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TAR(1)			  BSD General Commands Manual			TAR(1)

NAME
     gnutar — tape archiver; manipulate "tar" archive files

SYNOPSIS
     gnutar [[-]bundled-options Args] [gnu-style-flags]
	    [filenames | -C directory-name] ...

DESCRIPTION
     Tar is short for “tape archiver”, so named for historical reasons; the
     gnutar program creates, adds files to, or extracts files from an archive
     file in gnutar format, called a tarfile.  A tarfile is often a magnetic
     tape, but can be a floppy diskette or any regular disk file.

     The first argument word of the gnutar command line is usually a command
     word of bundled function and modifier letters, optionally preceded by a
     dash; it must contain exactly one function letter from the set A, c, d,
     r, t, u, x, for append, create, difference, replace, table of contents,
     update, and extract (further described below).  The command word can also
     contain other function modifiers described below, some of which will take
     arguments from the command line in the order they are specified in the
     command word (review the EXAMPLES section).  Functions and function modi‐
     fiers can also be specified with the GNU argument convention (preceded by
     two dashes, one function or modifier per word.  Command-line arguments
     that specify files to add to, extract from, or list from an archive may
     be given as shell pattern matching strings.

FUNCTIONS
     Exactly one of the following functions must be specified.

     -A
     --catenate
     --concatenate  Append the contents of named file, which must itself be a
		    gnutar archive, to the end of the archive (erasing the old
		    end-of-archive block).  This has the effect of adding the
		    files contained in the named file to the first archive,
		    rather than adding the second archive as an element of the
		    first.  Note: This option requires a rewritable tarfile,
		    and therefore does not work on quarter-inch cartridge
		    tapes.
     -c
     --create	    Create a new archive (or truncates an old one) and writes
		    the named files to it.
     -d
     --diff
     --compare	    Find differences between files in the archive and corre‐
		    sponding files in the file system.
     --delete	    Delete named files from the archive.  (Does not work on
		    quarter-inch tapes).
     -r
     --append	    Append files to the end of an archive.  (Does not work on
		    quarter-inch tapes).
     -t
     --list	    List the contents of an archive; if filename arguments are
		    given, only those files are listed, otherwise the entire
		    table of contents is listed.
     -u
     --update	    Append the named files if the on-disk version has a modi‐
		    fication date more recent than their copy in the archive
		    (if any).  Does not work on quarter-inch tapes.
     -x
     --extract
     --get	    Extract files from an archive.  The owner, modification
		    time, and file permissions are restored, if possible.  If
		    no file arguments are given, extract all the files in the
		    archive.  If a filename argument matches the name of a
		    directory on the tape, that directory and its contents are
		    extracted (as well as all directories under that direc‐
		    tory).  If the archive contains multiple entries corre‐
		    sponding to the same file (see the --append command
		    above), the last one extracted will overwrite all earlier
		    versions.

OPTIONS
     The other options to gnutar may be combined arbitrarily; single-letter
     options may be bundled in with the command word.  Verbose options which
     take arguments will be followed by the argument; single-letter options
     will consume successive command line arguments (see the EXAMPLES below).
     gnutar will properly handle option arguments passed either with or with‐
     out a leading `=` (i.e. either --option=arg or --option arg).

