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RCS(1)									RCS(1)

       rcs - change RCS file attributes

       rcs options file ...

       rcs  creates  new RCS files or changes attributes of existing ones.  An
       RCS file contains multiple revisions of text, an access list, a	change
       log,  descriptive  text, and some control attributes.  For rcs to work,
       the caller's login name must be on  the	access	list,  except  if  the
       access  list is empty, the caller is the owner of the file or the supe‐
       ruser, or the -i option is present.

       Filenames matching an RCS suffix denote RCS files;  all	others	denote
       working	files.	Names are paired as explained in ci(1).	 Revision num‐
       bers use the syntax described in ci(1).

       -i     Create and initialize a new RCS file, but	 do  not  deposit  any
	      revision.	  If the RCS file name has no directory component, try
	      to place it first into the subdirectory ./RCS, and then into the
	      current  directory.   If	the  RCS file already exists, print an
	      error message.

	      Append the login names appearing	in  the	 comma-separated  list
	      logins to the access list of the RCS file.

	      Append  the access list of oldfile to the access list of the RCS

	      Erase the login names  appearing	in  the	 comma-separated  list
	      logins from the access list of the RCS file.  If logins is omit‐
	      ted, erase the entire access list.

	      Set the default branch to rev.  If rev is omitted,  the  default
	      branch  is  reset	 to  the  (dynamically)	 highest branch on the

	      Set the comment leader to string.	 An initial ci, or  an	rcs -i
	      without  -c,  guesses  the comment leader from the suffix of the
	      working file name.

	      This option is obsolescent, since RCS normally uses the  preced‐
	      ing $Log$ line's prefix when inserting log lines during checkout
	      (see co(1)).  However, older versions of	RCS  use  the  comment
	      leader  instead  of  the	$Log$ line's prefix, so if you plan to
	      access a file with both old and new versions of RCS,  make  sure
	      its comment leader matches its $Log$ line prefix.

	      Set  the	default	 keyword substitution to subst.	 The effect of
	      keyword substitution is described in co(1).  Giving an  explicit
	      -k  option  to co, rcsdiff, and rcsmerge overrides this default.
	      Beware rcs -kv, because -kv is  incompatible  with  co -l.   Use
	      rcs -kkv to restore the normal default keyword substitution.

	      Lock  the	 revision with number rev.  If a branch is given, lock
	      the latest revision on that branch.  If rev is omitted, lock the
	      latest  revision	on the default branch.	Locking prevents over‐
	      lapping changes.	If someone else already holds  the  lock,  the
	      lock is broken as with rcs -u (see below).

	      Unlock  the  revision  with  number  rev.	 If a branch is given,
	      unlock the latest revision on that branch.  If rev  is  omitted,
	      remove  the  latest lock held by the caller.  Normally, only the
	      locker of a revision can unlock it.  Somebody else  unlocking  a
	      revision	breaks the lock.  If RCS was configured --with-mailer,
	      then this causes a mail message  to  be  sent  to	 the  original
	      locker.	The  message  contains a commentary solicited from the
	      breaker.	The commentary is terminated by end-of-file  or	 by  a
	      line containing . by itself.

       -L     Set  locking  to strict.	Strict locking means that the owner of
	      an RCS file is not exempt from locking for checkin.  This option
	      should be used for files that are shared.

       -U     Set  locking  to	non-strict.  Non-strict locking means that the
	      owner of a file need not lock  a	revision  for  checkin.	  This
	      option  should  not  be used for files that are shared.  Whether
	      default locking is strict is determined by your system  adminis‐
	      trator, but it is normally strict.

	      Replace revision rev's log message with msg.  If msg is omitted,
	      it defaults to "*** empty log message ***".

       -M     Do not send mail	when  breaking	somebody  else's  lock.	  This
	      option  is  not  meant  for casual use; it is meant for programs
	      that warn users by other means, and invoke rcs -u only as a low-
	      level lock-breaking operation.

	      Associate	 the  symbolic	name  name with the branch or revision
	      rev.  Delete the symbolic name if both : and  rev	 are  omitted;
	      otherwise,  print an error message if name is already associated
	      with another number.  If rev is symbolic, it is expanded	before
	      association.   A rev consisting of a branch number followed by a
	      . stands for the current latest revision in  the	branch.	  A  :
	      with  an empty rev stands for the current latest revision on the
	      default	branch,	  normally   the    trunk.     For    example,
	      rcs -nname: RCS/*	 associates name with the current latest revi‐
	      sion  of	all  the  named	 RCS  files;   this   contrasts	  with
	      rcs -nname:$ RCS/*  which associates name with the revision num‐
	      bers extracted from keyword strings in the corresponding working

	      Act like -n, except override any previous assignment of name.

	      deletes (“outdates”) the revisions given by range.  A range con‐
	      sisting of a single revision  number  means  that	 revision.   A
	      range consisting of a branch number means the latest revision on
	      that branch.  A range of the form rev1:rev2 means revisions rev1
	      to rev2 on the same branch, :rev means from the beginning of the
	      branch containing rev up to and including rev,  and  rev:	 means
	      from revision rev to the end of the branch containing rev.  None
	      of the outdated revisions can have branches or locks.

