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SA(8)									 SA(8)

       sa -  summarizes accounting information

       sa     [ -a | --list-all-names ]
	      [ -b | --sort-sys-user-div-calls ]
	      [ -c | --percentages ] [ -d | --sort-avio ]
	      [ -D | --sort-tio ] [ -f | --not-interactive ]
	      [ -i | --dont-read-summary-files ]
	      [ -j | --print-seconds ] [ -k | --sort-cpu-avmem ]
	      [ -K | --sort-ksec ] [ -l | --separate-times ]
	      [ -m | --user-summary ] [ -n | --sort-num-calls ]
	      [ -p | --show-paging ] [ -P | --show-paging-avg ]
	      [ -r | --reverse-sort ] [ -s | --merge ]
	      [ -t | --print-ratio ] [ -u | --print-users ]
	      [ -v num | --threshold num ] [ --sort-real-time ]
	      [ --debug ] [ -V | --version ] [ -h | --help ]
	      [ --other-usracct-file filename ] [ --ahz hz ]
	      [ --other-savacct-file filename ]
	      [ [ --other-acct-file ] filename ]

       sa summarizes information about previously executed commands as
       recorded in the acct file.  In addition, it condenses this data into a
       summary file named savacct which contains the number of times the
       command was called and the system resources used.  The information can
       also be summarized on a per-user basis; sa will save this information
       into a file named usracct.

       If no arguments are specified, sa will print information about all of
       the commands in the acct file.

       If called with a file name as the last argument, sa will use that file
       instead of the system's default acct file.

       By default, sa will sort the output by sum of user and system time.  If
       command names have unprintable characters, or are only called once, sa
       will sort them into a group called `***other'.  If more than one
       sorting option is specified, the list will be sorted by the one
       specified last on the command line.

       The output fields are labeled as follows:

	       sum of system and user time in cpu minutes

	       "elapsed time" in minutes

	       cpu-time averaged core usage, in 1k units

	       average number of I/O operations per execution

	       total number of I/O operations

	       cpu storage integral (kilo-core seconds)

	       user cpu time in cpu seconds

	       system time in cpu seconds

       Note that these column titles do not appear in the first row of the
       table, but after each numeric entry (as units of measurement) in every
       row.  For example, you might see `79.29re', meaning 79.29 cpu seconds
       of "real time".

       An asterisk will appear after the name of commands that forked but
       didn't call exec.

       GNU sa takes care to implement a number of features not found in other
       versions.  For example, most versions of sa don't pay attention to
       flags like `--print-seconds' and `--sort-num-calls' when printing out
       commands when combined with the `--user-summary' or `--print-users'
       flags.  GNU sa pays attention to these flags if they are applicable.
       Also, MIPS' sa stores the average memory use as a short rather than a
       double, resulting in some round-off errors.  GNU sa uses double the
       whole way through.

       The availability of these program options depends on your operating
       system.	In specific, the members that appear in the struct acct of
       your system's process accounting header file (usually acct.h )
       determine which flags will be present.  For example, if your system's
       struct acct doesn't have the `ac_mem' field, the installed version of
       sa will not support the `--sort-cpu-avmem', `--sort-ksec', `-k', or
       `-K' options.

       In short, all of these flags may not be available on your machine.

       -a, --list-all-names
	      Force sa not to sort those command names with unprintable
	      characters and those used only once into the ***other group.
       -b, --sort-sys-user-div-calls
	      Sort the output by the sum of user and system time divided by
	      the number of calls.
       -c, --percentages
	      Print percentages of total time for the command's user, system,
	      and real time values.
       -d, --sort-avio
	      Sort the output by the average number of disk I/O operations.
       -D, --sort-tio
	      Print and sort the output by the total number of disk I/O
       -f, --not-interactive
	      When using the `--threshold' option, assume that all answers to
	      interactive queries will be affirmative.
       -i, --dont-read-summary-files
	      Don't read the information in the system's default savacct file.
       -j, --print-seconds
	      Instead of printing total minutes for each category, print
	      seconds per call.
       -k, --sort-cpu-avmem
	      Sort the output by cpu time average memory usage.
       -K, --sort-ksec
	      Print and sort the output by the cpu-storage integral.
       -l, --separate-times
	      Print separate columns for system and user time; usually the two
	      are added together and listed as `cpu'.
       -m, --user-summary
	      Print the number of processes and number of CPU minutes on a
	      per-user basis.
       -n, --sort-num-calls
	      Sort the output by the number of calls.  This is the default
	      sorting method.
       -p, --show-paging
	      Print the number of minor and major pagefaults and swaps.
       -P, --show-paging-avg
	      Print the number of minor and major pagefaults and swaps divided
	      by the number of calls.
       -r, --reverse-sort
	      Sort output items in reverse order.
       -s, --merge
	      Merge the summarized accounting data into the summary files
	      savacct and usracct.
       -t, --print-ratio
	      For each entry, print the ratio of real time to the sum of
	      system and user times.  If the sum of system and user times is
	      too small to report--the sum is zero--`*ignore*' will appear in
	      this field.
       -u, --print-users
	      For each command in the accounting file, print the userid and
	      command name.  After printing all entries, quit.	*Note*: this
	      flag supersedes all others.
       -v num --threshold num
	      Print commands which were executed num times or fewer and await
	      a reply from the terminal.  If the response begins with `y', add
	      the command to the `**junk**' group.
	      It really doesn't make any sense to me that the stock version of
	      sa separates statistics for a particular executable depending on
	      whether or not that command forked.  Therefore, GNU sa lumps
	      this information together unless this option is specified.
       --ahz hz
	      Use this flag to tell the program what AHZ should be (in hertz).
	      This option is useful if you are trying to view an acct file
	      created on another machine which has the same byte order and
	      file format as your current machine, but has a different value
	      for AHZ.
	      Print verbose internal information.
       -V, --version
	      Print the version number of sa.
       -h, --help
	      Prints the usage string and default locations of system files to
	      standard output and exits.
	      Sort the output by the "real time" field.
       --other-usracct-file filename
	      Write summaries by user ID to filename rather than the system's
	      default usracct file.
       --other-savacct-file filename
	      Write summaries by command name to filename rather than the
	      system's default SAVACCT file.
       --other-acct-file filename
	      Read from the file filename instead of the system's default ACCT
       acct   The raw system wide process accounting file. See acct(5) for
	      further details.
	      A summary of system process accounting sorted by command.
	      A summary of system process accounting sorted by user ID.
       There is not yet a wide experience base for comparing the output of GNU
       sa with versions of sa in many other systems.  The problem is that the
       data files grow big in a short time and therefore require a lot of disk
       The GNU accounting utilities were written by Noel Cragg
       <>. The man page was adapted from the accounting
       texinfo page by Susan Kleinmann <>.
       acct(5), ac(1)

				1997 August 19				 SA(8)

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