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TROFF(1)							      TROFF(1)

NAME
       troff - the troff processor of the groff text formatting system

SYNOPSIS
       troff [ -abcivzCERU ] [ -dcs ] [ -ffam ] [ -Fdir ] [ -Idir ] [ -mname ]
	     [ -Mdir ] [ -nnum ] [ -olist ] [ -rcn ] [ -Tname ] [ -wname ]
	     [ -Wname ] [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its
       parameter.

DESCRIPTION
       This manual page describes the GNU version of troff.  It is part of the
       groff  document	formatting system.  It is functionally compatible with
       UNIX troff, but has many extensions,  see  groff_diff(7).   Usually  it
       should  be  invoked using the groff(1) command which will also run pre‐
       processors and postprocessors in the appropriate	 order	and  with  the
       appropriate options.

OPTIONS
       -a	 Generate an ASCII approximation of the typeset output.

       -b	 Print	a  backtrace with each warning or error message.  This
		 backtrace should help track down the cause of the error.  The
		 line  numbers	given  in the backtrace may not always be cor‐
		 rect, for troff's idea of line numbers gets confused by as or
		 am requests.

       -c	 Disable color output (always disabled in compatibility mode).

       -C	 Enable compatibility mode.

       -dcs
       -dname=s	 Define	 c  or	name  to be a string s; c must be a one letter
		 name.

       -E	 Inhibit all error messages of troff.  Note that this  doesn't
		 affect	 messages  output  to standard error by macro packages
		 using the tm or tm1 requests.

       -ffam	 Use fam as the default font family.

       -Fdir	 Search in directory (or directory path) dir  for  subdirecto‐
		 ries  devname	(name is the name of the device) and there for
		 the DESC file and font files.	 dir  is  scanned  before  all
		 other font directories.

       -i	 Read  the standard input after all the named input files have
		 been processed.

       -Idir	 This option may be used to specify a directory to search  for
		 files	(both  those  on  the  command line and those named in
		 .psbb requests).  The current directory  is  always  searched
		 first.	  This	option	may  be	 specified more than once; the
		 directories will be searched  in  the	order  specified.   No
		 directory  search  is	performed for files specified using an
		 absolute path.

       -mname	 Read in the file name.tmac.  If it isn't found, try tmac.name
		 instead.   It will be first searched for in directories given
		 with the -M command line option, then in directories given in
		 the GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable, then in the current
		 directory (only if  in	 unsafe	 mode),	 the  home  directory,
		 /usr/share/tmac, /usr/share/tmac, and /usr/share/tmac.

       -Mdir	 Search	 directory  (or	 directory  path) dir for macro files.
		 This is scanned before all other macro directories.

       -nnum	 Number the first page num.

       -olist	 Output only pages in list, which is a comma-separated list of
		 page ranges; n means print page n, m-n means print every page
		 between m and n, -n means print every page up to n, n-	 means
		 print	every page from n.  troff will exit after printing the
		 last page in the list.

       -rcn
       -rname=n	 Set number register c or name to n; c must be a one character
		 name; n can be any troff numeric expression.

       -R	 Don't load troffrc and troffrc-end.

       -Tname	 Prepare  output  for device name, rather than the default ps;
		 see groff(1) for a more detailed description.

       -U	 Unsafe mode.  This will enable the following requests:	 open,
		 opena,	 pso,  sy, and pi.  For security reasons, these poten‐
		 tially dangerous requests are disabled	 otherwise.   It  will
		 also add the current directory to the macro search path.

       -v	 Print the version number.

       -wname	 Enable warning name.  Available warnings are described in the
		 section WARNINGS below.  For example, to enable all warnings,
		 use -w all.  Multiple -w options are allowed.

       -Wname	 Inhibit warning name.	Multiple -W options are allowed.

       -z	 Suppress formatted output.

WARNINGS
       The  warnings that can be given by troff are divided into the following
       categories.  The name associated with each warning is used  by  the  -w
       and  -W	options;  the  number  is used by the warn request, and by the
       .warn register; it is always a power of 2 to allow bitwise composition.

		 ┌─────────────────────┬────────────────────────────┐
		 │Bit	Code   Warning │ Bit	Code	  Warning   │
		 ├─────────────────────┼────────────────────────────┤
		 │  0	   1   char    │  10	 1024	reg	    │
		 │  1	   2   number  │  11	 2048	tab	    │
		 │  2	   4   break   │  12	 4096	right-brace │
		 │  3	   8   delim   │  13	 8192	missing	    │
		 │  4	  16   el      │  14	16384	input	    │
		 │  5	  32   scale   │  15	32768	escape	    │
		 │  6	  64   range   │  16	65536	space	    │
		 │  7	 128   syntax  │  17   131072	font	    │
		 │  8	 256   di      │  18   262144	ig	    │
		 │  9	 512   mac     │  19   524288	color	    │
		 └─────────────────────┴────────────────────────────┘
       break	       4   In fill mode, lines which could not	be  broken  so
			   that	 their	length	was less than the line length.
			   This is enabled by default.

