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SSH-KEYGEN(1)		  BSD General Commands Manual		 SSH-KEYGEN(1)

NAME
     ssh-keygen — authentication key generation, management and conversion

SYNOPSIS
     ssh-keygen [-q] [-b bits] -t type [-N new_passphrase] [-C comment]
		[-f output_keyfile]
     ssh-keygen -p [-P old_passphrase] [-N new_passphrase] [-f keyfile]
     ssh-keygen -i [-f input_keyfile]
     ssh-keygen -e [-f input_keyfile]
     ssh-keygen -y [-f input_keyfile]
     ssh-keygen -c [-P passphrase] [-C comment] [-f keyfile]
     ssh-keygen -l [-f input_keyfile]
     ssh-keygen -B [-f input_keyfile]
     ssh-keygen -D pkcs11
     ssh-keygen -F hostname [-f known_hosts_file] [-l]
     ssh-keygen -H [-f known_hosts_file]
     ssh-keygen -R hostname [-f known_hosts_file]
     ssh-keygen -r hostname [-f input_keyfile] [-g]
     ssh-keygen -G output_file [-v] [-b bits] [-M memory] [-S start_point]
     ssh-keygen -T output_file -f input_file [-v] [-a num_trials]
		[-W generator]
     ssh-keygen -s ca_key -I certificate_identity [-h] [-n principals]
		[-O constraint] [-V validity_interval] file ...
     ssh-keygen -L [-f input_keyfile]

DESCRIPTION
     ssh-keygen generates, manages and converts authentication keys for
     ssh(1).  ssh-keygen can create RSA keys for use by SSH protocol version 1
     and RSA or DSA keys for use by SSH protocol version 2.  The type of key
     to be generated is specified with the -t option.  If invoked without any
     arguments, ssh-keygen will generate an RSA key for use in SSH protocol 2
     connections.

     ssh-keygen is also used to generate groups for use in Diffie-Hellman
     group exchange (DH-GEX).  See the MODULI GENERATION section for details.

     Normally each user wishing to use SSH with RSA or DSA authentication runs
     this once to create the authentication key in ~/.ssh/identity,
     ~/.ssh/id_dsa or ~/.ssh/id_rsa.  Additionally, the system administrator
     may use this to generate host keys, as seen in /etc/rc.

     Normally this program generates the key and asks for a file in which to
     store the private key.  The public key is stored in a file with the same
     name but “.pub” appended.	The program also asks for a passphrase.	 The
     passphrase may be empty to indicate no passphrase (host keys must have an
     empty passphrase), or it may be a string of arbitrary length.  A
     passphrase is similar to a password, except it can be a phrase with a
     series of words, punctuation, numbers, whitespace, or any string of char‐
     acters you want.  Good passphrases are 10-30 characters long, are not
     simple sentences or otherwise easily guessable (English prose has only
     1-2 bits of entropy per character, and provides very bad passphrases),
     and contain a mix of upper and lowercase letters, numbers, and non-
     alphanumeric characters.  The passphrase can be changed later by using
     the -p option.

     There is no way to recover a lost passphrase.  If the passphrase is lost
     or forgotten, a new key must be generated and copied to the corresponding
     public key to other machines.

     For RSA1 keys, there is also a comment field in the key file that is only
     for convenience to the user to help identify the key.  The comment can
     tell what the key is for, or whatever is useful.  The comment is initial‐
     ized to “user@host” when the key is created, but can be changed using the
     -c option.

     After a key is generated, instructions below detail where the keys should
     be placed to be activated.

     The options are as follows:

     -a trials
	     Specifies the number of primality tests to perform when screening
	     DH-GEX candidates using the -T command.

     -B	     Show the bubblebabble digest of specified private or public key
	     file.

     -b bits
	     Specifies the number of bits in the key to create.	 For RSA keys,
	     the minimum size is 768 bits and the default is 2048 bits.	 Gen‐
	     erally, 2048 bits is considered sufficient.  DSA keys must be
	     exactly 1024 bits as specified by FIPS 186-2.

     -C comment
	     Provides a new comment.

