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PLAN9.INI(8)							  PLAN9.INI(8)

       plan9.ini - configuration file primarily for PCs


       When  booting  Plan  9  on  a  PC,  the bootstrap programs described in
       9boot(8) first read, via TFTP or a FAT filesystem on the boot  disk,  a
       file  containing	 configuration	information.  This file, /cfg/pxe/hex-
       digits (TFTP; see 9boot(8)) or plan9.ini	 (FAT),	 looks	like  a	 shell
       script containing lines of the form


       each of which defines a kernel or device parameter.

       Blank  lines  and  Carriage  Returns  (\r) are ignored.	# comments are
       ignored, but are only recognised if appears at the start of a line.

       For devices, the generic format of value is

	      type=TYPE [port=N] [irq=N] [mem=N] [size=N] [dma=N] [ea=N]

       specifying the controller type, the base I/O port of the interface, its
       interrupt  level,  the  physical starting address of any mapped memory,
       the length in bytes of that memory, the DMA channel, and for  Ethernets
       an override of the physical network address.  Not all elements are rel‐
       evant to all devices;  the  relevant  values  and  their	 defaults  are
       defined below in the description of each device.

       The  file is used by the bootstrap programs and the kernel to configure
       the hardware available, although nowadays the kernel can usually detect
       the  attached  hardware by itself.  The information it contains is also
       passed to the boot process, and subsequently other programs,  as	 envi‐
       ronment	variables  (see	 boot(8)).   However, values whose names begin
       with an asterisk are used by the kernel and are stored in rather than

       The following sections describe how variables are used.

       This defines an Ethernet interface.  X, a unique monotonically increas‐
       ing  number beginning at 0, identifies an Ethernet card to be probed at
       system boot.  Probing stops when a card is found or there  is  no  line
       for  etherX+1.	After  probing	as  directed  by the etherX lines, any
       remaining Ethernet cards that can be automatically detected are	added.
       Almost  all  cards  can	be automatically detected.  For debugging pur‐
       poses, automatic probing can be disabled by specifying the line

       Many cards are software configurable and do not	require	 all  options.
       Unspecified options default to the factory defaults.

       Known TYPEs are

       igbe   The  Intel  8254X	 Gigabit Ethernet controllers, as found on the
	      Intel PRO/1000 adapters for copper (not fiber).  Completely con‐

	      The  Intel  8256[36],  8257[12],	and 82573[ev] Gigabit Ethernet
	      PCI-Express controllers.	Completely configurable.

	      The Realtek 8169 Gigabit Ethernet controller.   Completely  con‐

       ga620  Netgear GA620 and GA620T Gigabit Ethernet cards, and other cards
	      using the Alteon Acenic chip such as the Alteon Acenic fiber and
	      copper  cards,  the DEC DEGPA-SA and the SGI Acenic.  Completely

	      National Semiconductor DP83820-based Gigabit Ethernet  adapters,
	      notably the D-Link DGE-500T.  Completely configurable.

       vgbe   The  VIA	Velocity  Gigabit Ethernet controller.	Known to drive
	      the VIA8237 (ABIT AV8), but at 100Mb/s full-duplex only.

       m10g   The Myricom 10-Gigabit Ethernet  10G-PCIE-8A  controller.	  Com‐
	      pletely configurable.

       i82598 The  Intel 8259[89] 10-Gigabit Ethernet PCI-Express controllers.
	      Completely configurable.

       i82557 Cards using the Intel 8255[789] Fast Ethernet PCI Bus  LAN  Con‐
	      troller  such  as	 the  Intel EtherExpress PRO/100B.  Completely
	      configurable, no options need be given.  If you  need  to	 force
	      the  media,  specify  one	 of  the  options (no value) 10BASE-T,
	      10BASE-2,	 10BASE-5,   100BASE-TX,   10BASE-TFD,	 100BASE-TXFD,
	      100BASE-T4,  100BASE-FX,	or  100BASE-FXFD.   Completely config‐

       2114x  Cards using the Digital Equipment (now  Intel)  2114x  PCI  Fast
	      Ethernet	Adapter	 Controller,  for  example  the Netgear FA310.
	      Completely configurable, no options need be given.  Media can be
	      specified	 the same was as for the i82557.  Some cards using the
	      PNIC and PNIC2 near-clone chips may also work.

       83815  National Semiconductor DP83815-based adapters, notably the  Net‐
	      gear  FA311, Netgear FA312, and various SiS built-in controllers
	      such as the  SiS900.   On	 the  SiS  controllers,	 the  Ethernet
	      address  is  not	detected  properly;  specify  it  with	an ea=
	      attribute.  Completely configurable.

