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@G@PIC(@MAN1EXT@)					     @G@PIC(@MAN1EXT@)

NAME
       @g@pic - compile pictures for troff or TeX

SYNOPSIS
       @g@pic [ -nvC ] [ filename ...  ]
       @g@pic -t [ -cvzC ] [ filename ...  ]

DESCRIPTION
       This  manual page descibes the GNU version of pic, which is part of the
       groff document formatting system.  pic compiles	descriptions  of  pic‐
       tures  embedded	within troff or TeX input files into commands that are
       understood by TeX or troff.  Each picture starts with a line  beginning
       with  .PS and ends with a line beginning with .PE.  Anything outside of
       .PS and .PE is passed through without change.

       It is the user's responsibility to provide appropriate  definitions  of
       the  PS and PE macros.  When the macro package being used does not sup‐
       ply such definitions (for example, old versions	of  -ms),  appropriate
       definitions can be obtained with -mpic: these will center each picture.

OPTIONS
       Options	that  do  not take arguments may be grouped behind a single -.
       The special option -- can be used to mark the end of  the  options.   A
       filename of - refers to the standard input.

       -C     Recognize	 .PS  and  .PE even when followed by a character other
	      than space or newline.

       -n     Don't use the groff extensions to the  troff  drawing  commands.
	      You  should  use	this  if  you  are  using a postprocessor that
	      doesn't support these extensions.	 The extensions are  described
	      in  groff_out(@MAN5EXT@).	  The -n option also causes pic not to
	      use zero-length lines to draw dots in troff mode.

       -t     TeX mode.

       -c     Be more compatible with tpic.  Implies -t.  Lines beginning with
	      \	 are not passed through transparently.	Lines beginning with .
	      are passed through with the initial .  changed  to  \.   A  line
	      beginning	 with  .ps  is	given  special	treatment: it takes an
	      optional integer argument specifying  the	 line  thickness  (pen
	      size)  in	 milliinches; a missing argument restores the previous
	      line thickness; the default line	thickness  is  8  milliinches.
	      The  line thickness thus specified takes effect only when a non-
	      negative line thickness has not been specified  by  use  of  the
	      thickness attribute or by setting the linethick variable.

       -v     Print the version number.

       -z     In TeX mode draw dots using zero-length lines.

       The following options supported by other versions of pic are ignored:

       -D     Draw  all	 lines	using the \D escape sequence.  pic always does
	      this.

       -T dev Generate output for the troff device dev.	 This  is  unnecessary
	      because the troff output generated by pic is device-independent.

USAGE
       This  section  describes	 only  the differences between GNU pic and the
       original version of pic.	 Many of these differences also apply to newer
       versions of Unix pic.

   TeX mode
       TeX  mode  is enabled by the -t option.	In TeX mode, pic will define a
       vbox called \graph for each picture.  You must yourself print that vbox
       using, for example, the command

	      \centerline{\box\graph}

       Actually,  since	 the  vbox  has	 a  height  of	zero this will produce
       slightly more vertical space above the picture than below it;

	      \centerline{\raise 1em\box\graph}

       would avoid this.

       You must use a TeX driver that supports the tpic specials, version 2.

       Lines beginning with \ are passed through transparently; a %  is	 added
       to  the	end  of the line to avoid unwanted spaces.  You can safely use
       this feature to change fonts or to change the value  of	\baselineskip.
       Anything	 else  may  well  produce undesirable results; use at your own
       risk.  Lines beginning with a period are not given any  special	treat‐
       ment.

   Commands
       for variable = expr1 to expr2 [by [*]expr3] do X body X
	      Set variable to expr1.  While the value of variable is less than
	      or equal to expr2, do body and increment variable by  expr3;  if
	      by  is not given, increment variable by 1.  If expr3 is prefixed
	      by * then variable will instead be multiplied by expr3.	X  can
	      be any character not occurring in body.

       if expr then X if-true X [else Y if-false Y]
	      Evaluate	expr;  if it is non-zero then do if-true, otherwise do
	      if-false.	 X can be any character not occurring in  if-true.   Y
	      can be any character not occurring in if-false.

       print arg...
	      Concatenate  the	arguments and print as a line on stderr.  Each
	      arg must be an expression, a position, or text.  This is	useful
	      for debugging.

       command arg...
	      Concatenate  the	arguments  and	pass them through as a line to
	      troff orTeX.  Each arg must be an	 expression,  a	 position,  or
	      text.   This has a similar effect to a line beginning with .  or
	      \, but allows the values of variables to be passed through.

