SvREADONLY SVs
	       and also to add more than one instance of the same 'how'.

		       void    sv_magic(SV* sv, SV* obj, int how, const char* name, I32 namlen)

       sv_magicext
	       Adds magic to an SV, upgrading it if necessary. Applies the
	       supplied vtable and returns a pointer to the magic added.

	       Note that "sv_magicext" will allow things that "sv_magic" will
	       not.  In particular, you can add magic to SvREADONLY SVs, and
	       add more than one instance of the same 'how'.

	       If "namlen" is greater than zero then a "savepvn" copy of
	       "name" is stored, if "namlen" is zero then "name" is stored as-
	       is and - as another special case - if "(name && namlen ==
	       HEf_SVKEY)" then "name" is assumed to contain an "SV*" and is
	       stored as-is with its REFCNT incremented.

	       (This is now used as a subroutine by "sv_magic".)

		       MAGIC * sv_magicext(SV* sv, SV* obj, int how, const MGVTBL *vtbl, const char* name, I32 namlen)

       sv_mortalcopy
	       Creates a new SV which is a copy of the original SV (using
	       "sv_setsv").  The new SV is marked as mortal. It will be
	       destroyed "soon", either by an explicit call to FREETMPS, or by
	       an implicit call at places such as statement boundaries.	 See
	       also "sv_newmortal" and "sv_2mortal".

		       SV*     sv_mortalcopy(SV* oldsv)

       sv_newmortal
	       Creates a new null SV which is mortal.  The reference count of
	       the SV is set to 1. It will be destroyed "soon", either by an
	       explicit call to FREETMPS, or by an implicit call at places
	       such as statement boundaries.  See also "sv_mortalcopy" and
	       "sv_2mortal".

		       SV*     sv_newmortal()

       sv_newref
	       Increment an SV's reference count. Use the "SvREFCNT_inc()"
	       wrapper instead.

		       SV*     sv_newref(SV* sv)

       sv_pos_b2u
	       Converts the value pointed to by offsetp from a count of bytes
	       from the start of the string, to a count of the equivalent
	       number of UTF-8 chars.  Handles magic and type coercion.

		       void    sv_pos_b2u(SV* sv, I32* offsetp)

       sv_pos_u2b
	       Converts the value pointed to by offsetp from a count of UTF-8
	       chars from the start of the string, to a count of the
	       equivalent number of bytes; if lenp is non-zero, it does the
	       same to lenp, but this time starting from the offset, rather
	       than from the start of the string. Handles magic and type
	       coercion.

		       void    sv_pos_u2b(SV* sv, I32* offsetp, I32* lenp)

       sv_pvbyten_force
	       The backend for the "SvPVbytex_force" macro. Always use the
	       macro instead.

		       char*   sv_pvbyten_force(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

       sv_pvn_force
	       Get a sensible string out of the SV somehow.  A private
	       implementation of the "SvPV_force" macro for compilers which
	       can't cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the macro
	       instead.

		       char*   sv_pvn_force(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

       sv_pvn_force_flags
	       Get a sensible string out of the SV somehow.  If "flags" has
	       "SV_GMAGIC" bit set, will "mg_get" on "sv" if appropriate, else
	       not. "sv_pvn_force" and "sv_pvn_force_nomg" are implemented in
	       terms of this function.	You normally want to use the various
	       wrapper macros instead: see "SvPV_force" and "SvPV_force_nomg"

		       char*   sv_pvn_force_flags(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp, I32 flags)

       sv_pvutf8n_force
	       The backend for the "SvPVutf8x_force" macro. Always use the
	       macro instead.

		       char*   sv_pvutf8n_force(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

       sv_reftype
	       Returns a string describing what the SV is a reference to.

		       const char*     sv_reftype(const SV* sv, int ob)

       sv_replace
	       Make the first argument a copy of the second, then delete the
	       original.  The target SV physically takes over ownership of the
	       body of the source SV and inherits its flags; however, the
	       target keeps any magic it owns, and any magic in the source is
	       discarded.  Note that this is a rather specialist SV copying
	       operation; most of the time you'll want to use "sv_setsv" or
	       one of its many macro front-ends.

		       void    sv_replace(SV* sv, SV* nsv)

       sv_reset
	       Underlying implementation for the "reset" Perl function.	 Note
	       that the perl-level function is vaguely deprecated.

		       void    sv_reset(const char* s, HV* stash)

       sv_rvweaken
	       Weaken a reference: set the "SvWEAKREF" flag on this RV; give
	       the referred-to SV "PERL_MAGIC_backref" magic if it hasn't
	       already; and push a back-reference to this RV onto the array of
	       backreferences associated with that magic. If the RV is
	       magical, set magic will be called after the RV is cleared.