       char	       1   Non-existent	 characters.   This  is	  enabled   by
			   default.

       color	  524288   Color related warnings.

       delim	       8   Missing or mismatched closing delimiters.

       di	     256   Use	of  di or da without an argument when there is
			   no current diversion.

       el	      16   Use of the el request with no matching ie request.

       escape	   32768   Unrecognized escape sequences.   When  an  unrecog‐
			   nized  escape  sequence  is encountered, the escape
			   character is ignored.

       font	  131072   Non-existent fonts.	This is enabled by default.

       ig	  262144   Invalid  escapes  in	 text  ignored	with  the   ig
			   request.  These are conditions that are errors when
			   they do not occur in ignored text.

       input	   16384   Invalid input characters.

       mac	     512   Use of undefined strings,  macros  and  diversions.
			   When	 an  undefined	string,	 macro or diversion is
			   used,  that	string	is  automatically  defined  as
			   empty.  So, in most cases, at most one warning will
			   be given for each name.

       missing	    8192   Requests that are missing non-optional arguments.

       number	       2   Invalid numeric expressions.	 This  is  enabled  by
			   default.

       range	      64   Out of range arguments.

       reg	    1024   Use	of  undefined number registers.	 When an unde‐
			   fined number register is  used,  that  register  is
			   automatically defined to have a value of 0.	So, in
			   most cases, at most one warning will be  given  for
			   use of a particular name.

       right-brace  4096   Use of \} where a number was expected.

       scale	      32   Meaningless scaling indicators.

       space	   65536   Missing  space  between  a request or macro and its
			   argument.  This warning will be given when an unde‐
			   fined  name	longer	than two characters is encoun‐
			   tered, and the first two  characters	 of  the  name
			   make a defined name.	 The request or macro will not
			   be invoked.	When this warning is given,  no	 macro
			   is  automatically  defined.	 This  is  enabled  by
			   default.  This warning will never occur in compati‐
			   bility mode.

       syntax	     128   Dubious syntax in numeric expressions.

       tab	    2048   Inappropriate  use  of a tab character.  Either use
			   of a tab character where a number was expected,  or
			   use of tab character in an unquoted macro argument.

       There are also names that can be used to refer to groups of warnings:

       all    All  warnings except di, mac, and reg.  It is intended that this
	      covers all warnings that are useful with traditional macro pack‐
	      ages.

       w      All warnings.

ENVIRONMENT
       GROFF_TMAC_PATH
	      A	 colon	separated  list	 of directories in which to search for
	      macro files.  troff will scan directories given in the -M option
	      before  these, and in standard directories (current directory if
	      in    unsafe    mode,    home    directory,     /usr/share/tmac,
	      /usr/share/tmac, /usr/share/tmac) after these.

       GROFF_TYPESETTER
	      Default device.

       GROFF_FONT_PATH
	      A colon separated list of directories in which to search for the
	      devname directory.  troff will scan directories given in the  -F
	      option	before	  these,    and	   in	standard   directories
	      (/usr/share/groff_font,			/usr/share/groff_font,
	      /usr/share/groff_font) after these.

FILES
       /usr/share/tmac/troffrc
	      Initialization file (called before any other macro package).

       /usr/share/tmac/troffrc-end
	      Initialization file (called after any other macro package).

       /usr/share/tmac/name.tmac
       /usr/share/tmac/tmac.name
	      Macro files

       /usr/share/groff_font/devname/DESC
	      Device description file for device name.

       /usr/share/groff_font/devname/F
	      Font file for font F of device name.

       Note  that  troffrc and troffrc-end are neither searched in the current
       nor in the home directory by default for security reasons (even if  the
       -U   option  is	given).	  Use  the  -M	command	 line  option  or  the
       GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable to add these  directories  to  the
       search path if necessary.

AUTHOR
       Copyright (C) 1989, 2001, 2002, 2003 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Docu‐
       mentation License) version 1.1 or later.	 You should  have  received  a
       copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the GNU
       copyleft site  ⟨http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html⟩.	This  document
       was  written  by	 James	Clark,	with modifications from Werner Lemberg
       ⟨wl@gnu.org⟩ and Bernd Warken ⟨bwarken@mayn.de⟩

       This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution.

SEE ALSO
       groff(1)
	      The main program of the groff system, a wrapper around troff.

       groff(7)
	      A description of the groff language, including a short but  com‐
	      plete  reference	of  all	 predefined  requests,	registers, and
	      escapes of plain groff.  From the command line, this  is	called
	      by

		     man 7 groff

       groff_diff(7)
	      The  differences	of  the groff language and the classical troff
	      language.	 Currently, this is the most actual  document  of  the
	      groff system.

       roff(7)
	      An  overview over groff and other roff systems, including point‐
	      ers to further related documentation.

       The groff info file, cf.	 info(1),  presents  all  groff	 documentation
       within a single document.

Groff Version 1.19.2		20 October 2005			      TROFF(1)
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