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       sched_setscheduler,  sched_getscheduler	-  set and get scheduling pol‐

       #include <sched.h>

       int sched_setscheduler(pid_t pid, int policy,
			      const struct sched_param *param);

       int sched_getscheduler(pid_t pid);

       struct sched_param {
	   int sched_priority;

       sched_setscheduler() sets both the scheduling policy and the associated
       parameters for the process whose ID is specified in pid.	 If pid equals
       zero, the scheduling policy and parameters of the calling process  will
       be  set.	  The  interpretation  of  the	argument  param depends on the
       selected policy.	 Currently,  Linux  supports  the  following  "normal"
       (i.e., non-real-time) scheduling policies:

       SCHED_OTHER   the standard round-robin time-sharing policy;

       SCHED_BATCH   for "batch" style execution of processes; and

       SCHED_IDLE    for running very low priority background jobs.

       The  following  "real-time"  policies  are  also supported, for special
       time-critical applications that need precise control over  the  way  in
       which runnable processes are selected for execution:

       SCHED_FIFO    a first-in, first-out policy; and

       SCHED_RR	     a round-robin policy.

       The semantics of each of these policies are detailed below.

       sched_getscheduler() queries the scheduling policy currently applied to
       the process identified by pid.  If pid equals zero, the policy  of  the
       calling process will be retrieved.

   Scheduling policies
       The  scheduler  is  the	kernel	component  that decides which runnable
       process will be executed by the CPU next.  Each process has an  associ‐
       ated  scheduling	 policy and a static scheduling priority, sched_prior‐
       ity; these are the settings that are modified by	 sched_setscheduler().
       The  scheduler  makes it decisions based on knowledge of the scheduling
       policy and static priority of all processes on the system.

       For processes scheduled under one of  the  normal  scheduling  policies
       (SCHED_OTHER,  SCHED_IDLE,  SCHED_BATCH), sched_priority is not used in
       scheduling decisions (it must be specified as 0).

       Processes scheduled under one of the  real-time	policies  (SCHED_FIFO,
       SCHED_RR)  have	a  sched_priority  value  in  the  range 1 (low) to 99
       (high).	(As the numbers imply, real-time processes always have	higher
       priority	 than  normal processes.)  Note well: POSIX.1-2001 requires an
       implementation to support only a minimum 32  distinct  priority	levels
       for  the real-time policies, and some systems supply just this minimum.
       Portable	  programs   should    use    sched_get_priority_min(2)	   and
       sched_get_priority_max(2) to find the range of priorities supported for
       a particular policy.

       Conceptually, the scheduler maintains a list of runnable processes  for
       each  possible  sched_priority  value.	In  order  to  determine which
       process runs next, the scheduler looks for the nonempty list  with  the
       highest	static	priority  and  selects the process at the head of this

       A process's scheduling policy determines where it will be inserted into
       the  list  of processes with equal static priority and how it will move
       inside this list.

       All scheduling is preemptive: if a process with a higher static	prior‐
       ity  becomes  ready  to run, the currently running process will be pre‐
       empted and returned to the wait list for	 its  static  priority	level.
       The  scheduling	policy determines the ordering only within the list of
       runnable processes with equal static priority.

   SCHED_FIFO: First in-first out scheduling
       SCHED_FIFO can be used only with static priorities higher than 0, which
       means that when a SCHED_FIFO processes becomes runnable, it will always
       immediately preempt any currently running SCHED_OTHER, SCHED_BATCH,  or
       SCHED_IDLE  process.  SCHED_FIFO is a simple scheduling algorithm with‐
       out time slicing.  For processes scheduled under the SCHED_FIFO policy,
       the following rules apply:

       *  A  SCHED_FIFO	 process that has been preempted by another process of
	  higher priority will stay at the head of the list for	 its  priority
	  and  will resume execution as soon as all processes of higher prior‐
	  ity are blocked again.

       *  When a SCHED_FIFO process becomes runnable, it will be  inserted  at
	  the end of the list for its priority.