		       SV*     sv_rvweaken(SV *sv)

       sv_setiv
	       Copies an integer into the given SV, upgrading first if
	       necessary.  Does not handle 'set' magic.	 See also
	       "sv_setiv_mg".

		       void    sv_setiv(SV* sv, IV num)

       sv_setiv_mg
	       Like "sv_setiv", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_setiv_mg(SV *sv, IV i)

       sv_setnv
	       Copies a double into the given SV, upgrading first if
	       necessary.  Does not handle 'set' magic.	 See also
	       "sv_setnv_mg".

		       void    sv_setnv(SV* sv, NV num)

       sv_setnv_mg
	       Like "sv_setnv", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_setnv_mg(SV *sv, NV num)

       sv_setpv
	       Copies a string into an SV.  The string must be null-
	       terminated.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  See "sv_setpv_mg".

		       void    sv_setpv(SV* sv, const char* ptr)

       sv_setpvf
	       Works like "sv_catpvf" but copies the text into the SV instead
	       of appending it.	 Does not handle 'set' magic.  See
	       "sv_setpvf_mg".

		       void    sv_setpvf(SV* sv, const char* pat, ...)

       sv_setpvf_mg
	       Like "sv_setpvf", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_setpvf_mg(SV *sv, const char* pat, ...)

       sv_setpviv
	       Copies an integer into the given SV, also updating its string
	       value.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  See "sv_setpviv_mg".

		       void    sv_setpviv(SV* sv, IV num)

       sv_setpviv_mg
	       Like "sv_setpviv", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_setpviv_mg(SV *sv, IV iv)

       sv_setpvn
	       Copies a string into an SV.  The "len" parameter indicates the
	       number of bytes to be copied.  If the "ptr" argument is NULL
	       the SV will become undefined.  Does not handle 'set' magic.
	       See "sv_setpvn_mg".

		       void    sv_setpvn(SV* sv, const char* ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_setpvn_mg
	       Like "sv_setpvn", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_setpvn_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_setpvs
	       Like "sv_setpvn", but takes a literal string instead of a
	       string/length pair.

		       void    sv_setpvs(SV* sv, const char* s)

       sv_setpv_mg
	       Like "sv_setpv", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_setpv_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr)

       sv_setref_iv
	       Copies an integer into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV.
	       The "rv" argument will be upgraded to an RV.  That RV will be
	       modified to point to the new SV.	 The "classname" argument
	       indicates the package for the blessing.	Set "classname" to
	       "NULL" to avoid the blessing.  The new SV will have a reference
	       count of 1, and the RV will be returned.

		       SV*     sv_setref_iv(SV* rv, const char* classname, IV iv)

       sv_setref_nv
	       Copies a double into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV.  The
	       "rv" argument will be upgraded to an RV.	 That RV will be
	       modified to point to the new SV.	 The "classname" argument
	       indicates the package for the blessing.	Set "classname" to
	       "NULL" to avoid the blessing.  The new SV will have a reference
	       count of 1, and the RV will be returned.

		       SV*     sv_setref_nv(SV* rv, const char* classname, NV nv)

       sv_setref_pv
	       Copies a pointer into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV.
	       The "rv" argument will be upgraded to an RV.  That RV will be
	       modified to point to the new SV.	 If the "pv" argument is NULL
	       then "PL_sv_undef" will be placed into the SV.  The "classname"
	       argument indicates the package for the blessing.	 Set
	       "classname" to "NULL" to avoid the blessing.  The new SV will
	       have a reference count of 1, and the RV will be returned.

	       Do not use with other Perl types such as HV, AV, SV, CV,
	       because those objects will become corrupted by the pointer copy
	       process.

	       Note that "sv_setref_pvn" copies the string while this copies
	       the pointer.

		       SV*     sv_setref_pv(SV* rv, const char* classname, void* pv)

       sv_setref_pvn
	       Copies a string into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV.  The
	       length of the string must be specified with "n".	 The "rv"
	       argument will be upgraded to an RV.  That RV will be modified
	       to point to the new SV.	The "classname" argument indicates the
	       package for the blessing.  Set "classname" to "NULL" to avoid
	       the blessing.  The new SV will have a reference count of 1, and
	       the RV will be returned.

	       Note that "sv_setref_pv" copies the pointer while this copies
	       the string.

