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RESTORE(8)		  BSD System Manager's Manual		    RESTORE(8)

NAME
     restore, rrestore — restore files or file systems from backups made with
     dump

SYNOPSIS
     restore -i [-dDhmNuvy] [-b blocksize] [-f file | -P pipecommand]
	     [-s fileno]
     restore -R [-dDNuvy] [-b blocksize] [-f file | -P pipecommand]
	     [-s fileno]
     restore -r [-dDNuvy] [-b blocksize] [-f file | -P pipecommand]
	     [-s fileno]
     restore -t [-dDhNuvy] [-b blocksize] [-f file | -P pipecommand]
	     [-s fileno] [file ...]
     restore -x [-dDhmNuvy] [-b blocksize] [-f file | -P pipecommand]
	     [-s fileno] [file ...]

     rrestore is an alternate name for restore.

     (The 4.3BSD option syntax is implemented for backward compatibility, but
     is not documented here.)

DESCRIPTION
     The restore utility performs the inverse function of dump(8).  A full
     backup of a file system may be restored and subsequent incremental back‐
     ups layered on top of it.	Single files and directory subtrees may be
     restored from full or partial backups.  The restore utility works across
     a network; to do this see the -f and -P flags described below.  Other
     arguments to the command are file or directory names specifying the files
     that are to be restored.  Unless the -h flag is specified (see below),
     the appearance of a directory name refers to the files and (recursively)
     subdirectories of that directory.

     Exactly one of the following flags is required:

     -i	     This mode allows interactive restoration of files from a dump.
	     After reading in the directory information from the dump, restore
	     provides a shell like interface that allows the user to move
	     around the directory tree selecting files to be extracted.	 The
	     available commands are given below; for those commands that
	     require an argument, the default is the current directory.

	     add [arg]	 The current directory or specified argument is added
			 to the list of files to be extracted.	If a directory
			 is specified, then it and all its descendents are
			 added to the extraction list (unless the -h flag is
			 specified on the command line).  Files that are on
			 the extraction list are prepended with a ``*'' when
			 they are listed by ls.

	     cd arg	 Change the current working directory to the specified
			 argument.

	     delete [arg]
			 The current directory or specified argument is
			 deleted from the list of files to be extracted.  If a
			 directory is specified, then it and all its descen‐
			 dents are deleted from the extraction list (unless
			 the -h flag is specified on the command line).	 The
			 most expedient way to extract most of the files from
			 a directory is to add the directory to the extraction
			 list and then delete those files that are not needed.

	     extract	 All the files that are on the extraction list are
			 extracted from the dump.  The restore utility will
			 ask which volume the user wishes to mount.  The
			 fastest way to extract a few files is to start with
			 the last volume, and work towards the first volume.

	     help	 List a summary of the available commands.

	     ls [arg]	 List the current or specified directory.  Entries
			 that are directories are appended with a ``/''.
			 Entries that have been marked for extraction are
			 prepended with a ``*''.  If the verbose flag is set
			 the inode number of each entry is also listed.

	     pwd	 Print the full pathname of the current working direc‐
			 tory.

	     quit	 Exit immediately, even if the extraction list is not
			 empty.

	     setmodes	 All the directories that have been added to the
			 extraction list have their owner, modes, and times
			 set; nothing is extracted from the dump.  This is
			 useful for cleaning up after a restore has been pre‐
			 maturely aborted.

	     verbose	 The sense of the -v flag is toggled.  When set, the
			 verbose flag causes the ls command to list the inode
			 numbers of all entries.  It also causes restore to
			 print out information about each file as it is
			 extracted.

	     what	 Display dump header information, which includes:
			 date, level, label, and the file system and host dump
			 was made from.

     -R	     Request a particular tape of a multi volume set on which to
	     restart a full restore (see the -r flag below).  This is useful
	     if the restore has been interrupted.

     -r	     Restore (rebuild a file system).  The target file system should
	     be made pristine with newfs(8), mounted and the user cd(1)'d into
	     the pristine file system before starting the restoration of the
	     initial level 0 backup.  If the level 0 restores successfully,
	     the -r flag may be used to restore any necessary incremental
	     backups on top of the level 0.  The -r flag precludes an interac‐
	     tive file extraction and can be detrimental to one's health if
	     not used carefully (not to mention the disk).  An example:

		   newfs /dev/da0s1a
		   mount /dev/da0s1a /mnt
		   cd /mnt

		   restore rf /dev/sa0

	     Note that restore leaves a file restoresymtable in the root
	     directory to pass information between incremental restore passes.
	     This file should be removed when the last incremental has been
	     restored.

	     The restore utility , in conjunction with newfs(8) and dump(8),
	     may be used to modify file system parameters such as size or
	     block size.

     -t	     The names of the specified files are listed if they occur on the
	     backup.  If no file argument is given, then the root directory is
	     listed, which results in the entire content of the backup being
	     listed, unless the -h flag has been specified.  Note that the -t
	     flag replaces the function of the old dumpdir(8) program.

     -x	     The named files are read from the given media.  If a named file
	     matches a directory whose contents are on the backup and the -h
	     flag is not specified, the directory is recursively extracted.
	     The owner, modification time, and mode are restored (if possi‐
	     ble).  If no file argument is given, then the root directory is
	     extracted, which results in the entire content of the backup
	     being extracted, unless the -h flag has been specified.