     -c	     Requests changing the comment in the private and public key
	     files.  This operation is only supported for RSA1 keys.  The pro‐
	     gram will prompt for the file containing the private keys, for
	     the passphrase if the key has one, and for the new comment.

     -D pkcs11
	     Download the RSA public keys provided by the PKCS#11 shared
	     library pkcs11.

     -e	     This option will read a private or public OpenSSH key file and
	     print the key in RFC 4716 SSH Public Key File Format to stdout.
	     This option allows exporting keys for use by several commercial
	     SSH implementations.

     -F hostname
	     Search for the specified hostname in a known_hosts file, listing
	     any occurrences found.  This option is useful to find hashed host
	     names or addresses and may also be used in conjunction with the
	     -H option to print found keys in a hashed format.

     -f filename
	     Specifies the filename of the key file.

     -G output_file
	     Generate candidate primes for DH-GEX.  These primes must be
	     screened for safety (using the -T option) before use.

     -g	     Use generic DNS format when printing fingerprint resource records
	     using the -r command.

     -H	     Hash a known_hosts file.  This replaces all hostnames and
	     addresses with hashed representations within the specified file;
	     the original content is moved to a file with a .old suffix.
	     These hashes may be used normally by ssh and sshd, but they do
	     not reveal identifying information should the file's contents be
	     disclosed.	 This option will not modify existing hashed hostnames
	     and is therefore safe to use on files that mix hashed and non-
	     hashed names.

     -h	     When signing a key, create a host certificate instead of a user
	     certificate.  Please see the CERTIFICATES section for details.

     -I certificate_identity
	     Specify the key identity when signing a public key.  Please see
	     the CERTIFICATES section for details.

     -i	     This option will read an unencrypted private (or public) key file
	     in SSH2-compatible format and print an OpenSSH compatible private
	     (or public) key to stdout.	 ssh-keygen also reads the RFC 4716
	     SSH Public Key File Format.  This option allows importing keys
	     from several commercial SSH implementations.

     -L	     Prints the contents of a certificate.

     -l	     Show fingerprint of specified public key file.  Private RSA1 keys
	     are also supported.  For RSA and DSA keys ssh-keygen tries to
	     find the matching public key file and prints its fingerprint.  If
	     combined with -v, an ASCII art representation of the key is sup‐
	     plied with the fingerprint.

     -M memory
	     Specify the amount of memory to use (in megabytes) when generat‐
	     ing candidate moduli for DH-GEX.

     -N new_passphrase
	     Provides the new passphrase.

     -n principals
	     Specify one or more principals (user or host names) to be
	     included in a certificate when signing a key.  Multiple princi‐
	     pals may be specified, separated by commas.  Please see the
	     CERTIFICATES section for details.

     -O constraint
	     Specify a certificate constraint when signing a key.  This option
	     may be specified multiple times.  Please see the CERTIFICATES
	     section for details.  The constraints that are valid for user
	     certificates are:

	     no-x11-forwarding
		     Disable X11 forwarding (permitted by default).

	     no-agent-forwarding
		     Disable ssh-agent(1) forwarding (permitted by default).

	     no-port-forwarding
		     Disable port forwarding (permitted by default).

	     no-pty  Disable PTY allocation (permitted by default).

	     no-user-rc
		     Disable execution of ~/.ssh/rc by sshd(8) (permitted by
		     default).

	     clear   Clear all enabled permissions.  This is useful for clear‐
		     ing the default set of permissions so permissions may be
		     added individually.

	     permit-x11-forwarding
		     Allows X11 forwarding.

	     permit-agent-forwarding
		     Allows ssh-agent(1) forwarding.

	     permit-port-forwarding
		     Allows port forwarding.

	     permit-pty
		     Allows PTY allocation.

	     permit-user-rc
		     Allows execution of ~/.ssh/rc by sshd(8).

	     force-command=command
		     Forces the execution of command instead of any shell or
		     command specified by the user when the certificate is
		     used for authentication.

	     source-address=address_list
		     Restrict the source addresses from which the certificate
		     is considered valid from.	The address_list is a comma-
		     separated list of one or more address/netmask pairs in
		     CIDR format.

	     At present, no constraints are valid for host keys.

     -P passphrase
	     Provides the (old) passphrase.