		       SV*     sv_setref_pvn(SV* rv, const char* classname, const char* pv, STRLEN n)

       sv_setref_uv
	       Copies an unsigned integer into a new SV, optionally blessing
	       the SV.	The "rv" argument will be upgraded to an RV.  That RV
	       will be modified to point to the new SV.	 The "classname"
	       argument indicates the package for the blessing.	 Set
	       "classname" to "NULL" to avoid the blessing.  The new SV will
	       have a reference count of 1, and the RV will be returned.

		       SV*     sv_setref_uv(SV* rv, const char* classname, UV uv)

       sv_setsv
	       Copies the contents of the source SV "ssv" into the destination
	       SV "dsv".  The source SV may be destroyed if it is mortal, so
	       don't use this function if the source SV needs to be reused.
	       Does not handle 'set' magic.  Loosely speaking, it performs a
	       copy-by-value, obliterating any previous content of the
	       destination.

	       You probably want to use one of the assortment of wrappers,
	       such as "SvSetSV", "SvSetSV_nosteal", "SvSetMagicSV" and
	       "SvSetMagicSV_nosteal".

		       void    sv_setsv(SV *dstr, SV *sstr)

       sv_setsv_flags
	       Copies the contents of the source SV "ssv" into the destination
	       SV "dsv".  The source SV may be destroyed if it is mortal, so
	       don't use this function if the source SV needs to be reused.
	       Does not handle 'set' magic.  Loosely speaking, it performs a
	       copy-by-value, obliterating any previous content of the
	       destination.  If the "flags" parameter has the "SV_GMAGIC" bit
	       set, will "mg_get" on "ssv" if appropriate, else not. If the
	       "flags" parameter has the "NOSTEAL" bit set then the buffers of
	       temps will not be stolen. <sv_setsv> and "sv_setsv_nomg" are
	       implemented in terms of this function.

	       You probably want to use one of the assortment of wrappers,
	       such as "SvSetSV", "SvSetSV_nosteal", "SvSetMagicSV" and
	       "SvSetMagicSV_nosteal".

	       This is the primary function for copying scalars, and most
	       other copy-ish functions and macros use this underneath.

		       void    sv_setsv_flags(SV *dstr, SV *sstr, I32 flags)

       sv_setsv_mg
	       Like "sv_setsv", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_setsv_mg(SV *dstr, SV *sstr)

       sv_setuv
	       Copies an unsigned integer into the given SV, upgrading first
	       if necessary.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  See also
	       "sv_setuv_mg".

		       void    sv_setuv(SV* sv, UV num)

       sv_setuv_mg
	       Like "sv_setuv", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_setuv_mg(SV *sv, UV u)

       sv_tainted
	       Test an SV for taintedness. Use "SvTAINTED" instead.
		    bool sv_tainted(SV* sv)

       sv_true Returns true if the SV has a true value by Perl's rules.	 Use
	       the "SvTRUE" macro instead, which may call "sv_true()" or may
	       instead use an in-line version.

		       I32     sv_true(SV *sv)

       sv_unmagic
	       Removes all magic of type "type" from an SV.

		       int     sv_unmagic(SV* sv, int type)

       sv_unref_flags
	       Unsets the RV status of the SV, and decrements the reference
	       count of whatever was being referenced by the RV.  This can
	       almost be thought of as a reversal of "newSVrv".	 The "cflags"
	       argument can contain "SV_IMMEDIATE_UNREF" to force the
	       reference count to be decremented (otherwise the decrementing
	       is conditional on the reference count being different from one
	       or the reference being a readonly SV).  See "SvROK_off".

		       void    sv_unref_flags(SV *ref, U32 flags)

       sv_untaint
	       Untaint an SV. Use "SvTAINTED_off" instead.
		    void sv_untaint(SV* sv)

       sv_upgrade
	       Upgrade an SV to a more complex form.  Generally adds a new
	       body type to the SV, then copies across as much information as
	       possible from the old body.  You generally want to use the
	       "SvUPGRADE" macro wrapper. See also "svtype".

		       void    sv_upgrade(SV* sv, svtype new_type)

       sv_usepvn_flags
	       Tells an SV to use "ptr" to find its string value.  Normally
	       the string is stored inside the SV but sv_usepvn allows the SV
	       to use an outside string.  The "ptr" should point to memory
	       that was allocated by "malloc".	The string length, "len", must
	       be supplied.  By default this function will realloc (i.e. move)
	       the memory pointed to by "ptr", so that pointer should not be
	       freed or used by the programmer after giving it to sv_usepvn,
	       and neither should any pointers from "behind" that pointer
	       (e.g. ptr + 1) be used.

