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DtStdAppFontNames(file formats)		       DtStdAppFontNames(file formats)

       DtStdAppFontNames — CDE Standard Application Font Names

       The CDE Standard Application Font Names are a set of generic X Window
       System font names, usable by applications as their default
       fonts, for the most common categories of type designs and styles.
       These names, for at least six sizes of 13 typefaces,
       must be provided on all CDE
       systems, and they should be provided in any
       X server product on which CDE applications are expected to run.
       They are typically mapped to existing fonts on the system
       using the font alias mechanism, although this method is not required.

       CDE  1.0	 does not come with a common set of fonts on all vendors' sys‐
       tems, and both CDE itself and CDE applications must be able to  run  on
       X servers  and  X  terminals  from  non-CDE vendors if those vendors so
       desire.	Therefore, there are a standard set of ``generic'' font	 names
       and sizes that each CDE vendor makes available on their CDE systems and
       that X server vendors may make available on their X servers and	termi‐
       nals.   The  names map to existing fonts on each vendor's system, which
       may vary from vendor to vendor.

       The CDE Standard Application Font Names described here  allow  applica‐
       tions  to use a single set of default font specifications in their app-
       defaults files, without concern for the system or X server on which CDE
       is  running.  These app-defaults application defaults are given as XLFD
       font name patterns that will match the standard CDE font names  on  all
       CDE  systems.   This allows application developers both to reduce their
       concern with selecting their default fonts from a varying set of	 fonts
       on different CDE systems and to make use of the system default fonts.

       Application  fonts  are	the  fonts used within an application, where a
       wide variety of text designs, styles, weights and point sizes are  use‐
       ful.  These variations are used for emphasis, cross-references, section
       headers, and so forth.  There are thousands of fonts available  in  the
       market  for  use	 in  applications, and different CDE systems will have
       different fonts.	 The standard names attempt  to	 provide  the  minimum
       variety	in generic designs, styles and sizes that an application might
       want to use as defaults.	  (The	CDE  Standard  Interface  Font	Names,
       described  in  DtStdInterfaceFontNames(5),  provide a similar mechanism
       for the elements of the CDE desktop itself.)

       Common application font names prevent applications from needing differ‐
       ent  app-defaults  files	 on each CDE system.  The Standard Application
       Font Names allow applications to use a single app-defaults file	across
       all  CDE	 systems.   In addition, any X server or X terminal vendor may
       ensure that CDE applications can run on their X server by mapping these
       standard application names to fonts of the corresponding style on their
       individual X systems.

       Two of the most common design variations in fonts used to display  text
       are  the	 presence  or absence of serifs and the choice between propor‐
       tional or regularly spaced (mono-spaced) characters.   Combining	 these
       two  design  variations	yields four ``generic'' font designs, or fami‐

	  ·  serif proportionally-spaced

	  ·  sans serif proportionally-spaced

	  ·  serif mono-spaced

	  ·  sans serif mono-spaced

       Common examples of these four designs are:

	  ·  Times Roman

	  ·  Helvetica

	  ·  Courier

	  ·  Lucida Sans Typewriter

       Each of these designs typically come, for text fonts,  in  four	styles
       (combinations of weight and slant):

	  ·  plain

	  ·  bold

	  ·  italic

	  ·  bold-italic

       The  four styles of each of the four design variations yield 16 generic
       font variations.	 These 16 generic fonts are among  the	most  commonly
       used in general desktop computing.  For example, taking the first three
       real examples above (Times Roman, Helvetica, Courier), these 12	fonts,
       along  with the Symbol font, constitute the so-called ``Adobe 13'' that
       is a de facto minimum set of fonts in the PostScript community  in  the
       desktop computer marketplace.

       In  some cases, applications do not care about the exact font family or
       name to be used, but do need to use a mono-spaced font,	a  sans	 serif
       font  or	 a serif font.	This CDE mechanism allows such applications to
       be freed from the need to be concerned about the exact font names  that
       may or may not be present on a particular CDE system.

   The Standard Names for the Latin-1 Character Set
       The  13 standard application font names are provided on all CDE systems
       only for the ISO 8859 (Latin-1)	character  set.	  These	 represent  12
       generic	design	and style variations (serif and sans serif proportion‐
       ally-spaced, and a mono-spaced  font  that  is  either  serif  or  sans
       serif), as well as a symbol font.  These standard names are provided in
       addition to the ``real'' names of the fonts that the standard names are
       mapped  to  for	a  particular CDE system.  An additional four standard
       font names, to allow both serif and sans serif designs in a mono-spaced
       font, may also be provided by a CDE system.

   XLFD Field Values for the Standard Application Font Names
       The  standard  names  are available using the X Window System XLFD font
       naming scheme.  There are three aspects to the standard names:

	  ·  The underlying font on each  system,  or  X server	 platform,  to
	     which  a  standard name is mapped, typically will be different on
	     each system.

