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TIME(3P)		   POSIX Programmer's Manual		      TIME(3P)

       This  manual  page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux
       implementation of this interface may differ (consult the	 corresponding
       Linux  manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may
       not be implemented on Linux.

       time - get time

       #include <time.h>

       time_t time(time_t *tloc);

       The time() function shall return the value of time   in	seconds	 since
       the Epoch.

       The  tloc  argument  points  to	an area where the return value is also
       stored. If tloc is a null pointer, no value is stored.

       Upon successful completion, time() shall return the value of time. Oth‐
       erwise, (time_t)-1 shall be returned.

       No errors are defined.

       The following sections are informative.

   Getting the Current Time
       The  following  example	uses the time() function to calculate the time
       elapsed, in seconds, since the Epoch, localtime() to convert that value
       to  a  broken-down  time, and asctime() to convert the broken-down time
       values into a printable string.

	      #include <stdio.h>
	      #include <time.h>

	      int main(void)
	      time_t result;

		  result = time(NULL);
		  printf("%s%ju secs since the Epoch\n",

       This example writes the current time to stdout in a form like this:

	      Wed Jun 26 10:32:15 1996
	      835810335 secs since the Epoch

   Timing an Event
       The following example gets the current  time,  prints  it  out  in  the
       user's  format,	and  prints  the  number  of minutes to an event being

	      #include <time.h>
	      #include <stdio.h>
	      time_t now;
	      int minutes_to_event;
	      minutes_to_event = ...;
	      printf("The time is ");
	      printf("There are %d minutes to the event.\n",


       The time() function returns a value  in	seconds	 (type	time_t)	 while
       times()	returns	 a  set of values in clock ticks (type clock_t).  Some
       historical implementations, such as 4.3 BSD, have mechanisms capable of
       returning  more	precise times (see below). A generalized timing scheme
       to unify these various timing mechanisms	 has  been  proposed  but  not

       Implementations	in  which time_t is a 32-bit signed integer (many his‐
       torical implementations) fail in the year  2038.	  IEEE Std 1003.1-2001
       does  not  address this problem. However, the use of the time_t type is
       mandated in order to ease the eventual fix.

       The use of the <time.h> header instead of <sys/types.h> allows compati‐
       bility with the ISO C standard.

       Many  historical	 implementations  (including  Version  7) and the 1984
       /usr/group standard  use	 long  instead	of  time_t.   This  volume  of
       IEEE Std 1003.1-2001  uses  the	latter type in order to agree with the
       ISO C standard.

       4.3 BSD includes time() only as an alternate function to the more flex‐
       ible gettimeofday() function.

       In  a  future version of this volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, time_t is
       likely to be required to be capable of representing times  far  in  the
       future. Whether this will be mandated as a 64-bit type or a requirement
       that a specific date in the future be representable (for example, 10000
       AD)  is	not  yet  determined.  Systems purchased after the approval of
       this volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 should be  evaluated	 to  determine
       whether their lifetime will extend past 2038.

       asctime(),  clock(),  ctime(),  difftime(),  gettimeofday(),  gmtime(),
       localtime(), mktime(), strftime(), strptime(), utime(), the Base	 Defi‐
       nitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, <time.h>

       Portions	 of  this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form
       from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology
       --  Portable  Operating	System	Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base
       Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003	by  the	 Institute  of
       Electrical  and	Electronics  Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the
       event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and
       The  Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard
       is the referee document. The original Standard can be  obtained	online
       at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .

IEEE/The Open Group		     2003			      TIME(3P)

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