       *  A  call  to  sched_setscheduler()  or sched_setparam(2) will put the
	  SCHED_FIFO (or SCHED_RR) process identified by pid at the  start  of
	  the  list  if it was runnable.  As a consequence, it may preempt the
	  currently  running  process	if   it	  has	the   same   priority.
	  (POSIX.1-2001 specifies that the process should go to the end of the

       *  A process calling sched_yield(2) will be put at the end of the list.

       No other events will move a process scheduled under the SCHED_FIFO pol‐
       icy in the wait list of runnable processes with equal static priority.

       A SCHED_FIFO process runs until either it is blocked by an I/O request,
       it  is  preempted  by  a	 higher	 priority   process,   or   it	 calls

   SCHED_RR: Round-robin scheduling
       SCHED_RR	 is  a simple enhancement of SCHED_FIFO.  Everything described
       above for SCHED_FIFO also applies to SCHED_RR, except that each process
       is  allowed  to	run  only  for	a maximum time quantum.	 If a SCHED_RR
       process has been running for a time period equal to or longer than  the
       time  quantum,  it will be put at the end of the list for its priority.
       A SCHED_RR process that has been preempted by a higher priority process
       and  subsequently  resumes execution as a running process will complete
       the unexpired portion of its round-robin time quantum.  The  length  of
       the time quantum can be retrieved using sched_rr_get_interval(2).

   SCHED_OTHER: Default Linux time-sharing scheduling
       SCHED_OTHER  can be used at only static priority 0.  SCHED_OTHER is the
       standard Linux time-sharing scheduler that is  intended	for  all  pro‐
       cesses  that  do	 not  require  the  special real-time mechanisms.  The
       process to run is chosen from the static priority 0  list  based	 on  a
       dynamic priority that is determined only inside this list.  The dynamic
       priority is based on the nice value (set by nice(2) or  setpriority(2))
       and  increased  for  each time quantum the process is ready to run, but
       denied to run by the scheduler.	This ensures fair progress  among  all
       SCHED_OTHER processes.

   SCHED_BATCH: Scheduling batch processes
       (Since  Linux 2.6.16.)  SCHED_BATCH can be used only at static priority
       0.  This policy is similar to SCHED_OTHER  in  that  it	schedules  the
       process	according  to  its dynamic priority (based on the nice value).
       The difference is that this policy will cause the scheduler  to	always
       assume  that the process is CPU-intensive.  Consequently, the scheduler
       will apply a small scheduling penalty with respect to wakeup behaviour,
       so that this process is mildly disfavored in scheduling decisions.

       This policy is useful for workloads that are noninteractive, but do not
       want to lower their nice value, and for workloads that want a determin‐
       istic scheduling policy without interactivity causing extra preemptions
       (between the workload's tasks).

   SCHED_IDLE: Scheduling very low priority jobs
       (Since Linux 2.6.23.)  SCHED_IDLE can be used only at  static  priority
       0; the process nice value has no influence for this policy.

       This  policy  is	 intended  for	running jobs at extremely low priority
       (lower even than a +19 nice value with the SCHED_OTHER  or  SCHED_BATCH

   Resetting scheduling policy for child processes
       Since  Linux 2.6.32, the SCHED_RESET_ON_FORK flag can be ORed in policy
       when calling sched_setscheduler().  As a result of including this flag,
       children	 created by fork(2) do not inherit privileged scheduling poli‐
       cies.  This feature is intended for  media-playback  applications,  and
       can  be used to prevent applications evading the RLIMIT_RTTIME resource
       limit (see getrlimit(2)) by creating multiple child processes.

       More precisely, if the SCHED_RESET_ON_FORK flag is specified, the  fol‐
       lowing rules apply for subsequently created children:

       *  If  the  calling  process  has  a scheduling policy of SCHED_FIFO or
	  SCHED_RR, the policy is reset to SCHED_OTHER in child processes.

       *  If the calling process has a negative nice value, the nice value  is
	  reset to zero in child processes.