	      The Realtek 8139 Fast Ethernet controller.   Completely  config‐

       vt6102 The VIA VT6102 Fast Ethernet Controller (Rhine II).

	      The VIA VT6105M Fast Ethernet Controller (Rhine III).

	      SMC  91cXX  chip-based  PCMCIA adapters, notably the SMC EtherEZ

       elnk3  The 3COM Etherlink III series of cards including the  5x9,  59x,
	      and  905	and 905B.  Completely configurable, no options need be
	      given.  The media may be specified  by  setting  media=  to  the
	      value  10BaseT, 10Base2, 100BaseTX, 100BaseFX, aui, and mii.  If
	      you need to force full duplex, because for example the  Ethernet
	      switch  does  not	 negotiate  correctly,	just name the word (no
	      value) fullduplex or 100BASE-TXFD.  Similarly, to force  100Mbit
	      operation,  specify force100.  Port 0x110 is used for the little
	      ISA configuration dance.

       3c589  The 3COM 3C589 series PCMCIA cards, including the 3C562 and  the
	      589E.   There  is	 no  support for the modem on the 3C562.  Com‐
	      pletely configurable, no options need be given.  Defaults are
		   port=0x240 irq=10
	      The media may be specified as media=10BaseT or media=10Base2.

       ec2t   The Linksys Combo PCMCIA EthernetCard (EC2T),  EtherFast	10/100
	      PCMCIA cards (PCMPC100) and integrated controllers (PCM100), the
	      Netgear FA410TX 10/100 PCMCIA card and the Accton EtherPair-PCM‐
	      CIA  (EN2216).   Completely  configurable,  no  options  need be
	      given.  Defaults are
		   port=0x300 irq=9
	      These cards are NE2000 clones.  Other NE2000  compatible	PCMCIA
	      cards may be tried with the option
	      where  string  is	 a  unique  identifier string contained in the
	      attribute memory	of  the	 card  (see  pcmcia(8));  unlike  most
	      options in plan9.ini, this string is case-sensitive.  The option
	      dummyrr=[01] can be used to turn off  (0)	 or  on	 (1)  a	 dummy
	      remote read in the driver in such cases, depending on how NE2000
	      compatible they are.

       ne2000 Not software configurable iff ISA; PCI clones or	supersets  are
	      software	configurable;  includes the Realtek 8029 clone used by
	      Parallels.  16-bit card.	Defaults are
		   port=0x300 irq=2 mem=0x04000 size=0x4000
	      The option (no value) nodummyrr is needed on some (near)	clones
	      to turn off a dummy remote read in the driver.

	      The  AMD	PCnet  PCI  Ethernet Adapter (AM79C970).  (This is the
	      Ethernet adapter used by VMware.)	 Completely  configurable,  no
	      options need be given.

       wd8003 Includes	WD8013	and SMC Elite and Elite Ultra cards. There are
	      varying degrees of software configurability.  Cards  may	be  in
	      either 8-bit or 16-bit slots.  Defaults are
		   port=0x280 irq=3 mem=0xD0000 size=0x2000
	      BUG: On many machines only the 16 bit card works.

       sink   A	 /dev/null  for Ethernet packets — the interface discards sent
	      packets and never receives any.  This is used to provide a  test
	      bed for some experimental Ethernet bridging software.

	      Lucent  Wavelan  (Orinoco)  IEEE	802.11b	 and compatible PCMCIA
	      cards.  Compatible cards include the Dell	 TrueMobile  1150  and
	      the  Linksys  Instant  Wireless  Network	PC Card.  Port and IRQ
	      defaults are 0x180 and 3 respectively.

	      These cards take a number of unique options to aid in  identify‐
	      ing  the card correctly on the 802.11b network.  The network may
	      be ad hoc or managed (i.e. use an access point):
		   mode=[adhoc, managed]
	      and defaults to managed.	The 802.11b network to attach to (man‐
	      aged mode) or identify as (ad hoc mode), is specified by
	      and  defaults  to a null string.	The card station name is given
	      and defaults to Plan 9 STA.  The channel to use is given by
	      where number lies in the range 1 to 16 inclusive; the channel is
	      normally negotiated automatically.

