pthread_join man page on Archlinux

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PTHREAD_JOIN(3)		   Linux Programmer's Manual	       PTHREAD_JOIN(3)

       pthread_join - join with a terminated thread

       #include <pthread.h>

       int pthread_join(pthread_t thread, void **retval);

       Compile and link with -pthread.

       The pthread_join() function waits for the thread specified by thread to
       terminate.  If that thread has already terminated, then	pthread_join()
       returns immediately.  The thread specified by thread must be joinable.

       If  retval  is  not NULL, then pthread_join() copies the exit status of
       the target thread (i.e., the value that the target thread  supplied  to
       pthread_exit(3))	 into the location pointed to by *retval.  If the tar‐
       get thread was canceled, then PTHREAD_CANCELED is placed in *retval.

       If multiple threads simultaneously try to join with  the	 same  thread,
       the  results  are  undefined.   If the thread calling pthread_join() is
       canceled, then the target thread will remain joinable  (i.e.,  it  will
       not be detached).

       On  success,  pthread_join()  returns  0; on error, it returns an error

	      A deadlock was detected (e.g., two threads tried	to  join  with
	      each other); or thread specifies the calling thread.

       EINVAL thread is not a joinable thread.

       EINVAL Another thread is already waiting to join with this thread.

       ESRCH  No thread with the ID thread could be found.


       After  a	 successful  call  to pthread_join(), the caller is guaranteed
       that the target thread has terminated.

       Joining with a thread that has previously been joined results in	 unde‐
       fined behavior.

       Failure	to  join with a thread that is joinable (i.e., one that is not
       detached), produces a "zombie thread".  Avoid doing  this,  since  each
       zombie  thread  consumes	 some system resources, and when enough zombie
       threads have accumulated, it will no longer be possible to  create  new
       threads (or processes).

       There  is no pthreads analog of waitpid(-1, &status, 0), that is, "join
       with any terminated thread".  If you believe you need this  functional‐
       ity, you probably need to rethink your application design.

       All of the threads in a process are peers: any thread can join with any
       other thread in the process.

       See pthread_create(3).

       pthread_cancel(3),	 pthread_create(3),	    pthread_detach(3),
       pthread_exit(3), pthread_tryjoin_np(3), pthreads(7)

       This  page  is  part of release 3.65 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, and information about reporting  bugs,  can
       be found at

Linux				  2008-11-27		       PTHREAD_JOIN(3)

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