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STDIO(3)		 BSD Library Functions Manual		      STDIO(3)

NAME
     stdio — standard input/output library functions

SYNOPSIS
     #include <stdio.h>
     FILE *stdin;
     FILE *stdout;
     FILE *stderr;

DESCRIPTION
     The standard I/O library provides a simple and efficient buffered stream
     I/O interface.  Input and ouput is mapped into logical data streams and
     the physical I/O characteristics are concealed. The functions and macros
     are listed below; more information is available from the individual man
     pages.

     A stream is associated with an external file (which may be a physical
     device) by opening a file, which may involve creating a new file. Creat‐
     ing an existing file causes its former contents to be discarded.  If a
     file can support positioning requests (such as a disk file, as opposed to
     a terminal) then a file position indicator associated with the stream is
     positioned at the start of the file (byte zero), unless the file is
     opened with appended mode. If append mode is used, the position indicator
     will be placed the end-of-file.  The position indicator is maintained by
     subsequent reads, writes and positioning requests. All input occurs as if
     the characters were read by successive calls to the fgetc(3) function;
     all ouput takes place as if all characters were read by successive calls
     to the fputc(3) function.

     A file is disassociated from a stream by closing the file.	 Ouput streams
     are flushed (any unwritten buffer contents are transferred to the host
     environment) before the stream is disassociated from the file.  The value
     of a pointer to a FILE object is indeterminate after a file is closed
     (garbage).

     A file may be subsequently reopened, by the same or another program exe‐
     cution, and its contents reclaimed or modified (if it can be repositioned
     at the start).  If the main function returns to its original caller, or
     the exit(3) function is called, all open files are closed (hence all out‐
     put streams are flushed) before program termination.  Other methods of
     program termination, such as abort(3) do not bother about closing files
     properly.

     This implementation needs and makes no distinction between “text” and
     “binary” streams.	In effect, all streams are binary.  No translation is
     performed and no extra padding appears on any stream.

     At program startup, three streams are predefined and need not be opened
     explicitly:
	   ·   standard input (for reading conventional input),
	   ·   standard output (for writing conventional input), and
	   ·   standard error (for writing diagnostic output).
     These streams are abbreviated stdin, stdout and stderr.  Initially, the
     standard error stream is unbuffered; the standard input and output
     streams are fully buffered if and only if the streams do not refer to an
     interactive or “terminal” device, as determined by the isatty(3) func‐
     tion.  In fact, all freshly-opened streams that refer to terminal devices
     default to line buffering, and pending output to such streams is written
     automatically whenever an such an input stream is read.  Note that this
     applies only to “true reads”; if the read request can be satisfied by
     existing buffered data, no automatic flush will occur.  In these cases,
     or when a large amount of computation is done after printing part of a
     line on an output terminal, it is necessary to fflush(3) the standard
     output before going off and computing so that the output will appear.
     Alternatively, these defaults may be modified via the setvbuf(3) func‐
     tion.

     The stdio library is a part of the library libc and routines are automat‐
     ically loaded as needed by the compilers cc(1) and pc(1).	The SYNOPSIS
     sections of the following manual pages indicate which include files are
     to be used, what the compiler declaration for the function looks like and
     which external variables are of interest.

     The following are defined as macros; these names may not be re-used with‐
     out first removing their current definitions with #undef: BUFSIZ, EOF,
     FILENAME_MAX, L_cuserid, L_ctermid, L_tmpnam, NULL, SEEK_END, SEEK_SET,
     SEE_CUR, TMP_MAX, clearerr, feof, ferror, fileno, freopen, fwopen, getc,
     getchar, putc, putchar, stderr, stdin, stdout.  Function versions of the
     macro functions feof, ferror, clearerr, fileno, getc, getchar, putc, and
     putchar exist and will be used if the macros definitions are explicitly
     removed.

SEE ALSO
     open(2), close(2), read(2), write(2)

BUGS
     The standard buffered functions do not interact well with certain other
     library and system functions, especially vfork and abort.

STANDARDS
     The stdio library conforms to ANSI X3.159-1989 (“ANSI C89”).

LIST OF FUNCTIONS
     Function	    Description
     clearerr	    check and reset stream status
     fclose	    close a stream
     fdopen	    stream open functions
     feof	    check and reset stream status
     ferror	    check and reset stream status
     fflush	    flush a stream
     fgetc	    get next character or word from input stream
     fgetline	    get a line from a stream
     fgetpos	    reposition a stream
     fgets	    get a line from a stream
     fileno	    check and reset stream status
     fopen	    stream open functions
     fprintf	    formatted output conversion
     fpurge	    flush a stream
     fputc	    output a character or word to a stream
     fputs	    output a line to a stream
     fread	    binary stream input/output
     freopen	    stream open functions
     fropen	    open a stream
     fscanf	    input format conversion
     fseek	    reposition a stream
     fsetpos	    reposition a stream
     ftell	    reposition a stream
     funopen	    open a stream
     fwopen	    open a stream
     fwrite	    binary stream input/output
     getc	    get next character or word from input stream
     getchar	    get next character or word from input stream
     gets	    get a line from a stream
     getw	    get next character or word from input stream
     mkstemp	    create unique temporary file
     mktemp	    create unique temporary file
     perror	    system error messages
     printf	    formatted output conversion
     putc	    output a character or word to a stream
     putchar	    output a character or word to a stream
     puts	    output a line to a stream
     putw	    output a character or word to a stream
     remove	    remove directory entry
     rewind	    reposition a stream
     scanf	    input format conversion
     setbuf	    stream buffering operations
     setbuffer	    stream buffering operations
     setlinebuf	    stream buffering operations
     setvbuf	    stream buffering operations
     snprintf	    formatted output conversion
     sprintf	    formatted output conversion
     sscanf	    input format conversion
     strerror	    system error messages
     sys_errlist    system error messages
     sys_nerr	    system error messages
     tempnam	    temporary file routines
     tmpfile	    temporary file routines
     tmpnam	    temporary file routines
     ungetc	    un-get character from input stream
     vfprintf	    formatted output conversion
     vfscanf	    input format conversion
     vprintf	    formatted output conversion
     vscanf	    input format conversion
     vsnprintf	    formatted output conversion
     vsprintf	    formatted output conversion
     vsscanf	    input format conversion

4th Berkeley Distribution	April 19, 1994	     4th Berkeley Distribution
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