       -q     Run quietly; do not print diagnostics.

       -I     Run interactively, even if the standard input is not a terminal.

	      Set the state attribute of the revision rev to state.  If rev is
	      a	 branch number, assume the latest revision on that branch.  If
	      rev is omitted,  assume  the  latest  revision  on  the  default
	      branch.	Any  identifier is acceptable for state.  A useful set
	      of states is Exp (for experimental), Stab (for stable), and  Rel
	      (for  released).	By default, ci(1) sets the state of a revision
	      to Exp.

	      Write descriptive text from the contents of the named file  into
	      the  RCS file, deleting the existing text.  The file name cannot
	      begin with -.  If file is omitted, obtain the text from standard
	      input,  terminated  by  end-of-file or by a line containing . by
	      itself.  Prompt for the text if interaction is possible; see -I.
	      With -i, descriptive text is obtained even if -t is not given.

	      Write descriptive text from the string into the RCS file, delet‐
	      ing the existing text.

       -T     Preserve the modification time on the RCS file unless a revision
	      is  removed.   This  option can suppress extensive recompilation
	      caused by a make(1) dependency of some copy of the working  file
	      on  the  RCS  file.   Use this option with care; it can suppress
	      recompilation even when it is needed, i.e. when a change to  the
	      RCS  file	 would mean a change to keyword strings in the working

       -V     Print RCS's version number.

       -Vn    Emulate RCS version n.  See co(1) for details.

	      Use suffixes to characterize RCS files.  See ci(1) for details.

       -zzone Use zone as the default time zone.  This option has  no  effect;
	      it is present for compatibility with other RCS commands.

       At  least  one  explicit	 option must be given, to ensure compatibility
       with future planned extensions to the rcs command.

       The -brev option generates an RCS file that cannot  be  parsed  by  RCS
       version 3 or earlier.

       The  -ksubst  options (except -kkv) generate an RCS file that cannot be
       parsed by RCS version 4 or earlier.

       Use rcs -Vn to make an RCS file acceptable to RCS version n by discard‐
       ing information that would confuse version n.

       RCS  version  5.5  and  earlier	does  not  support  the -x option, and
       requires a ,v suffix on an RCS file name.

       rcs accesses files much as ci(1) does, except that it uses  the	effec‐
       tive  user  for all accesses, it does not write the working file or its
       directory, and it does not even read the working file unless a revision
       number of $ is specified.

	      Options  prepended to the argument list, separated by spaces.  A
	      backslash escapes spaces within an option.  The RCSINIT  options
	      are  prepended to the argument lists of most RCS commands.  Use‐
	      ful RCSINIT options include -q, -V, -x, and -z.

	      An integer lim, measured in kilobytes, specifying the  threshold
	      under which commands will try to use memory-based operations for
	      processing the RCS file.	(For RCS files of size	lim  kilobytes
	      or  greater,  RCS will use the slower standard input/output rou‐
	      tines.)  Default value is 256.

       TMPDIR Name of the temporary directory.	If not	set,  the  environment
	      variables TMP and TEMP are inspected instead and the first value
	      found is taken; if  none	of  them  are  set,  a	host-dependent
	      default is used, typically /tmp.

       The  RCS	 file name and the revisions outdated are written to the diag‐
       nostic output.  The exit status is zero if and only if  all  operations
       were successful.

       Author: Walter F. Tichy.
       Manual Page Revision: 5.9.0; Release Date: 2014-05-03.
       Copyright © 2010-2013 Thien-Thi Nguyen.
       Copyright © 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 Paul Eggert.
       Copyright © 1982, 1988, 1989 Walter F. Tichy.

       co(1),  ci(1), ident(1), rcsclean(1), rcsdiff(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1),

       Walter F. Tichy, RCS--A System for Version Control,  Software--Practice
       & Experience 15, 7 (July 1985), 637-654.

       The  full  documentation for RCS is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If
       the info(1) and RCS programs are properly installed at your  site,  the

	      info rcs

       should  give  you access to the complete manual.	 Additionally, the RCS


       has news and links to the latest release, development site, etc.

       A catastrophe (e.g. a system crash) can cause RCS  to  leave  behind  a
       semaphore  file	that causes later invocations of RCS to claim that the
       RCS file is in use.  To fix this, remove the semaphore file.   A	 sema‐
       phore file's name typically begins with , or ends with _.

       The separator for revision ranges in the -o option used to be - instead
       of :, but this leads to confusion when symbolic names contain  -.   For
       backwards  compatibility rcs -o still supports the old - separator, but
       it warns about this obsolete use.

       Symbolic names need not refer to existing revisions or  branches.   For
       example,	 the -o option does not remove symbolic names for the outdated
       revisions; you must use -n to remove the names.

GNU RCS 5.9.0			  2014-05-03				RCS(1)

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