	       If "flags" & SV_SMAGIC is true, will call SvSETMAGIC. If
	       "flags" & SV_HAS_TRAILING_NUL is true, then "ptr[len]" must be
	       NUL, and the realloc will be skipped. (i.e. the buffer is
	       actually at least 1 byte longer than "len", and already meets
	       the requirements for storing in "SvPVX")

		       void    sv_usepvn_flags(SV* sv, char* ptr, STRLEN len, U32 flags)

       sv_utf8_decode
	       If the PV of the SV is an octet sequence in UTF-8 and contains
	       a multiple-byte character, the "SvUTF8" flag is turned on so
	       that it looks like a character. If the PV contains only single-
	       byte characters, the "SvUTF8" flag stays being off.  Scans PV
	       for validity and returns false if the PV is invalid UTF-8.

	       NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be
	       removed without notice.

		       bool    sv_utf8_decode(SV *sv)

       sv_utf8_downgrade
	       Attempts to convert the PV of an SV from characters to bytes.
	       If the PV contains a character that cannot fit in a byte, this
	       conversion will fail; in this case, either returns false or, if
	       "fail_ok" is not true, croaks.

	       This is not as a general purpose Unicode to byte encoding
	       interface: use the Encode extension for that.

	       NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be
	       removed without notice.

		       bool    sv_utf8_downgrade(SV *sv, bool fail_ok)

       sv_utf8_encode
	       Converts the PV of an SV to UTF-8, but then turns the "SvUTF8"
	       flag off so that it looks like octets again.

		       void    sv_utf8_encode(SV *sv)

       sv_utf8_upgrade
	       Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form.  Forces the
	       SV to string form if it is not already.	Will "mg_get" on "sv"
	       if appropriate.	Always sets the SvUTF8 flag to avoid future
	       validity checks even if the whole string is the same in UTF-8
	       as not.	Returns the number of bytes in the converted string

	       This is not as a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode
	       interface: use the Encode extension for that.

		       STRLEN  sv_utf8_upgrade(SV *sv)

       sv_utf8_upgrade_flags
	       Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form.  Forces the
	       SV to string form if it is not already.	Always sets the SvUTF8
	       flag to avoid future validity checks even if all the bytes are
	       invariant in UTF-8. If "flags" has "SV_GMAGIC" bit set, will
	       "mg_get" on "sv" if appropriate, else not.  Returns the number
	       of bytes in the converted string "sv_utf8_upgrade" and
	       "sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg" are implemented in terms of this
	       function.

	       This is not as a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode
	       interface: use the Encode extension for that.

		       STRLEN  sv_utf8_upgrade_flags(SV *sv, I32 flags)

       sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg
	       Like sv_utf8_upgrade, but doesn't do magic on "sv"

		       STRLEN  sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg(SV *sv)

       sv_vcatpvf
	       Processes its arguments like "vsprintf" and appends the
	       formatted output to an SV.  Does not handle 'set' magic.	 See
	       "sv_vcatpvf_mg".

	       Usually used via its frontend "sv_catpvf".

		       void    sv_vcatpvf(SV* sv, const char* pat, va_list* args)

       sv_vcatpvfn
	       Processes its arguments like "vsprintf" and appends the
	       formatted output to an SV.  Uses an array of SVs if the C style
	       variable argument list is missing (NULL).  When running with
	       taint checks enabled, indicates via "maybe_tainted" if results
	       are untrustworthy (often due to the use of locales).

	       Usually used via one of its frontends "sv_vcatpvf" and
	       "sv_vcatpvf_mg".

		       void    sv_vcatpvfn(SV* sv, const char* pat, STRLEN patlen, va_list* args, SV** svargs, I32 svmax, bool *maybe_tainted)

       sv_vcatpvf_mg
	       Like "sv_vcatpvf", but also handles 'set' magic.

	       Usually used via its frontend "sv_catpvf_mg".

		       void    sv_vcatpvf_mg(SV* sv, const char* pat, va_list* args)

       sv_vsetpvf
	       Works like "sv_vcatpvf" but copies the text into the SV instead
	       of appending it.	 Does not handle 'set' magic.  See
	       "sv_vsetpvf_mg".

	       Usually used via its frontend "sv_setpvf".

		       void    sv_vsetpvf(SV* sv, const char* pat, va_list* args)

       sv_vsetpvfn
	       Works like "sv_vcatpvfn" but copies the text into the SV
	       instead of appending it.

	       Usually used via one of its frontends "sv_vsetpvf" and
	       "sv_vsetpvf_mg".

		       void    sv_vsetpvfn(SV* sv, const char* pat, STRLEN patlen, va_list* args, SV** svargs, I32 svmax, bool *maybe_tainted)

       sv_vsetpvf_mg
	       Like "sv_vsetpvf", but also handles 'set' magic.