       sh X command X
	      Pass command to a shell.	X can be any character	not  occurring
	      in command.

       copy "filename"
	      Include filename at this point in the file.

       copy ["filename"] thru X body X [until "word"]
       copy ["filename"] thru macro [until "word"]
	      This  construct  does  body  once for each line of filename; the
	      line is split into blank-delimited words, and occurrences of  $i
	      in body, for i between 1 and 9, are replaced by the i-th word of
	      the line.	 If filename is not given, lines are  taken  from  the
	      current input up to .PE.	If an until clause is specified, lines
	      will be read only until a line the first word of which is	 word;
	      that  line  will	then be discarded.  X can be any character not
	      occurring in body.  For example,

		     .PS
		     copy thru % circle at ($1,$2) % until "END"
		     1 2
		     3 4
		     5 6
		     END
		     box
		     .PE

	      is equivalent to

		     .PS
		     circle at (1,2)
		     circle at (3,4)
		     circle at (5,6)
		     box
		     .PE

	      The commands to be performed for each line  can  also  be	 taken
	      from  a macro defined earlier by giving the name of the macro as
	      the argument to thru.

       reset
       reset variable1, variable2 ...
	      Reset pre-defined variables variable1, variable2	...  to	 their
	      default  values.	 If  no	 arguments  are	 given, reset all pre-
	      defined variables to their default values.  Note that  assigning
	      a value to scale also causes all pre-defined variables that con‐
	      trol dimensions to be reset to their default  values  times  the
	      new value of scale.

       plot expr ["text"]
	      This  is	a  text object which is constructed by using text as a
	      format string for sprintf with an argument of expr.  If text  is
	      omitted  a  format  string  of  "%g" is used.  Attributes can be
	      specified in the same way as for a normal text object.  Be  very
	      careful  that you specify an appropriate format string; pic does
	      only very limited checking of the string.	 This is deprecated in
	      favour of sprintf.

       variable:=expr
	      This  is	similar	 to = except variable must already be defined,
	      and the value of variable will be changed only in the  innermost
	      block in which it is defined.  (By contrast, = defines the vari‐
	      able in the current block if it is not  already  defined	there,
	      and then changes the value in the current block.)

       Arguments of the form

	      X anything X

       are also allowed to be of the form

	      { anything }

       In  this	 case  anything	 can  contain balanced occurrences of { and }.
       Strings may contain X or imbalanced occurrences of { and }.

   Expressions
       The syntax for expressions has been significantly extended:

       x ^ y (exponentiation)
       sin(x)
       cos(x)
       atan2(y, x)
       log(x) (base 10)
       exp(x) (base 10, ie 10x)
       sqrt(x)
       int(x)
       rand() (return a random number between 0 and 1)
       rand(x) (return a random number between 1 and x; deprecated)
       max(e1, e2)
       min(e1, e2)
       !e
       e1 && e2
       e1 || e2
       e1 == e2
       e1 != e2
       e1 >= e2
       e1 > e2
       e1 <= e2
       e1 < e2
       "str1" == "str2"
       "str1" != "str2"

       String comparison expressions must be parenthesised in some contexts to
       avoid ambiguity.

   Other Changes
       A  bare	expression, expr, is acceptable as an attribute; it is equiva‐
       lent to dir expr, where dir is the current direction.  For example

	      line 2i

       means draw a line 2 inches long in the current direction.

       The maximum width and height of the picture are taken  from  the	 vari‐
       ables maxpswid and maxpsht.  Initially these have values 8.5 and 11.

       Scientific notation is allowed for numbers.  For example
	      x = 5e-2

       Text attributes can be compounded.  For example,
	      "foo" above ljust
       is legal.

       There  is  no  limit to the depth to which blocks can be examined.  For
       example,
	      [A: [B: [C: box ]]] with .A.B.C.sw at 1,2
	      circle at last [].A.B.C
       is acceptable.

       Arcs now have compass points determined by the circle of which the  arc
       is a part.

       Circles	and  arcs can be dotted or dashed.  In TeX mode splines can be
       dotted or dashed.

       Boxes can have rounded corners.	The rad attribute specifies the radius
       of  the quarter-circles at each corner.	If no rad or diam attribute is
       given, a radius of boxrad is used.  Initially, boxrad has a value of 0.
       A box with rounded corners can be dotted or dashed.