     -p	     Requests changing the passphrase of a private key file instead of
	     creating a new private key.  The program will prompt for the file
	     containing the private key, for the old passphrase, and twice for
	     the new passphrase.

     -q	     Silence ssh-keygen.  Used by /etc/rc when creating a new key.

     -R hostname
	     Removes all keys belonging to hostname from a known_hosts file.
	     This option is useful to delete hashed hosts (see the -H option
	     above).

     -r hostname
	     Print the SSHFP fingerprint resource record named hostname for
	     the specified public key file.

     -S start
	     Specify start point (in hex) when generating candidate moduli for
	     DH-GEX.

     -s ca_key
	     Certify (sign) a public key using the specified CA key.  Please
	     see the CERTIFICATES section for details.

     -T output_file
	     Test DH group exchange candidate primes (generated using the -G
	     option) for safety.

     -t type
	     Specifies the type of key to create.  The possible values are
	     “rsa1” for protocol version 1 and “rsa” or “dsa” for protocol
	     version 2.

     -V validity_interval
	     Specify a validity interval when signing a certificate.  A valid‐
	     ity interval may consist of a single time, indicating that the
	     certificate is valid beginning now and expiring at that time, or
	     may consist of two times separated by a colon to indicate an
	     explicit time interval.  The start time may be specified as a
	     date in YYYYMMDD format, a time in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS format or a
	     relative time (to the current time) consisting of a minus sign
	     followed by a relative time in the format described in the TIME
	     FORMATS section of ssh_config(5).	The end time may be specified
	     as a YYYYMMDD date, a YYYYMMDDHHMMSS time or a relative time
	     starting with a plus character.

	     For example: “+52w1d” (valid from now to 52 weeks and one day
	     from now), “-4w:+4w” (valid from four weeks ago to four weeks
	     from now), “20100101123000:20110101123000” (valid from 12:30 PM,
	     January 1st, 2010 to 12:30 PM, January 1st, 2011), “-1d:20110101”
	     (valid from yesterday to midnight, January 1st, 2011).

     -v	     Verbose mode.  Causes ssh-keygen to print debugging messages
	     about its progress.  This is helpful for debugging moduli genera‐
	     tion.  Multiple -v options increase the verbosity.	 The maximum
	     is 3.

     -W generator
	     Specify desired generator when testing candidate moduli for DH-
	     GEX.

     -y	     This option will read a private OpenSSH format file and print an
	     OpenSSH public key to stdout.

MODULI GENERATION
     ssh-keygen may be used to generate groups for the Diffie-Hellman Group
     Exchange (DH-GEX) protocol.  Generating these groups is a two-step
     process: first, candidate primes are generated using a fast, but memory
     intensive process.	 These candidate primes are then tested for suitabil‐
     ity (a CPU-intensive process).

     Generation of primes is performed using the -G option.  The desired
     length of the primes may be specified by the -b option.  For example:

	   # ssh-keygen -G moduli-2048.candidates -b 2048

     By default, the search for primes begins at a random point in the desired
     length range.  This may be overridden using the -S option, which speci‐
     fies a different start point (in hex).

     Once a set of candidates have been generated, they must be tested for
     suitability.  This may be performed using the -T option.  In this mode
     ssh-keygen will read candidates from standard input (or a file specified
     using the -f option).  For example:

	   # ssh-keygen -T moduli-2048 -f moduli-2048.candidates

     By default, each candidate will be subjected to 100 primality tests.
     This may be overridden using the -a option.  The DH generator value will
     be chosen automatically for the prime under consideration.	 If a specific
     generator is desired, it may be requested using the -W option.  Valid
     generator values are 2, 3, and 5.

     Screened DH groups may be installed in /etc/moduli.  It is important that
     this file contains moduli of a range of bit lengths and that both ends of
     a connection share common moduli.