	       Usually used via its frontend "sv_setpvf_mg".

		       void    sv_vsetpvf_mg(SV* sv, const char* pat, va_list* args)

Unicode Support
       bytes_from_utf8
	       Converts a string "s" of length "len" from UTF-8 into native
	       byte encoding.  Unlike "utf8_to_bytes" but like
	       "bytes_to_utf8", returns a pointer to the newly-created string,
	       and updates "len" to contain the new length.  Returns the
	       original string if no conversion occurs, "len" is unchanged. Do
	       nothing if "is_utf8" points to 0. Sets "is_utf8" to 0 if "s" is
	       converted or consisted entirely of characters that are
	       invariant in utf8 (i.e., US-ASCII on non-EBCDIC machines).

	       NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be
	       removed without notice.

		       U8*     bytes_from_utf8(const U8 *s, STRLEN *len, bool *is_utf8)

       bytes_to_utf8
	       Converts a string "s" of length "len" from the native encoding
	       into UTF-8.  Returns a pointer to the newly-created string, and
	       sets "len" to reflect the new length.

	       A NUL character will be written after the end of the string.

	       If you want to convert to UTF-8 from encodings other than the
	       native (Latin1 or EBCDIC), see sv_recode_to_utf8().

	       NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be
	       removed without notice.

		       U8*     bytes_to_utf8(const U8 *s, STRLEN *len)

       ibcmp_utf8
	       Return true if the strings s1 and s2 differ case-insensitively,
	       false if not (if they are equal case-insensitively).  If u1 is
	       true, the string s1 is assumed to be in UTF-8-encoded Unicode.
	       If u2 is true, the string s2 is assumed to be in UTF-8-encoded
	       Unicode.	 If u1 or u2 are false, the respective string is
	       assumed to be in native 8-bit encoding.

	       If the pe1 and pe2 are non-NULL, the scanning pointers will be
	       copied in there (they will point at the beginning of the next
	       character).  If the pointers behind pe1 or pe2 are non-NULL,
	       they are the end pointers beyond which scanning will not
	       continue under any circumstances.  If the byte lengths l1 and
	       l2 are non-zero, s1+l1 and s2+l2 will be used as goal end
	       pointers that will also stop the scan, and which qualify
	       towards defining a successful match: all the scans that define
	       an explicit length must reach their goal pointers for a match
	       to succeed).

	       For case-insensitiveness, the "casefolding" of Unicode is used
	       instead of upper/lowercasing both the characters, see
	       http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr21/ (Case Mappings).

		       I32     ibcmp_utf8(const char *s1, char **pe1, UV l1, bool u1, const char *s2, char **pe2, UV l2, bool u2)

       is_utf8_char
	       Tests if some arbitrary number of bytes begins in a valid UTF-8
	       character.  Note that an INVARIANT (i.e. ASCII on non-EBCDIC
	       machines) character is a valid UTF-8 character.	The actual
	       number of bytes in the UTF-8 character will be returned if it
	       is valid, otherwise 0.

		       STRLEN  is_utf8_char(const U8 *s)

       is_utf8_string
	       Returns true if first "len" bytes of the given string form a
	       valid UTF-8 string, false otherwise.  Note that 'a valid UTF-8
	       string' does not mean 'a string that contains code points above
	       0x7F encoded in UTF-8' because a valid ASCII string is a valid
	       UTF-8 string.

	       See also is_utf8_string_loclen() and is_utf8_string_loc().

		       bool    is_utf8_string(const U8 *s, STRLEN len)

       is_utf8_string_loc
	       Like is_utf8_string() but stores the location of the failure
	       (in the case of "utf8ness failure") or the location s+len (in
	       the case of "utf8ness success") in the "ep".

	       See also is_utf8_string_loclen() and is_utf8_string().

		       bool    is_utf8_string_loc(const U8 *s, STRLEN len, const U8 **p)

       is_utf8_string_loclen
	       Like is_utf8_string() but stores the location of the failure
	       (in the case of "utf8ness failure") or the location s+len (in
	       the case of "utf8ness success") in the "ep", and the number of
	       UTF-8 encoded characters in the "el".

	       See also is_utf8_string_loc() and is_utf8_string().

		       bool    is_utf8_string_loclen(const U8 *s, STRLEN len, const U8 **ep, STRLEN *el)

       pv_uni_display
	       Build to the scalar dsv a displayable version of the string
	       spv, length len, the displayable version being at most pvlim
	       bytes long (if longer, the rest is truncated and "..." will be
	       appended).

