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TROFF(1)							      TROFF(1)

       troff - the troff processor of the groff text formatting system

       troff [-abcivzCERU] [-d cs] [-f fam] [-F dir] [-I dir] [-m name]
	     [-M dir] [-n num] [-o list] [-r cn] [-T name] [-w name] [-W name]
	     [file ...]

       This manual page describes the GNU version of troff.  It is part of the
       groff document formatting system.  It is functionally  compatible  with
       UNIX  troff,  but  has  many extensions, see groff_diff(7).  Usually it
       should be invoked using the groff(1) command which will also  run  pre‐
       processors  and	postprocessors	in  the appropriate order and with the
       appropriate options.

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its

       -a	 Generate an ASCII approximation of the typeset output.

       -b	 Print	a  backtrace with each warning or error message.  This
		 backtrace should help track down the cause of the error.  The
		 line  numbers	given  in the backtrace may not always be cor‐
		 rect, for troff's idea of line numbers gets confused by as or
		 am requests.

       -c	 Disable color output (always disabled in compatibility mode).

       -C	 Enable compatibility mode.

       -dname=s	 Define	 c  or	name  to be a string s; c must be a one letter

       -E	 Inhibit all error messages of troff.  Note that this  doesn't
		 affect	 messages  output  to standard error by macro packages
		 using the tm or tm1 requests.

       -ffam	 Use fam as the default font family.

       -Fdir	 Search in directory (or directory path) dir  for  subdirecto‐
		 ries  devname	(name is the name of the device) and there for
		 the DESC file and font files.	 dir  is  scanned  before  all
		 other font directories.

       -i	 Read  the standard input after all the named input files have
		 been processed.

       -Idir	 This option may be used to add a directory to the search path
		 for  files (both those on the command line and those named in
		 .psbb requests).  The search path  is	initialized  with  the
		 current  directory.   This  option may be specified more than
		 once; the directories are then searched in the	 order	speci‐
		 fied (but before the current directory).  If you want to make
		 the current directory be read before other  directories,  add
		 -I. at the appropriate place.

		 No  directory	search is performed for files with an absolute
		 file name.

       -mname	 Read in the file name.tmac.  If it isn't found, try
		 instead.   It will be first searched for in directories given
		 with the -M command line option, then in directories given in
		 the GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable, then in the current
		 directory (only if  in	 unsafe	 mode),	 the  home  directory,
		 /usr/lib/groff/site-tmac,   /usr/share/groff/site-tmac,   and

       -Mdir	 Search directory (or directory path)  dir  for	 macro	files.
		 This is scanned before all other macro directories.

       -nnum	 Number the first page num.

       -olist	 Output only pages in list, which is a comma-separated list of
		 page ranges; n means print page n, m-n means print every page
		 between  m and n, -n means print every page up to n, n- means
		 print every page from n.  troff will exit after printing  the
		 last page in the list.

       -rname=n	 Set number register c or name to n; c must be a one character
		 name; n can be any troff numeric expression.

       -R	 Don't load troffrc and troffrc-end.

       -Tname	 Prepare output for device name, rather than the  default  ps;
		 see groff(1) for a more detailed description.

       -U	 Unsafe	 mode.	This will enable the following requests: open,
		 opena, pso, sy, and pi.  For security reasons,	 these	poten‐
		 tially	 dangerous  requests  are disabled otherwise.  It will
		 also add the current directory to the macro search path.

       -v	 Print the version number.

       -wname	 Enable warning name.  Available warnings are described in the
		 section WARNINGS below.  For example, to enable all warnings,
		 use -w all.  Multiple -w options are allowed.

       -Wname	 Inhibit warning name.	Multiple -W options are allowed.

       -z	 Suppress formatted output.

       The warnings that can be given by troff are divided into the  following
       categories.   The  name	associated with each warning is used by the -w
       and -W options; the number is used by the  warn	request,  and  by  the
       .warn register; it is always a power of 2 to allow bitwise composition.

		│Bit   Code   Warning │ Bit    Code	  Warning   │
		│  0	  1   char    │	 10	 1024	reg	    │
		│  1	  2   number  │	 11	 2048	tab	    │
		│  2	  4   break   │	 12	 4096	right-brace │
		│  3	  8   delim   │	 13	 8192	missing	    │
		│  4	 16   el      │	 14	16384	input	    │
		│  5	 32   scale   │	 15	32768	escape	    │
		│  6	 64   range   │	 16	65536	space	    │
		│  7	128   syntax  │	 17    131072	font	    │
		│  8	256   di      │	 18    262144	ig	    │
		│  9	512   mac     │	 19    524288	color	    │
		│		      │	 20   1048576	file	    │
       break	       4   In  fill  mode,  lines which could not be broken so
			   that their length was less than  the	 line  length.
			   This is enabled by default.