     --help		     Prints a message listing and briefly describing
			     all the command options to gnutar.
     --atime-preserve	     Restore the access times on files which are writ‐
			     ten to tape (note that this will change the
			     inode-change time!).
     -b
     --block-size number
     --blocking-factor number
     --record-size size	     Sets the block size for reading or writing to
			     number * 512-byte blocks.	Or sets block size for
			     reading or writing to size bytes which must be a
			     multiple of 512.
     -B
     --read-full-records     Re-assemble short reads into full records (for
			     reading 4.2BSD pipes).
     --backup control	     Backup files before removal.  Optionally, the
			     user can specify a control argument to control
			     how gnutar performs the backups.  Supported val‐
			     ues are listed bellow in the ENVIRONMENT section.
     --suffix suffix	     Backup files before removal.  Override the normal
			     backup suffix (default: '~'), using suffix
			     instead.
     -C directory
     --directory directory   Change to directory before processing the remain‐
			     ing arguments.
     --checkpoint	     Print number of buffer reads/writes while read‐
			     ing/writing the archive.
     -f [hostname:]file
     --file [hostname:]file  Read or write the specified file (default is
			     /dev/sa0).	 If a hostname is specified, gnutar
			     will use rmt(8) to read or write the specified
			     file on a remote machine.	“-” may be used as a
			     filename, for reading or writing to/from
			     stdin/stdout.
     --force-local	     Archive file is local even if it has a colon.
     -F file
     --info-script file
     --new-volume-script file
			     Run a script at the end of each archive volume
			     (implies -M).
     -G
     --incremental	     Create/list/extract old GNU-format incremental
			     backup.
     -g file
     --listed-incremental file
			     Create/list/extract new GNU-format incremental
			     backup.
     --group name	     Force group as group for added files.
     -h
     --dereference	     Don't write symlinks as symlinks; write the data
			     of the files they name.
     -i
     --ignore-zeros	     Ignore blocks of zeroes in archive (usually means
			     End-Of-File).
     --ignore-failed-read    Don't exit with non-zero status on unreadable
			     files.
     -j
     --bzip2		     Filter the archive through bzip2(1).
     -k
     --keep-old-files	     Keep files which already exist on disk; don't
			     overwrite them from the archive.
     -K file
     --starting-file file    Begin at file in the archive.
     -l
     --one-file-system	     Stay in local file system when creating an ar‐
			     chive (do not cross mount points).
     -L number
     --tape-length number    Change tapes after writing number * 1024 bytes.
     --mode changes	     Force changes to file mode of added files.
     -m
     --modification-time     Don't extract file modified time.
     -M
     --multi-volume	     Create/list/extract multi-volume archive.
     --no-recursion	     Don't recurse into subdirectories when creating.
     --volno-file file	     File name with volume number to start with.
     -N date
     --after-date date
     --newer date	     Only store files with creation time newer than
			     date.
     --newer-mtime date	     Only store files with modification time newer
			     than date.
     --no-same-owner	     Do not preserve ownership when extracting files.
			     Extract them all as owned by the current user.
     --no-same-permissions   Do not extract permission information.  Extract
			     them using the default permissions for the cur‐
			     rent user.
     --numeric-owner	     Use numbers instead of names for owner/group
			     names.
     -o
     --old-archive
     --portability	     Write a V7 format archive, rather than POSIX for‐
			     mat.
     -O
     --to-stdout	     Extract files to standard output.
     --owner name	     Force name as owner for added files.
     --overwrite	     Overwrite existing files when extracting.
     --overwrite-dir	     Overwrite directory metadata when extracting.
     -p
     --same-permissions
     --preserve-permissions  Extract all permission information.
     --preserve		     Has the effect of -p -s.
     -P
     --absolute-names	     Don't strip leading ‘/’ from file names.
     --posix		     Instructs gnutar to create a POSIX compliant
			     `tar' archive.
     -R
     --block-number	     Show record number within archive with each mes‐
			     sage.
     --remove-files	     Remove files after adding them to the archive.
     --rsh-command command   Use command instead of rsh for remote ar‐
			     chives/files.
     -s
     --same-order
     --preserve-order	     List of names to extract is sorted to match ar‐
			     chive.
     --same-owner	     Try to preserve ownership when extracting files.
     --show-omitted-dirs     Show directories which were omitted while pro‐
			     cessing the archive.
     -S
     --sparse		     Handle “sparse” files efficiently.
     -T file
     --files-from file	     Get names of files to extract or create from
			     file, one per line.
     --null		     Modifies behavior of -T to expect null-terminated
			     names; disables -C.
     --totals		     Prints total bytes written with --create.
     -U
     --unlink-first	     Unlink files before creating them.
     --recursive-unlink	     Empty hierarchies prior to extracting directory.
     -v
     --verbose		     Lists files written to archive with --create or
			     extracted with --extract; lists file protection
			     information along with file names with --list.
     -V volume-name
     --label volume-name     Create archive with the given volume-name.	 When
			     used with list or extract, volume-name is used as
			     a globing pattern.
     --version		     Print gnutar program version number.
     -w
     --interactive
     --confirmation	     Ask for confirmation for every action.
     -W
     --verify		     Attempt to verify the archive after writing it.
     --exclude pattern	     Exclude files matching the pattern (don't extract
			     them, don't add them, don't list them).
     -X file
     --exclude-from file     Exclude files listed in file.
     --anchored		     Exclude patterns match file name start (default).
     --no-anchored	     Exclude patterns match after any /.
     --ignore-case	     Exclude patterns ignore case.
     --no-ignore-case	     Exclude patterns are case sensitive (default).
     --wildcards	     Exclude patterns use wildcards (default).
     --no-wildcards	     Exclude patterns are plain strings.
     --wildcards-match-slash
			     Exclude pattern wildcards match '/' (default).
     --no-wildcards-match-slash
			     Exclude pattern wildcards do not match '/'.
     -Z
     --compress
     --uncompress	     Filter the archive through compress(1).
     -z
     --gzip
     --ungzip
     --gunzip		     Filter the archive through gzip(1).
     --use-compress-program program
			     Filter the archive through program (which must
			     accept -d to mean “decompress”).
     -[0-7][lmh]	     Specify tape drive and density.

ENVIRONMENT
     The gnutar program examines the following environment variables.