	      If  the card is capable of encryption, the following options may
	      be used:
		   crypt=[off, on]
	      and defaults to on.
	      sets the encryption key N (where N is in the range 1 to 4 inclu‐
	      sive)  to	 string; this will also set the transmit key to N (see
	      below).  There are two formats for string which  depend  on  the
	      length  of the string.  If it is exactly 5 or 13 characters long
	      it is assumed to be an alphanumeric key; if it is exactly 10  or
	      26 characters long the key is assumed to be in hex format (with‐
	      out a leading 0x).  The lengths are checked, as is the format of
	      a hex key.
	      sets  the	 transmit  key to use to be number in the range 1 to 4
	      inclusive.  If it is desired to exclude or  include  unencrypted
		   clear=[off, on]
	      configures reception and defaults to inclusion.

	      The  defaults are intended to match the common case of a managed
	      network with encryption and a typical entry would only  require,
	      for example
		   essid=left-armpit key1=afish key2=calledraawaru
	      if the port and IRQ defaults are used.  These options may be set
	      after boot by writing to the device's ctl file using a space  as
	      the separator between option and value, e.g.
		   echo 'key2 1d8f65c9a52d83c8e4b43f94af' >/net/ether0/0/ctl

	      Card-specific power management may be enabled/disabled by
		   pm=[on, off]

	      PCI  Ethernet  adapters  that  use  the same Wavelan programming
	      interface.  Currently the only tested cards are those  based  on
	      the Intersil Prism 2.5 chipset.

       (S)ATA controllers are autodetected.

       This  specifies	the  settings for a USB UHCI, OHCI or EHCI controller.
       Like the Ethernet controllers, USB controllers are  autodetected	 after
       scanning for the ones listed in plan9.ini.  Thus, most systems will not
       need a usbX line.  Also like the Ethernet controllers, USB  autoprobing
       can be disabled by specifying the line *nousbprobe=.

       This defines a SCSI interface which cannot be automatically detected by
       the kernel.

       Known TYPEs are

	      Adaptec 154x series of controllers (and  clones).	  Almost  com‐
	      pletely configurable, only the
	      option need be given.

       NCR/Symbios/LSI-Logic 53c8xx-based adapters and Mylex MultiMaster (Bus‐
       logic BT-*) adapters are automatically detected and need no entries.

       By default, the NCR 53c8xx driver searches for up  to  32  controllers.
       This can be changed by setting the variable *maxsd53c8xx.

       By  default  the	 Mylex driver resets SCSI cards by using both the hard
       reset and SCSI bus reset flags in the driver interface.	If a  variable
       *noscsireset is defined, the SCSI bus reset flag is omitted.

       This  specifies	a  space-separated  list  of Ethernet interfaces to be
       bound at boot to the ATA-over-Ethernet driver,  aoe(3).	 For  example,
       Only interfaces on this list will initially be accessible via AoE.

       This  specifies	an  ATA-over-Ethernet device accessible via the inter‐
       faces named in aoeif on AoE shelf and slot to use as a root device  for

       This defines a pre-USB sound interface.

       Known types are

       sb16   Sound Blaster 16.

	      A Sound Blaster clone.

       The DMA channel may be any of 5, 6, or 7.  The defaults are

	      port=0x220 irq=7 dma=5

       Plan  9 automatically configures COM1 and COM2, if found, as eia0 (port
       0x3F8, IRQ4) and eia1 (port 0x2F8, IRQ3) respectively.	These  devices
       can be disabled by adding a line:


       This is typically done in order to reuse the IRQ for another device.

       Plan  9 used to support various serial concentrators, including the TTC
       8 serial line card and various models in the Star Gate Avanstar	series
       of  intelligent serial boards.  These are no longer supported; the much
       simpler Perle PCI-Fast4, PCI-Fast8,  and	 PCI-Fast16  controllers  have
       taken  their places.  These latter cards are automatically detected and
       need no configuration lines.

       The line serial=type=com can be used to specify settings for  a	PCMCIA

       This specifies where the mouse is attached.  Value can be

       ps2    the PS2 mouse/keyboard port.  The BIOS setup procedure should be
	      used to configure the machine appropriately.

	      an Intellimouse on the PS2 port.

       0      for COM1

       1      for COM2

       Picks the UART line to call out on.  This is used when connecting to  a
       file server over an async line.	Value is the number of the port.

   console=value params
       This  is used to specify the console device.  The default value is cga;
       a number 0 or 1 specifies COM1 or COM2 respectively.  A serial  console
       is  initially configured with the uart(3) configuration string b9600 l8
       pn s1, specifying 9600 baud, 8 bit bytes, no parity, and one stop  bit.
       If  params  is  given,  it  will be used to further configure the uart.
       Notice that there is no = sign in the params syntax.  For example,

	      console=0 b19200 po

       would use COM1 at 19,200 baud with odd parity.