	  ·  The standard name itself, a full XLFD name mapped to the underly‐
	     ing  font,	 may  be  different on each system in some of the XLFD
	     fields.  However, most of the fields are the same from system  to
	     system, allowing the patterns (described next) to be the same.

	  ·  The  font	resource  pattern  containing the * wildcards, used in
	     app-defaults files, which will match the full XLFD	 name  of  the
	     standard name, is the same across all systems, for a given use in
	     an app-defaults file.

       Each CDE or X server vendor implementing this specification  must  pro‐
       vide full XLFD names for the standard names, mapped to system-dependent
       underlying fonts, so that the XLFD patterns  used  in  CDE  application
       app-defaults  files  will  always match one of the full XLFD names pro‐

       The Standard Application Font Names are identified by the  presence  of
       the following XLFD field name values:

	  ·  FOUNDRY is dt

	  ·  FAMILY_NAME is application

	  ·  WEIGHT_NAME is medium or bold

	  ·  SLANT is r or i

	  ·  SETWIDTH is normal

	  ·  ADD_STYLE is sans for sans serif, serif for serif

	  ·  SPACING is p or m

	  ·  CHARSET_REGISTRY is iso8859


       Although	 sans  and serif are not required by the XLFD font convention,
       they are always part of the standard CDE font names.

   Point Sizes
       The complete set of point sizes available  for  each  of	 the  standard
       application  font names is determined by the set of fonts included in a
       system, whether bitmapped only or both bitmapped and scalable  outline.
       The minimum set of sizes required and available on all CDE systems cor‐
       responds to the standard sizes of bitmapped  fonts  that	 make  up  the
       default mapping for X11R5: 8, 10, 12, 14, 18 and 24.

       For  example, the entire set of six sizes of the plain monospaced font,
       on any CDE system, is represented by:


       These patterns will match the corresponding standard font name  on  any
       CDE system, even though the PIXEL_SIZE and AVERAGE_WIDTH numeric fields
       may be different on various systems,  and  the  matched	fonts  may  be
       either  serif or sans serif, depending on the implementation of the set
       of standard names.  The RESOLUTION fields in  the  XLFD	names  of  the
       underlying  fonts, when those fonts are bitmapped fonts, must match the
       resolution of the monitor on which the  fonts  are  displayed  for  the
       point  sizes  to	 be accurate.  To provide expected point size behavior
       for applications, systems should ensure that the RESOLUTION_X and RESO‐
       LUTION_Y	 fields of the underlying fonts vary no more than 20% from the
       real monitor resolution of the displays on  which  the  fonts  will  be

       Applications requesting point sizes different from the six in the mini‐
       mum set may obtain either ``scaled bitmapped'' fonts of	the  requested
       design,	or  scaled  outline  versions  of  the requested design.  This
       behavior requires that the X server in question support the scaling  of
       fonts  and  that the standard names are mapped to underlying fonts that
       can be scaled using this support.

   Example XLFD Patterns for the Standard Names
       Using the specified field values for these standard names,  subsets  of
       the  standard names can be represented with various XLFD patterns.  The
       XLFD pattern


       logically matches the full set of CDE Standard Application Font	Names.
       (Note that no specific X server behavior is implied).  The pattern


       matches	the bold, proportionally-spaced CDE fonts, both serif and sans
       serif.  And the pattern


       matches the monospaced fonts (including both serif and sans serif).

       The full set of CDE Standard Application Font Names can be  represented
       with the following patterns:


       Each of these 13 standard names comes in at least six point sizes.

   Implementation of Font Names
       Each  CDE  system vendor and X server vendor provides mappings of their
       own fonts to XLFD names meeting this standard, so that CDE applications
       will work on their system.  The actual XLFD names will vary from system
       to system, just as the fonts they are mapped  to,  since	 they  contain
       some  of the same values as the XLFD name of the underlying font.  What
       does not vary is the behavior: the common patterns in which only speci‐
       fied  fields are used will match each system's standard names.  This is
       guaranteed by the field specifications given earlier.

       The following requirements are placed on each CDE or X server  vendor's
       implementation of the Standard Application Font Names:

	  ·  The names must be fully specified XLFD names, without wild cards.

	     and CHARSET_ENCODING fields must contain valid values as  defined
	     previously and must match those in the underlying font.

	  ·  The  ADD_STYLE_NAME  field	 must contain either the serif or sans
	     designation, whichever matches the underlying font.

   Default CDE Mappings for Latin-1 Locales
       The default mapping of these standard application font  names  for  the
       ISO  8859  locales  is  to the following standard X11R5 bitmapped fonts
       (the six minimum sizes are not shown explicitly in these patterns):


       A system may provide a different mapping of  these  standard  names  as
       long  as	 all 13 names map to fonts of the appropriate design and style
       and the required six point sizes are available.	The system  documenta‐
       tion must document the system-specific default mapping for the standard

   Font Names in app-defaults Files
       An application can use a	 single	 app-defaults  file  to	 specify  font
       resources  and use it across all CDE systems.  Since most of the fields
       CHARSET_ENCODING) of the standard names are the same  across  different
       systems,	 these values can be used in the resource specification in the
       app-defaults file.  However, other fields (  PIXEL_SIZE,	 RESOLUTION_X,
       RESOLUTION_Y and AVERAGE_WIDTH) may vary across systems, and so must be
       wild-carded in the resource specification.  For example:

       appOne*headFont: -dt-application-bold-r-normal-sans-*-140-*-*-p-*-iso8859-1
       appOne*linkFont: -dt-application-bold-i-normal-sans-*-100-*-*-p-*-iso8859-1

       might be used to specify some of AppOne's default font resource needs.