     POSIXLY_CORRECT  Normally, gnutar will process flag arguments that appear
		      in the file list.	 If set in the environment, this
		      causes gnutar to consider the first non-flag argument to
		      terminate flag processing, as per the POSIX specifica‐
		      tion.

     SHELL	      In interactive mode, a permissible response to the
		      prompt is to request to spawn a subshell, which will be
		      /bin/sh unless the SHELL variable is set.

     SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX
		      Sets the backup suffix used by gnutar.  Default is '~'.

     TAPE	      Changes gnutar's default tape drive (which is still
		      overridden by the -f flag).

     TAR_OPTIONS      The environment variable TAR_OPTIONS can hold a set of
		      default options for gnutar.  These options are inter‐
		      preted first and can be overwritten by explicit command
		      line parameters.

     TAR_RSH	      The TAR_RSH environment variable allows you to override
		      the default shell used as the transport for gnutar.

     VERSION_CONTROL  Sets the backup method used by gnutar.  Possible values:

		      t, numbered
				make numbered backups

		      nil, existing
				numbered if numbered backups exist, simple
				otherwise

		      never, simple
				always make simple backups
		      Default behaviour is 'existing'.

FILES
     /dev/sa0  The default tape drive.

EXAMPLES
     To create an archive on tape drive /dev/sa0 with a block size of 20
     blocks, containing files named bert and ernie, you can enter
	   tar cfb /dev/sa0 20 bert ernie
     or
	   tar --create --file /dev/sa0 --block-size 20 bert ernie
     Note that the -f and -b flags both require arguments, which they take
     from the command line in the order they were listed in the command word.

     Because /dev/sa0 is the default device, and 20 is the default block size,
     the above example could have simply been
	   tar c bert ernie

     To extract all the C sources and headers from an archive named
     backup.tar, type
	   tar xf backup.tar '*.[ch]'
     Note that the pattern must be quoted to prevent the shell from attempting
     to expand it according the files in the current working directory (the
     shell does not have access to the list of files in the archive, of
     course).

     To move file hierarchies, use a command line like this:

     tar -cf - -C srcdir . | tar xpf - -C destdir

     To create a compressed archive on diskette, using gzip(1), use a command-
     line like
	   tar --block-compress -z -c -v -f /dev/fd1a -b 36 tar/

     Note that you cannot mix bundled flags and --style flags; you can use
     single-letter flags in the manner above, rather than having to type
	   tar --block-compress --gzip --verbose --file /dev/fd1a --block-size
	   20 tar/

     The above-created diskette can be listed with
	   tar tvfbz /dev/fd1a 36

     To join two gnutar archives into a single archive, use
	   tar Af archive1.tar archive2.tar
     which will add the files contained in archive2.tar onto the end of
     archive1.tar (note that this can't be done by simply typing
	   cat archive2.tar >> archive1.tar
     because of the end-of-file block at the end of a gnutar archive).

     To archive all files from the directory srcdir, which were modified after
     Feb. 9th 1997, 13:00 h, use
	   tar -c -f backup.tar --newer-mtime 'Feb 9 13:15 1997' srcdir/

     Other possible time specifications are ‘02/09/97 13:15’, ‘1997-02-09
     13:15’, ‘13:15 9 Feb 1997’, ‘9 Feb 1997 13:15’, ‘Feb. 9, 1997 1:15pm’,
     ‘09-Feb’, ‘3 weeks ago’ or ‘May first Sunday’.  To specify the correct
     time zone use either e.g. ‘13:15 CEST’ or ‘13:15+200’.

SEE ALSO
     bzip2(1), compress(1), gzip(1), pax(1), rmt(8), info tar

HISTORY
     The gnutar format has a rich history, dating back to Sixth Edition UNIX.
     The current implementation of gnutar is the GNU implementation, which
     originated as the public-domain gnutar written by John Gilmore.

AUTHORS
     A cast of thousands, including [as listed in the ChangeLog file in the
     source] John Gilmore (author of original public domain version), Jay
     Fenlason (first GNU author), Joy Kendall, Jim Kingdon, David J.
     MacKenzie, Michael I Bushnell, Noah Friedman, and innumerable others who
     have contributed fixes and additions.

     Man page obtained by the FreeBSD group from the NetBSD 1.0 release.

BUGS
     The -C feature does not work like historical gnutar programs, and is
     probably untrustworthy.

     The -A command should work to join an arbitrary number of gnutar archives
     together, but it does not; attempting to do so leaves the end-of-archive
     blocks in place for the second and subsequent archives.

     The gnutar file format is a semi fixed width field format, and the field
     for device numbers were designed for 16 bit (8 major, 8 minor) and can
     not absorb our 32 bit (8 major, 16+8 minor) numbers.

BSD			       December 23, 2000			   BSD
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