       Disable probing for and automatic configuration of PC card controllers.

   pcmciaX=type=XXX irq=irq
       If the default IRQ for the PCMCIA is correct, this entry can  be	 omit‐
       ted.  The value of type is ignored.

       Disable probing for and automatic configuration of PCMCIA controllers.

       This  is	 used  to specify an nvram device and optionally the length of
       the ram and read/write offset to use.  These values  are	 consulted  by
       readnvram  (see	authsrv(2)).   The  most common use of the nvram is to
       hold a secstore(1) password for use by factotum(4).

       This is used by the WORM file server kernel to locate  a	 file  holding
       information  to	configure  the file system.  The file cannot live on a
       SCSI disk.  The default is fd!0!plan9.nvr  (sic),  unless  bootfile  is
       set,  in	 which case it is plan9.nvr on the same disk as bootfile.  The
       syntax is either fd!unit!name or hd!unit!name where unit is the numeric
       unit  id.  This variant syntax is a vestige of the file server kernel's

       This is used to direct the actions of the bootstrap programs by	naming
       the device and file from which to load the kernel.

       These  are used by the bootstrap programs to identify the directory dir
       to make the root directory for the kernel, and the file	system	speci‐
       fier  spec  (see mount in bind(2)) on which it can be found.  These are
       usually used to test variant file systems for distributions, etc.

       The value of this variable is passed to boot(8) by the  kernel  as  the
       name  of	 the  root file system.	 It is typically used to specify addi‐
       tional arguments to pass to kfs(4) or ipconfig(8).  For example, if the
       system  is  to  run from a local kfs(4) partition, the definition might
       read bootargs=local!#S/sdC0/fs.	See boot(8) for more.

       Suppress the prompt and use root as the answer instead.

       Suppress the prompt and use user as the answer instead.

       Causes boot(8) to start factotum with the -p option, so that it can  be

       Causes  boot(8) to start factotum with the given options, which must be
       a single word (i.e., contain no whitespace).

       When booting from a local fossil server backed by  a  local  or	remote
       venti  server,  this variable specifies how to establish the connection
       to the venti server.  See boot(8) for more.

       This names the file holding the disk partition for the cache file  sys‐
       tem,   cfs(4).	 Extending  the	 bootargs  example,  one  would	 write

       This deprecated variable was used to specify the disk used by the cache
       file  system  and  other	 disk-resident	services.  It is superseded by
       bootargs and cfs.

       This defines the partition table 9load(8) will  examine	to  find  disk
       partitioning  information.   By	default, a partition table in a Plan 9
       partition is consulted; if no such table is found, an old-Plan 9 parti‐
       tion table on the next-to-last or last sector of the disk is consulted.
       A value of new consults only the first table, old only the second.

       Causes boot(8) to look for MBR and Plan 9 partition tables on all sd(3)
       disks,  even  before factotum is started, so NVRAM, for example, may be
       found.  On PCs, 9load (but not 9boot) normally does this and passes the
       partitions found in #ec/sdCnpart.

       These  specify  the IP address of the file and authentication server to
       use when mounting a network-provided root file system.  They  are  used
       only if the addresses cannot be determined via DHCP.

       The  PC	kernel	switches the processor to 16-bit real mode to run BIOS
       interrupts, for example to find the memory map or to enable VESA.  This
       variable disables such switches.

       When  available,	 the  PC  kernel uses the BIOS E820 memory map to size
       memory.	This variable disables the scan.

       This defines the maximum physical address that  the  system  will  scan
       when sizing memory.  By default the PC operating system will scan up to
       3.75 gigabytes (0xF0000000, the base of kernel virtual address  space),
       but  setting  *maxmem  will  limit the scan.  *maxmem must be less than
       3.75 gigabytes.	This variable is not consulted if using the E820  mem‐
       ory map.

       This defines the percentage of available memory reserved for the kernel
       allocation pool.	 The  remainder	 is  left  for	user  processes.   The
       default	percent	 is  30 on CPU servers, 60 on terminals with less than
       16MB of memory, and 40 on terminals with	 memories  of  16MB  or	 more.
       Terminals  use more kernel memory because draw(3) maintains its graphic
       images in kernel memory.	 This deprecated option is rarely necessary in
       newer kernels.

       If  machine  check exceptions are supported by the processor, then they
       are enabled by default.	Setting this variable to 1 causes them	to  be
       disabled even when available.