       After  the  SCHED_RESET_ON_FORK	flag has been enabled, it can be reset
       only if the process has the CAP_SYS_NICE capability.  This flag is dis‐
       abled in child processes created by fork(2).

       The SCHED_RESET_ON_FORK flag is visible in the policy value returned by

   Privileges and resource limits
       In Linux kernels before 2.6.12,	only  privileged  (CAP_SYS_NICE)  pro‐
       cesses  can set a nonzero static priority (i.e., set a real-time sched‐
       uling policy).  The only change that an unprivileged process  can  make
       is  to  set  the	 SCHED_OTHER  policy, and this can be done only if the
       effective user ID of the caller	of  sched_setscheduler()  matches  the
       real  or	 effective  user  ID  of the target process (i.e., the process
       specified by pid) whose policy is being changed.

       Since Linux 2.6.12, the RLIMIT_RTPRIO resource limit defines a  ceiling
       on  an  unprivileged  process's	static	priority  for the SCHED_RR and
       SCHED_FIFO policies.  The rules for changing scheduling policy and pri‐
       ority are as follows:

       *  If  an  unprivileged process has a nonzero RLIMIT_RTPRIO soft limit,
	  then it can change its scheduling policy and	priority,  subject  to
	  the  restriction  that  the priority cannot be set to a value higher
	  than the maximum of its current priority and its RLIMIT_RTPRIO  soft

       *  If  the  RLIMIT_RTPRIO  soft	limit  is  0,  then the only permitted
	  changes are to lower the priority, or to switch to  a	 non-real-time

       *  Subject  to  the  same  rules, another unprivileged process can also
	  make these changes, as long as the effective user ID of the  process
	  making  the change matches the real or effective user ID of the tar‐
	  get process.

       *  Special rules apply for the SCHED_IDLE.   In	Linux  kernels	before
	  2.6.39,  an  unprivileged process operating under this policy cannot
	  change its policy, regardless of  the	 value	of  its	 RLIMIT_RTPRIO
	  resource  limit.   In	 Linux	kernels	 since 2.6.39, an unprivileged
	  process can switch to either the  SCHED_BATCH	 or  the  SCHED_NORMAL
	  policy so long as its nice value falls within the range permitted by
	  its RLIMIT_NICE resource limit (see getrlimit(2)).

       Privileged (CAP_SYS_NICE) processes ignore the RLIMIT_RTPRIO limit;  as
       with  older kernels, they can make arbitrary changes to scheduling pol‐
       icy  and	 priority.   See  getrlimit(2)	for  further  information   on

   Response time
       A  blocked  high	 priority  process  waiting  for the I/O has a certain
       response time before it is scheduled again.  The device	driver	writer
       can  greatly  reduce  this  response  time  by using a "slow interrupt"
       interrupt handler.

       Child processes inherit the scheduling policy and parameters  across  a
       fork(2).	  The  scheduling  policy  and parameters are preserved across

       Memory locking is usually needed for real-time processes to avoid  pag‐
       ing delays; this can be done with mlock(2) or mlockall(2).

       Since  a	 nonblocking  infinite	loop  in  a  process  scheduled	 under
       SCHED_FIFO or SCHED_RR will block all  processes	 with  lower  priority
       forever,	 a software developer should always keep available on the con‐
       sole a shell scheduled under a higher static priority than  the	tested
       application.   This  will  allow	 an emergency kill of tested real-time
       applications that do not block or terminate as expected.	 See also  the
       description of the RLIMIT_RTTIME resource limit in getrlimit(2).

       POSIX  systems  on  which sched_setscheduler() and sched_getscheduler()
       are available define _POSIX_PRIORITY_SCHEDULING in <unistd.h>.

       On   success,   sched_setscheduler()   returns	zero.	 On   success,
       sched_getscheduler()  returns the policy for the process (a nonnegative
       integer).  On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

       EINVAL The scheduling policy is not one	of  the	 recognized  policies,
	      param is NULL, or param does not make sense for the policy.