	       The flags argument can have UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT set to display
	       isPRINT()able characters as themselves, UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH
	       to display the \\[nrfta\\] as the backslashed versions (like
	       '\n') (UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH is preferred over
	       UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT for \\).  UNI_DISPLAY_QQ (and its alias
	       UNI_DISPLAY_REGEX) have both UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH and
	       UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT turned on.

	       The pointer to the PV of the dsv is returned.

		       char*   pv_uni_display(SV *dsv, const U8 *spv, STRLEN len, STRLEN pvlim, UV flags)

       sv_cat_decode
	       The encoding is assumed to be an Encode object, the PV of the
	       ssv is assumed to be octets in that encoding and decoding the
	       input starts from the position which (PV + *offset) pointed to.
	       The dsv will be concatenated the decoded UTF-8 string from ssv.
	       Decoding will terminate when the string tstr appears in
	       decoding output or the input ends on the PV of the ssv. The
	       value which the offset points will be modified to the last
	       input position on the ssv.

	       Returns TRUE if the terminator was found, else returns FALSE.

		       bool    sv_cat_decode(SV* dsv, SV *encoding, SV *ssv, int *offset, char* tstr, int tlen)

       sv_recode_to_utf8
	       The encoding is assumed to be an Encode object, on entry the PV
	       of the sv is assumed to be octets in that encoding, and the sv
	       will be converted into Unicode (and UTF-8).

	       If the sv already is UTF-8 (or if it is not POK), or if the
	       encoding is not a reference, nothing is done to the sv.	If the
	       encoding is not an "Encode::XS" Encoding object, bad things
	       will happen.  (See lib/encoding.pm and Encode).

	       The PV of the sv is returned.

		       char*   sv_recode_to_utf8(SV* sv, SV *encoding)

       sv_uni_display
	       Build to the scalar dsv a displayable version of the scalar sv,
	       the displayable version being at most pvlim bytes long (if
	       longer, the rest is truncated and "..." will be appended).

	       The flags argument is as in pv_uni_display().

	       The pointer to the PV of the dsv is returned.

		       char*   sv_uni_display(SV *dsv, SV *ssv, STRLEN pvlim, UV flags)

       to_utf8_case
	       The "p" contains the pointer to the UTF-8 string encoding the
	       character that is being converted.

	       The "ustrp" is a pointer to the character buffer to put the
	       conversion result to.  The "lenp" is a pointer to the length of
	       the result.

	       The "swashp" is a pointer to the swash to use.

	       Both the special and normal mappings are stored
	       lib/unicore/To/Foo.pl, and loaded by SWASHNEW, using
	       lib/utf8_heavy.pl.  The special (usually, but not always, a
	       multicharacter mapping), is tried first.

	       The "special" is a string like "utf8::ToSpecLower", which means
	       the hash %utf8::ToSpecLower.  The access to the hash is through
	       Perl_to_utf8_case().

	       The "normal" is a string like "ToLower" which means the swash
	       %utf8::ToLower.

		       UV      to_utf8_case(const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, SV **swashp, const char *normal, const char *special)

       to_utf8_fold
	       Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its foldcase
	       version and store that in UTF-8 in ustrp and its length in
	       bytes in lenp.  Note that the ustrp needs to be at least
	       UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the foldcase version may be
	       longer than the original character (up to three characters).

	       The first character of the foldcased version is returned (but
	       note, as explained above, that there may be more.)

		       UV      to_utf8_fold(const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)

       to_utf8_lower
	       Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its lowercase
	       version and store that in UTF-8 in ustrp and its length in
	       bytes in lenp.  Note that the ustrp needs to be at least
	       UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the lowercase version may be
	       longer than the original character.

	       The first character of the lowercased version is returned (but
	       note, as explained above, that there may be more.)

		       UV      to_utf8_lower(const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)

       to_utf8_title
	       Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its titlecase
	       version and store that in UTF-8 in ustrp and its length in
	       bytes in lenp.  Note that the ustrp needs to be at least
	       UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the titlecase version may be
	       longer than the original character.

	       The first character of the titlecased version is returned (but
	       note, as explained above, that there may be more.)

		       UV      to_utf8_title(const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)

       to_utf8_upper
	       Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its uppercase
	       version and store that in UTF-8 in ustrp and its length in
	       bytes in lenp.  Note that the ustrp needs to be at least
	       UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the uppercase version may be
	       longer than the original character.

	       The first character of the uppercased version is returned (but
	       note, as explained above, that there may be more.)