   Other Character Sets in the Common Locales
       The standard application font names  defined  above  can	 be  used  for
       locales other than the ISO 8859 character set with the following excep‐
       tions and differences. For the following locales, CDE  guarantees  that
       systems	provide	 fonts	with  the following XLFD attribute values, and
       that they be accessible using these names.  For full information on how
       vendors ship the fonts, and make such names usable with the appropriate
       font base name lists required for correct CDE support for  internation‐
       alization,  see the guidelines in the CDE Internationalization Program‐
       ming Guide document.

	  ·  Locales using ISO 8859-2, -3, -4, -5 (Cyrillic), -6 (Arabic),  -7
	     (Greek), -8 (Hebrew):

		 SET_WIDTH, ADD_STYLE and SPACING as are used in this  defini‐
		 tion for the ISO 8859 locale.

	  ·  Japanese locales:

		 Two  values for the FAMILY_NAME attribute (Gothic and Mincho)
		 and two values for  the  WEIGHT_NAME  attribute  (medium  and
		 bold) as well as SLANT (r), ADD_STYLE (*) and SPACING (m).

	  ·  Chinese (Taiwan) locales:

		 Two  values  for the FAMILY_NAME attribute (Sung and Kai) and
		 two values for the WEIGHT_NAME attribute (medium and bold) as
		 well as SLANT (r), ADD_STYLE (*) and SPACING (m).

	  ·  Chinese (PRC) locales:

		 Two  values  for the FAMILY_NAME attribute (Song and Kai) and
		 two values for the WEIGHT_NAME attribute (medium and bold) as
		 well as SLANT (r), ADD_STYLE (*) and SPACING (m).

	  ·  Korean locales:

		 Two  values for the FAMILY_NAME attribute (Totum and Pathang)
		 and two values for  the  WEIGHT_NAME  attribute  (medium  and
		 bold)	as  well  as SLANT (r), ADD_STYLE (*) and SPACING (m).
		 Note that these names are unofficial, tentative romanizations
		 of the two common font families in use in Korea; Totum corre‐
		 sponds to fonts typically shipped as Gothic, Kodig  or	 Dotum
		 and Pathang corresponds to fonts typically shipped as Myungjo
		 or Myeongjo. The official roman names	for  these  fonts  are
		 under	review	and may be changed in the future by the Korean
		 government, and thus may change for CDE.

       In addition, to facilitate app-defaults files that work under a variety
       of  locales,  CDE  systems  must	 provide an additional set of Standard
       Application Font Names where the	 FAMILY_NAME  is  application.	 These
       font  names  are identified by the presence of the following XLFD field

	  ·  FOUNDRY is dt

	  ·  FAMILY_NAME is application

	  ·  WEIGHT_NAME is medium or bold

	  ·  SLANT is as appropriate (see above)

	  ·  SET_WIDTH is normal

	  ·  ADD_STYLE is *

	  ·  SPACING is as appropriate (see above)

	  ·  CHARSET_REGISTRY is as appropriate

	  ·  CHARSET_ENCODING is as appropriate

       This set of names is mapped to an underlying font representing  one  of
       the FAMILY_NAMES as listed above.

       For example, the XLFD names


       may both be mapped to


       This  scheme  allows  application  writers  to create a XmFontList in a
       resource file as follows, without regard for a particular locale:


       and be assured that the font will be reasonable. Notice that specifying
       fonts  this  way	 not  only  disregards the selection of the Asian FAM‐
       ILY_NAME, but also the Latin serif or sans ADD_STYLE  field.  The  font
       selected will be the default.

       dtstyle(1), dtterm(1), DtStdInterfaceFontNames(5)

       There  is  no  requirement  on a CDE system to implement these standard
       names in a particular way.  Several mechanisms are possible:  duplicate
       font  files with altered naming attributes, X11R5 font aliases, or ven‐
       dor-specific mechanisms.	 The only requirement is that an XLFD pattern,
       written	with  attributes  taken	 from the set that define the standard
       names, can be successfully used to open a font with the	Xlib  function
       XLoadFont;  and,	 specifically,	the  Xlib function XListFonts need NOT
       return the same XLFD names for the pattern on different CDE systems.

       CDE applications should, of course, be written to behave in  a  reason‐
       able manner if these standard font names are not available on a partic‐
       ular X server.  This is typically done in an X application by  default‐
       ing to the fixed and variable fonts.

					       DtStdAppFontNames(file formats)

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