       EPERM  The calling process does not have appropriate privileges.

       ESRCH  The process whose ID is pid could not be found.

       POSIX.1-2001  (but  see	BUGS  below).	The SCHED_BATCH and SCHED_IDLE
       policies are Linux-specific.

       POSIX.1 does not detail the permissions that  an	 unprivileged  process
       requires in order to call sched_setscheduler(), and details vary across
       systems.	 For example, the Solaris 7 manual page says that the real  or
       effective user ID of the calling process must match the real user ID or
       the save set-user-ID of the target process.

       The scheduling policy and parameters are in fact per-thread  attributes
       on Linux.  The value returned from a call to gettid(2) can be passed in
       the argument pid.  Specifying pid as 0 will operate  on	the  attribute
       for  the	 calling thread, and passing the value returned from a call to
       getpid(2) will operate on the attribute for  the	 main  thread  of  the
       thread  group.	(If  you  are  using  the  POSIX threads API, then use
       pthread_setschedparam(3),	 pthread_getschedparam(3),	   and
       pthread_setschedprio(3), instead of the sched_*(2) system calls.)

       Originally,  Standard Linux was intended as a general-purpose operating
       system being able to handle background processes, interactive  applica‐
       tions,  and  less  demanding  real-time applications (applications that
       need to usually meet timing deadlines).	Although the Linux kernel  2.6
       allowed	for  kernel preemption and the newly introduced O(1) scheduler
       ensures that the time needed to schedule	 is  fixed  and	 deterministic
       irrespective  of	 the  number of active tasks, true real-time computing
       was not possible up to kernel version 2.6.17.

   Real-time features in the mainline Linux kernel
       From kernel version 2.6.18 onward, however, Linux is gradually becoming
       equipped	 with  real-time  capabilities, most of which are derived from
       the former realtime-preempt patches developed by	 Ingo  Molnar,	Thomas
       Gleixner, Steven Rostedt, and others.  Until the patches have been com‐
       pletely merged into the mainline kernel (this is expected to be	around
       kernel  version	2.6.30),  they	must  be installed to achieve the best
       real-time performance.  These patches are named:


       and  can	 be  downloaded	 from  ⟨

       Without the patches and prior to their full inclusion into the mainline
       kernel, the kernel  configuration  offers  only	the  three  preemption
       EMPT_DESKTOP which respectively	provide	 no,  some,  and  considerable
       reduction of the worst-case scheduling latency.

       With  the  patches applied or after their full inclusion into the main‐
       line  kernel,  the  additional  configuration  item   CONFIG_PREEMPT_RT
       becomes	available.   If	 this is selected, Linux is transformed into a
       regular real-time operating system.  The FIFO and RR  scheduling	 poli‐
       cies  that  can be selected using sched_setscheduler() are then used to
       run a process with true real-time priority  and	a  minimum  worst-case
       scheduling latency.

       POSIX says that on success, sched_setscheduler() should return the pre‐
       vious scheduling policy.	 Linux sched_setscheduler() does  not  conform
       to this requirement, since it always returns 0 on success.

       chrt(1), getpriority(2), mlock(2), mlockall(2), munlock(2),
       munlockall(2), nice(2), sched_get_priority_max(2),
       sched_get_priority_min(2), sched_getaffinity(2), sched_getparam(2),
       sched_rr_get_interval(2), sched_setaffinity(2), sched_setparam(2),
       sched_yield(2), setpriority(2), capabilities(7), cpuset(7)

       Programming  for	 the  real  world  -  POSIX.4  by Bill O. Gallmeister,
       O'Reilly & Associates, Inc., ISBN 1-56592-074-0.

       The Linux kernel source file Documentation/scheduler/sched-rt-group.txt

       This page is part of release 3.53 of the Linux  man-pages  project.   A
       description  of	the project, and information about reporting bugs, can
       be found at

Linux				  2013-02-12		 SCHED_SETSCHEDULER(2)

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