       A  multiprocessor  machine will enable all processors by default.  Set‐
       ting *nomp restricts the kernel to  starting  only  one	processor  and
       using the traditional interrupt controller.

       Setting *ncpu restricts the kernel to starting at most cpus processors.

       Limits  the  maximum  bus  number probed on a PCI bus (default 7).  For
       example, a bno of 1 should suffice on a 'standard' motherboard with  an
       AGP slot.  This, and *pcimaxdno below are rarely used and only on trou‐
       blesome or suspect hardware.

       Limits the maximum device number probed on a PCI bus (default 31).

       Disable pci routing during boot.	 May solve interrupt routing  problems
       on certain machines.

       Disable printing a stack dump on panic.	Useful if there is only a lim‐
       ited cga screen available, otherwise the textual information about  the
       panic may scroll off.

       Specifies a list of ranges of I/O ports to exclude from use by drivers.
       Ranges are inclusive on both ends and separated by commas.   For	 exam‐

       Specifies  a  list  of  ranges  of  UMB to exclude from use by drivers.
       Ranges are inclusive on both ends and separated by commas.   For	 exam‐

       This  enables  the ``advanced power management'' interface as described
       in apm(3) and apm(8).  The main feature of the interface is the ability
       to  watch battery life (see stats(8)).  It is not on by default because
       it causes problems on some laptops.

       These are used not by the kernel but  by	 termrc	 (see  cpurc(8))  when
       starting vga(8).

       This  is	 used  to  specify  the screen blanking behavior of the MGA4xx
       video driver.  Values are standby, suspend, and	off.   The  first  two
       specify	differing  levels of power saving; the third turns the monitor
       off completely.

   Multiple Configurations
       A plan9.ini file may contain multiple  configurations,  each  within  a
       block beginning with a line
       A special block with the tag menu gives a list of blocks from which the
       user may interactively select the contents  of  plan9.ini.   There  may
       also  be	 multiple blocks with the tag common which will be included in
       all selections; if any lines  appear  in	 plan9.ini  before  the	 first
       block, they are treated as a common block.

       Within the menu block the following configuration lines are allowed:

   menuitem=tag[, description]
       The  block  identified  by  tag will appear in the presented menu.  The
       menu entry will consist of the tag unless the optional  description  is

   menudefault=tag[, timeout]
       Identifies  a  default  block to be given in the menu selection prompt.
       If the optional timeout is given (in seconds), the default  block  will
       be selected if there is no user input within the timeout period.

   menuconsole=value[, baud]
       Selects	a  serial console upon which to present the menu as no console
       or baud configuration information will have  been  processed  yet  (the
       plan9.ini contents are still to be decided...).

       In response to the menu being printed, the user is prompted to select a
       menu item from the list.	 If the numeric response is followed by	 a  p,
       the selected configuration is printed and the menu presented again.

       The line
       is  prefixed to the selected configuration as an aid to user-level ini‐
       tialization scripts.

       A representative plan9.ini:

	      % cat /n/c:/plan9.ini
	      serial0=type=generic port=0x3E8 irq=5

       Minimum CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files to use COM2 as a console:

	      % cat /n/c:/config.sys
	      % cat /n/c:/autoexec.bat
	      @ECHO OFF
	      PROMPT $p$g
	      PATH C:\DOS;C:\BIN
	      mode com2:96,n,8,1,p
	      SET TEMP=C:\TMP

       Simple plan9.ini with multiple configurations:

	      menuitem=vga, Plan 9 with VGA
	      menuitem=novga, Plan 9 no automatic VGA



	      audio0=type=sb16 port=0x220 irq=5 dma=1

       With this, the following menu will be presented on boot:

	      Plan 9 Startup Menu:
		  1. Plan 9 with VGA
		  2. Plan 9 no automatic VGA

       Selecting item 1 generates the following plan9.ini to be	 used  by  the
       remainder of the bootstrap process:

	      audio0=type=sb16 port=0x220 irq=5 dma=1

       and selecting item 2:

	      audio0=type=sb16 port=0x220 irq=5 dma=1

       9boot(8), booting(8), boot(8)

       Being  able  to	set  the  console  device  to  other than a display is
       marginally useful on file servers; MS-DOS and the  programs  which  run
       under  it  are  so tightly bound to the display that it is necessary to
       have a display if any setup or reconfiguration programs need to be run.
       Also,  the delay before any messages appear at boot time is disconcert‐
       ing, as any error messages from the BIOS are lost.

       This idea is at best an interesting experiment that needs another iter‐

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