       The .PS line can have a second argument specifying a maximum height for
       the picture.  If the width of zero  is  specified  the  width  will  be
       ignored in computing the scaling factor for the picture.	 Note that GNU
       pic will always scale a picture by the same amount vertically as	 hori‐
       zontally.   This	 is  different	from the DWB 2.0 pic which may scale a
       picture by a different amount vertically than horizontally if a	height
       is specified.

       Each  text object has an invisible box associated with it.  The compass
       points of a text object are  determined	by  this  box.	 The  implicit
       motion  associated with the object is also determined by this box.  The
       dimensions of this box are taken from the width and height  attributes;
       if  the width attribute is not supplied then the width will be taken to
       be textwid; if the height attribute is not  supplied  then  the	height
       will  be	 taken	to  be	the number of text strings associated with the
       object times textht.  Initially textwid and textht have a value of 0.

       In places where a quoted text string can be used, an expression of  the
       form

	      sprintf("format", arg,...)

       can  also  be used; this will produce the arguments formatted according
       to format, which should be a string as described in printf(3) appropri‐
       ate  for	 the number of arguments supplied, using only the e, f, g or %
       format characters.

       The thickness of the lines used to draw objects is  controlled  by  the
       linethick  variable.   This  gives the thickness of lines in points.  A
       negative value means use the default thickness:	in  TeX	 output	 mode,
       this  means  use	 a thickness of 8 milliinches; in TeX output mode with
       the -c option, this means use  the  line	 thickness  specified  by  .ps
       lines; in troff output mode, this means use a thickness proportional to
       the pointsize.  A zero value means draw the thinnest possible line sup‐
       ported by the output device.  Initially it has a value of -1.  There is
       also a thick[ness] attribute.  For example,

	      circle thickness 1.5

       would draw a circle using a line with a thickness of 1.5	 points.   The
       thickness  of lines is not affected by the value of the scale variable,
       nor by the width or height given in the .PS line.

       Boxes (including boxes with rounded corners), circles and ellipses  can
       be  filled  by  giving  then  an	 attribute of fill[ed].	 This takes an
       optional argument of an expression with a value between 0 and 1; 0 will
       fill  it with white, 1 with black, values in between with a proportion‐
       ally gray shade.	 A value greater than 1 can also be used:  this	 means
       fill  with  the shade of gray that is currently being used for text and
       lines.  Normally this will be black, but output devices may  provide  a
       mechanism  for  changing	 this.	Without an argument, then the value of
       the variable fillval will be used.  Initially this has a value of  0.5.
       The  invisible  attribute  does not affect the filling of objects.  Any
       text associated with a filled object will be added after the object has
       been filled, so that the text will not be obscured by the filling.

       Arrow  heads will be drawn as solid triangles if the variable arrowhead
       is non-zero and either TeX mode is enabled or the -x  option  has  been
       given.  Initially arrowhead has a value of 1.

       The troff output of pic is device-independent.  The -T option is there‐
       fore redundant.	All numbers are taken to be  in	 inches;  numbers  are
       never interpreted to be in troff machine units.

       Objects	can  have  an aligned attribute.  This will only work when the
       postprocessor is grops.	Any text associated with an object having  the
       aligned	attribute  will	 be  rotated about the center of the object so
       that it is aligned in the direction from the start  point  to  the  end
       point  of the object.  Note that this attribute will have no effect for
       objects whose start and end points are coincident.

       In places where nth is allowed `expr'th is also allowed.	 Note that 'th
       is  a  single token: no space is allowed between the ' and the th.  For
       example,

	      for i = 1 to 4 do {
		 line from `i'th box.nw to `i+1'th box.se
	      }

FILES
       @MACRODIR@/tmac.pic   Example definitions of the PS and PE macros.

SEE ALSO
       @g@troff(@MAN1EXT@), groff_out(@MAN5EXT@), tex(1)
       Tpic: Pic for TeX
       AT&T Bell Laboratories, Computing Science Technical Report No. 116, PIC
       —  A Graphics Language for Typesetting.	(This can be obtained by send‐
       ing  a  mail  message  to  netlib@research.att.com  with	 a   body   of
       `send 116 from research/cstr'.)

BUGS
       Input characters that are illegal for groff (ie those with ASCII code 0
       or between 013 and 037 octal  or	 between  0200	and  0237  octal)  are
       rejected even in TeX mode.

       The interpretation of fillval is incompatible with the pic in 10th edi‐
       tion Unix, which interprets 0 as black and 1 as white.

Groff Version @VERSION@		    @MDATE@		     @G@PIC(@MAN1EXT@)
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