CERTIFICATES
     ssh-keygen supports signing of keys to produce certificates that may be
     used for user or host authentication.  Certificates consist of a public
     key, some identity information, zero or more principal (user or host)
     names and an optional set of constraints that are signed by a Certifica‐
     tion Authority (CA) key.  Clients or servers may then trust only the CA
     key and verify its signature on a certificate rather than trusting many
     user/host keys.  Note that OpenSSH certificates are a different, and much
     simpler, format to the X.509 certificates used in ssl(8).

     ssh-keygen supports two types of certificates: user and host.  User cer‐
     tificates authenticate users to servers, whereas host certificates
     authenticate server hosts to users.  To generate a user certificate:

	   $ ssh-keygen -s /path/to/ca_key -I key_id /path/to/user_key.pub

     The resultant certificate will be placed in /path/to/user_key_cert.pub.
     A host certificate requires the -h option:

	   $ ssh-keygen -s /path/to/ca_key -I key_id -h /path/to/host_key.pub

     The host certificate will be output to /path/to/host_key_cert.pub.	 In
     both cases, key_id is a "key identifier" that is logged by the server
     when the certificate is used for authentication.

     Certificates may be limited to be valid for a set of principal
     (user/host) names.	 By default, generated certificates are valid for all
     users or hosts.  To generate a certificate for a specified set of princi‐
     pals:

	   $ ssh-keygen -s ca_key -I key_id -n user1,user2 user_key.pub
	   $ ssh-keygen -s ca_key -I key_id -h -n host.domain user_key.pub

     Additional limitations on the validity and use of user certificates may
     be specified through certificate constraints.  A constrained certificate
     may disable features of the SSH session, may be valid only when presented
     from particular source addresses or may force the use of a specific com‐
     mand.  For a list of valid certificate constraints, see the documentation
     for the -O option above.

     Finally, certificates may be defined with a validity lifetime.  The -V
     option allows specification of certificate start and end times.  A cer‐
     tificate that is presented at a time outside this range will not be con‐
     sidered valid.  By default, certificates have a maximum validity inter‐
     val.

     For certificates to be used for user or host authentication, the CA pub‐
     lic key must be trusted by sshd(8) or ssh(1).  Please refer to those man‐
     ual pages for details.

FILES
     ~/.ssh/identity
	     Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of
	     the user.	This file should not be readable by anyone but the
	     user.  It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the
	     key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of
	     this file using 128-bit AES.  This file is not automatically
	     accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for
	     the private key.  ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt
	     is made.

     ~/.ssh/identity.pub
	     Contains the protocol version 1 RSA public key for authentica‐
	     tion.  The contents of this file should be added to
	     ~/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to
	     log in using RSA authentication.  There is no need to keep the
	     contents of this file secret.

     ~/.ssh/id_dsa
	     Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of
	     the user.	This file should not be readable by anyone but the
	     user.  It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the
	     key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of
	     this file using 128-bit AES.  This file is not automatically
	     accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for
	     the private key.  ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt
	     is made.

     ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub
	     Contains the protocol version 2 DSA public key for authentica‐
	     tion.  The contents of this file should be added to
	     ~/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to
	     log in using public key authentication.  There is no need to keep
	     the contents of this file secret.

     ~/.ssh/id_rsa
	     Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of
	     the user.	This file should not be readable by anyone but the
	     user.  It is possible to specify a passphrase when generating the
	     key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of
	     this file using 128-bit AES.  This file is not automatically
	     accessed by ssh-keygen but it is offered as the default file for
	     the private key.  ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt
	     is made.

     ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
	     Contains the protocol version 2 RSA public key for authentica‐
	     tion.  The contents of this file should be added to
	     ~/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where the user wishes to
	     log in using public key authentication.  There is no need to keep
	     the contents of this file secret.

     /etc/moduli
	     Contains Diffie-Hellman groups used for DH-GEX.  The file format
	     is described in moduli(5).

SEE ALSO
     ssh(1), ssh-add(1), ssh-agent(1), moduli(5), sshd(8)

     The Secure Shell (SSH) Public Key File Format, RFC 4716, 2006.

AUTHORS
     OpenSSH is a derivative of the original and free ssh 1.2.12 release by
     Tatu Ylonen.  Aaron Campbell, Bob Beck, Markus Friedl, Niels Provos, Theo
     de Raadt and Dug Song removed many bugs, re-added newer features and cre‐
     ated OpenSSH.  Markus Friedl contributed the support for SSH protocol
     versions 1.5 and 2.0.

BSD				 March 8, 2010				   BSD
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