     The following additional options may be specified:

     -b blocksize
	     The number of kilobytes per dump record.  If the -b option is not
	     specified, restore tries to determine the media block size dynam‐
	     ically.

     -d	     Sends verbose debugging output to the standard error.

     -D	     This puts restore into degraded mode, causing restore to operate
	     less efficiently but to try harder to read corrupted backups.

     -f file
	     Read the backup from file; file may be a special device file like
	     /dev/sa0 (a tape drive), /dev/da1c (a disk drive), an ordinary
	     file, or ‘-’ (the standard input).	 If the name of the file is of
	     the form “host:file”, or “user@host:file”, restore reads from the
	     named file on the remote host using rmt(8).

     -P pipecommand
	     Use popen(3) to execute the sh(1) script string defined by
	     pipecommand as the input for every volume in the backup.  This
	     child pipeline's stdout (/dev/fd/1) is redirected to the restore
	     input stream, and the environment variable RESTORE_VOLUME is set
	     to the current volume number being read.  The pipecommand script
	     is started each time a volume is loaded, as if it were a tape
	     drive.

     -h	     Extract the actual directory, rather than the files that it ref‐
	     erences.  This prevents hierarchical restoration of complete sub‐
	     trees from the dump.

     -m	     Extract by inode numbers rather than by file name.	 This is use‐
	     ful if only a few files are being extracted, and one wants to
	     avoid regenerating the complete pathname to the file.

     -N	     Do the extraction normally, but do not actually write any changes
	     to disk.  This can be used to check the integrity of dump media
	     or other test purposes.

     -s fileno
	     Read from the specified fileno on a multi-file tape.  File num‐
	     bering starts at 1.

     -u	     When creating certain types of files, restore may generate a
	     warning diagnostic if they already exist in the target directory.
	     To prevent this, the -u (unlink) flag causes restore to remove
	     old entries before attempting to create new ones.

     -v	     Normally restore does its work silently.  The -v (verbose) flag
	     causes it to type the name of each file it treats preceded by its
	     file type.

     -y	     Do not ask the user whether to abort the restore in the event of
	     an error.	Always try to skip over the bad block(s) and continue.

ENVIRONMENT
     TAPE    Device from which to read backup.

     TMPDIR  Name of directory where temporary files are to be created.

FILES
     /dev/sa0		the default tape drive
     /tmp/rstdir*	file containing directories on the tape.
     /tmp/rstmode*	owner, mode, and time stamps for directories.
     ./restoresymtable	information passed between incremental restores.

DIAGNOSTICS
     The restore utility complains if it gets a read error.  If -y has been
     specified, or the user responds ‘y’, restore will attempt to continue the
     restore.

     If a backup was made using more than one tape volume, restore will notify
     the user when it is time to mount the next volume.	 If the -x or -i flag
     has been specified, restore will also ask which volume the user wishes to
     mount.  The fastest way to extract a few files is to start with the last
     volume, and work towards the first volume.

     There are numerous consistency checks that can be listed by restore.
     Most checks are self-explanatory or can ``never happen''.	Common errors
     are given below.

     <filename>: not found on tape
	     The specified file name was listed in the tape directory, but was
	     not found on the tape.  This is caused by tape read errors while
	     looking for the file, and from using a dump tape created on an
	     active file system.

     expected next file <inumber>, got <inumber>
	     A file that was not listed in the directory showed up.  This can
	     occur when using a dump created on an active file system.

     Incremental dump too low
	     When doing incremental restore, a dump that was written before
	     the previous incremental dump, or that has too low an incremental
	     level has been loaded.

     Incremental dump too high
	     When doing incremental restore, a dump that does not begin its
	     coverage where the previous incremental dump left off, or that
	     has too high an incremental level has been loaded.

     Tape read error while restoring <filename>
     Tape read error while skipping over inode <inumber>
     Tape read error while trying to resynchronize
	     A tape (or other media) read error has occurred.  If a file name
	     is specified, then its contents are probably partially wrong.  If
	     an inode is being skipped or the tape is trying to resynchronize,
	     then no extracted files have been corrupted, though files may not
	     be found on the tape.

     resync restore, skipped <num> blocks
	     After a dump read error, restore may have to resynchronize
	     itself.  This message lists the number of blocks that were
	     skipped over.

SEE ALSO
     dump(8), mount(8), newfs(8), rmt(8)

HISTORY
     The restore utility appeared in 4.2BSD.

BUGS
     The restore utility can get confused when doing incremental restores from
     dumps that were made on active file systems without the -L option (see
     dump(8)).

     A level zero dump must be done after a full restore.  Because restore
     runs in user code, it has no control over inode allocation; thus a full
     dump must be done to get a new set of directories reflecting the new
     inode numbering, even though the contents of the files is unchanged.

     To do a network restore, you have to run restore as root.	This is due to
     the previous security history of dump and restore.	 (restore is written
     to be setuid root, but we are not certain all bugs are gone from the
     restore code - run setuid at your own risk.)

     The temporary files /tmp/rstdir* and /tmp/rstmode* are generated with a
     unique name based on the date of the dump and the process ID (see
     mktemp(3)), except for when -r or -R is used.  Because -R allows you to
     restart a -r operation that may have been interrupted, the temporary
     files should be the same across different processes.  In all other cases,
     the files are unique because it is possible to have two different dumps
     started at the same time, and separate operations should not conflict
     with each other.

BSD			       October 12, 2006				   BSD
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