       char	       1   Non-existent	  characters.	 This  is  enabled  by

       color	  524288   Color related warnings.

       delim	       8   Missing or mismatched closing delimiters.

       di	     256   Use of di or da without an argument when  there  is
			   no current diversion.

       el	      16   Use of the el request with no matching ie request.

       escape	   32768   Unrecognized	 escape	 sequences.   When an unrecog‐
			   nized escape sequence is  encountered,  the	escape
			   character is ignored.

       file	 1048576   Indicates  a	 missing  file	for  the  mso request.
			   Enabled by default.

       font	  131072   Non-existent fonts.	This is enabled by default.

       ig	  262144   Invalid  escapes  in	 text  ignored	with  the   ig
			   request.  These are conditions that are errors when
			   they do not occur in ignored text.

       input	   16384   Invalid input characters.

       mac	     512   Use of undefined strings,  macros  and  diversions.
			   When	 an  undefined	string,	 macro or diversion is
			   used,  that	string	is  automatically  defined  as
			   empty.  So, in most cases, at most one warning will
			   be given for each name.

       missing	    8192   Requests that are missing non-optional arguments.

       number	       2   Invalid numeric expressions.	 This  is  enabled  by

       range	      64   Out of range arguments.

       reg	    1024   Use	of  undefined number registers.	 When an unde‐
			   fined number register is  used,  that  register  is
			   automatically defined to have a value of 0.	So, in
			   most cases, at most one warning will be  given  for
			   use of a particular name.

       right-brace  4096   Use of \} where a number was expected.

       scale	      32   Meaningless scaling indicators.

       space	   65536   Missing  space  between  a request or macro and its
			   argument.  This warning will be given when an unde‐
			   fined  name	longer	than two characters is encoun‐
			   tered, and the first two  characters	 of  the  name
			   make a defined name.	 The request or macro will not
			   be invoked.	When this warning is given,  no	 macro
			   is  automatically  defined.	 This  is  enabled  by
			   default.  This warning will never occur in compati‐
			   bility mode.

       syntax	     128   Dubious syntax in numeric expressions.

       tab	    2048   Inappropriate  use  of a tab character.  Either use
			   of a tab character where a number was expected,  or
			   use of tab character in an unquoted macro argument.

       There are also names that can be used to refer to groups of warnings:

       all    All  warnings except di, mac, and reg.  It is intended that this
	      covers all warnings that are useful with traditional macro pack‐

       w      All warnings.

	      A	 colon	separated  list	 of directories in which to search for
	      macro files.  troff will scan directories given in the -M option
	      before  these, and in standard directories (current directory if
	      in  unsafe  mode,	 home	directory,   /usr/lib/groff/site-tmac,
	      /usr/share/groff/site-tmac,  /usr/share/groff/1.22.2/tmac) after

	      Default device.

	      A colon separated list of directories in which to search for the
	      devname  directory.  troff will scan directories given in the -F
	      option   before	these,	  and	 in    standard	   directories
	      (/usr/share/groff/site-font,	 /usr/share/groff/1.22.2/font,
	      /usr/lib/font) after these.

	      Initialization file (called before any other macro package).

	      Initialization file (called after any other macro package).

	      Macro files

	      Device description file for device name.

	      Font file for font F of device name.

       Note that troffrc and troffrc-end are neither searched in  the  current
       nor  in the home directory by default for security reasons (even if the
       -U  option  is  given).	 Use  the  -M  command	line  option  or   the
       GROFF_TMAC_PATH	environment  variable  to add these directories to the
       search path if necessary.

       Copyright (C) 1989, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2008,  2009	Free  Software
       Foundation, Inc.

       This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Docu‐
       mentation License) version 1.3 or later.	 You should  have  received  a
       copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the GNU
       copyleft site  ⟨⟩.	This  document
       was  written  by	 James	Clark,	with modifications from Werner Lemberg
       ⟨⟩ and Bernd Warken ⟨⟩.

       This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution.

	      The main program of the groff system, a wrapper around troff.

	      A description of the groff language, including a short but  com‐
	      plete  reference	of  all	 predefined  requests,	registers, and
	      escapes of plain groff.  From the command line, this  is	called

		     man 7 groff

	      The  differences	of  the groff language and the classical troff
	      language.	 Currently, this is the most actual  document  of  the
	      groff system.

	      An  overview over groff and other roff systems, including point‐
	      ers to further related documentation.

       The groff info file, cf.	 info(1),  presents  all  groff	 documentation
       within a single document.

Groff Version 1.22.2		7 February 2013			      TROFF(1)

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