		       UV      to_utf8_upper(const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)

       utf8n_to_uvchr
	       flags

	       Returns the native character value of the first character in
	       the string "s" which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding;
	       "retlen" will be set to the length, in bytes, of that
	       character.

	       Allows length and flags to be passed to low level routine.

		       UV      utf8n_to_uvchr(const U8 *s, STRLEN curlen, STRLEN *retlen, U32 flags)

       utf8n_to_uvuni
	       Bottom level UTF-8 decode routine.  Returns the Unicode code
	       point value of the first character in the string "s" which is
	       assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding and no longer than "curlen";
	       "retlen" will be set to the length, in bytes, of that
	       character.

	       If "s" does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character, the
	       behaviour is dependent on the value of "flags": if it contains
	       UTF8_CHECK_ONLY, it is assumed that the caller will raise a
	       warning, and this function will silently just set "retlen" to
	       "-1" and return zero.  If the "flags" does not contain
	       UTF8_CHECK_ONLY, warnings about malformations will be given,
	       "retlen" will be set to the expected length of the UTF-8
	       character in bytes, and zero will be returned.

	       The "flags" can also contain various flags to allow deviations
	       from the strict UTF-8 encoding (see utf8.h).

	       Most code should use utf8_to_uvchr() rather than call this
	       directly.

		       UV      utf8n_to_uvuni(const U8 *s, STRLEN curlen, STRLEN *retlen, U32 flags)

       utf8_distance
	       Returns the number of UTF-8 characters between the UTF-8
	       pointers "a" and "b".

	       WARNING: use only if you *know* that the pointers point inside
	       the same UTF-8 buffer.

		       IV      utf8_distance(const U8 *a, const U8 *b)

       utf8_hop
	       Return the UTF-8 pointer "s" displaced by "off" characters,
	       either forward or backward.

	       WARNING: do not use the following unless you *know* "off" is
	       within the UTF-8 data pointed to by "s" *and* that on entry "s"
	       is aligned on the first byte of character or just after the
	       last byte of a character.

		       U8*     utf8_hop(const U8 *s, I32 off)

       utf8_length
	       Return the length of the UTF-8 char encoded string "s" in
	       characters.  Stops at "e" (inclusive).  If "e < s" or if the
	       scan would end up past "e", croaks.

		       STRLEN  utf8_length(const U8* s, const U8 *e)

       utf8_to_bytes
	       Converts a string "s" of length "len" from UTF-8 into native
	       byte encoding.  Unlike "bytes_to_utf8", this over-writes the
	       original string, and updates len to contain the new length.
	       Returns zero on failure, setting "len" to -1.

	       If you need a copy of the string, see "bytes_from_utf8".

	       NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be
	       removed without notice.

		       U8*     utf8_to_bytes(U8 *s, STRLEN *len)

       utf8_to_uvchr
	       Returns the native character value of the first character in
	       the string "s" which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding;
	       "retlen" will be set to the length, in bytes, of that
	       character.

	       If "s" does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character, zero is
	       returned and retlen is set, if possible, to -1.

		       UV      utf8_to_uvchr(const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)

       utf8_to_uvuni
	       Returns the Unicode code point of the first character in the
	       string "s" which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; "retlen"
	       will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.

	       This function should only be used when the returned UV is
	       considered an index into the Unicode semantic tables (e.g.
	       swashes).

	       If "s" does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character, zero is
	       returned and retlen is set, if possible, to -1.

		       UV      utf8_to_uvuni(const U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)

       uvchr_to_utf8
	       Adds the UTF-8 representation of the Native codepoint "uv" to
	       the end of the string "d"; "d" should be have at least
	       "UTF8_MAXBYTES+1" free bytes available. The return value is the
	       pointer to the byte after the end of the new character. In
	       other words,

		   d = uvchr_to_utf8(d, uv);

	       is the recommended wide native character-aware way of saying

		   *(d++) = uv;

		       U8*     uvchr_to_utf8(U8 *d, UV uv)

       uvuni_to_utf8_flags
	       Adds the UTF-8 representation of the Unicode codepoint "uv" to
	       the end of the string "d"; "d" should be have at least
	       "UTF8_MAXBYTES+1" free bytes available. The return value is the
	       pointer to the byte after the end of the new character. In
	       other words,

		   d = uvuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, flags);

	       or, in most cases,

		   d = uvuni_to_utf8(d, uv);

	       (which is equivalent to)

		   d = uvuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, 0);

	       is the recommended Unicode-aware way of saying

		   *(d++) = uv;

		       U8*     uvuni_to_utf8_flags(U8 *d, UV uv, UV flags)

Variables created by "xsubpp" and "xsubpp" internal functions
       ax      Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to indicate the stack base
	       offset, used by the "ST", "XSprePUSH" and "XSRETURN" macros.
	       The "dMARK" macro must be called prior to setup the "MARK"
	       variable.

		       I32     ax

       CLASS   Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to indicate the class name
	       for a C++ XS constructor.  This is always a "char*".  See
	       "THIS".

		       char*   CLASS

       dAX     Sets up the "ax" variable.  This is usually handled
	       automatically by "xsubpp" by calling "dXSARGS".

			       dAX;

       dAXMARK Sets up the "ax" variable and stack marker variable "mark".
	       This is usually handled automatically by "xsubpp" by calling
	       "dXSARGS".

			       dAXMARK;

       dITEMS  Sets up the "items" variable.  This is usually handled
	       automatically by "xsubpp" by calling "dXSARGS".

			       dITEMS;

       dUNDERBAR
	       Sets up the "padoff_du" variable for an XSUB that wishes to use
	       "UNDERBAR".

			       dUNDERBAR;

       dXSARGS Sets up stack and mark pointers for an XSUB, calling dSP and
	       dMARK.  Sets up the "ax" and "items" variables by calling "dAX"
	       and "dITEMS".  This is usually handled automatically by
	       "xsubpp".

			       dXSARGS;

       dXSI32  Sets up the "ix" variable for an XSUB which has aliases.	 This
	       is usually handled automatically by "xsubpp".

			       dXSI32;

       items   Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to indicate the number of
	       items on the stack.  See "Variable-length Parameter Lists" in
	       perlxs.

		       I32     items

       ix      Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to indicate which of an
	       XSUB's aliases was used to invoke it.  See "The ALIAS: Keyword"
	       in perlxs.

		       I32     ix

       newXSproto
	       Used by "xsubpp" to hook up XSUBs as Perl subs.	Adds Perl
	       prototypes to the subs.

       RETVAL  Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to hold the return value
	       for an XSUB. This is always the proper type for the XSUB. See
	       "The RETVAL Variable" in perlxs.

		       (whatever)      RETVAL

       ST      Used to access elements on the XSUB's stack.

		       SV*     ST(int ix)

       THIS    Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to designate the object in
	       a C++ XSUB.  This is always the proper type for the C++ object.
	       See "CLASS" and "Using XS With C++" in perlxs.

		       (whatever)      THIS

       UNDERBAR
	       The SV* corresponding to the $_ variable. Works even if there
	       is a lexical $_ in scope.

       XS      Macro to declare an XSUB and its C parameter list.  This is
	       handled by "xsubpp".

       XS_VERSION
	       The version identifier for an XS module.	 This is usually
	       handled automatically by "ExtUtils::MakeMaker".	See
	       "XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK".

       XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK
	       Macro to verify that a PM module's $VERSION variable matches
	       the XS module's "XS_VERSION" variable.  This is usually handled
	       automatically by "xsubpp".  See "The VERSIONCHECK: Keyword" in
	       perlxs.

			       XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK;

Warning and Dieing
       croak   This is the XSUB-writer's interface to Perl's "die" function.
	       Normally call this function the same way you call the C
	       "printf" function.  Calling "croak" returns control directly to
	       Perl, sidestepping the normal C order of execution. See "warn".

	       If you want to throw an exception object, assign the object to
	       $@ and then pass "NULL" to croak():

		  errsv = get_sv("@", GV_ADD);
		  sv_setsv(errsv, exception_object);
		  croak(NULL);

		       void    croak(const char* pat, ...)

       warn    This is the XSUB-writer's interface to Perl's "warn" function.
	       Call this function the same way you call the C "printf"
	       function.  See "croak".

		       void    warn(const char* pat, ...)

AUTHORS
       Until May 1997, this document was maintained by Jeff Okamoto
       <okamoto@corp.hp.com>.  It is now maintained as part of Perl itself.

       With lots of help and suggestions from Dean Roehrich, Malcolm Beattie,
       Andreas Koenig, Paul Hudson, Ilya Zakharevich, Paul Marquess, Neil
       Bowers, Matthew Green, Tim Bunce, Spider Boardman, Ulrich Pfeifer,
       Stephen McCamant, and Gurusamy Sarathy.

       API Listing originally by Dean Roehrich <roehrich@cray.com>.

       Updated to be autogenerated from comments in the source by Benjamin
       Stuhl.

SEE ALSO
       perlguts(1), perlxs(1), perlxstut(1), perlintern(1)

perl v5.10.1			  2010-11-08			    PERLAPI(1)
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