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DtStdInterfaceFontNames(file formats)	 DtStdInterfaceFontNames(file formats)

       DtStdInterfaceFontNames — CDE Standard Interface Font Names

       The  CDE	 Standard  Interface  Font Names are a set of generic X Window
       System font names, needed by the CDE GUI itself, that are used for user
       interface  elements  such  as  button  labels,  window  titles and text
       fields.	These names, for seven sizes of two typefaces, must  exist  on
       all CDE systems, and they should be provided in any X server product on
       which CDE applications are expected to run.  Seven  sizes  of  a	 third
       typeface	 are recommended.  They are typically mapped to existing fonts
       on the system using the font alias mechanism, although this  method  is
       not required.

       CDE 1.0 does not come with a common set of fonts on all systems, and it
       must be able to run on X servers and X terminals from  non-CDE  vendors
       if  those  vendors  so  desire.	Therefore, there are a standard set of
       ``generic'' font names and sizes that each CDE vendor  makes  available
       on  their  CDE  systems and that X server vendors may make available on
       their X servers and terminals. The names map to existing fonts on  each
       vendor's system and may vary from vendor to vendor.

       The CDE Standard Interface Font Names described here allow clients mak‐
       ing up the CDE desktop, such as dtterm(1) and a single set  of  default
       fonts  in  their	 app-defaults files, without concern for the system or
       X server on which CDE is running. (The CDE  Standard  Application  Font
       Names,  described  in DtStdAppFontNames(5), provide a similar mechanism
       for applications running on the CDE desktop.)

       Interface fonts are designed by user interface experts for  the	narrow
       purpose	of  making  the	 menus,	 labels and fields of a graphical user
       interface highly readable. They are usually finely hand-tuned bitmapped
       fonts,  intended	 for  use on visual displays only and not on printers,
       and many of the glyphs have been specially modified for	this  purpose.
       Interface fonts can be contrasted with application fonts, which are the
       fonts used within an application running on the CDE desktop.  Interface
       fonts come in a restricted set of styles and are used for short strings
       of text, whereas	 application  fonts  usually  come  in	a  variety  of
       designs,	 styles	 and  weights  and are used for emphasis, cross-refer‐
       ences, section headers, and so forth.

       Common font names are required to prevent CDE clients such as dtterm(1)
       from  needing different app-defaults files on each system. In addition,
       any X server or X terminal vendor may ensure that the CDE  desktop  can
       run  on	their X server by mapping these standard names to fonts of the
       corresponding style on their individual X systems.

       Interface fonts are needed because  of  user  interface	and  cognitive
       research that has examined the readability of various fonts on the dis‐
       play screens in use today and found that	 many  fine  adjustments  (for
       example, for centering, baseline, height and alignment) must be made to
       characters in a font to make them clear, distinguishable and consistent
       when  used  for the interface objects of a GUI. And by using hand-tuned
       interface fonts for the GUI objects, the desktop	 can  achieve  a  very
       clean, crisp visual appearance.

       Interface  fonts	 are broken into 2 categories: system and user. Cogni‐
       tive research has shown that this  distinction  is  important  for  the
       usability and readability of GUIs. System fonts are those used when the
       system is presenting information to the user (for example, in buttons).
       User  fonts  are those used for text that a user enters into the system
       (for example, for a text field or terminal emulator).

   XLFD Field Values for the Standard Interface Font Names
       These standard names are available using the X Window System XLFD  font
       naming scheme. There are three aspects to the standard names:

	  ·  The  underlying  font  on	each  system, or X server platform, to
	     which a standard name is mapped, typically will be	 different  on
	     each system.

	  ·  The standard name itself, a full XLFD name mapped to the underly‐
	     ing font, may be different on each system in  some	 of  the  XLFD
	     fields.  However,	most of the fields are the same from system to
	     system, allowing the patterns (described next) to be the same.

	  ·  The font resource pattern containing the  *  wildcards,  used  in
	     app-defaults  files,  which  will match the full XLFD name of the
	     standard name, is the same across all systems, for a given use in
	     an app-defaults file.

       Each  CDE  or X server vendor implementing this specification must pro‐
       vide full XLFD names for the standard names, mapped to system-dependent
       underlying  fonts,  so  that  the XLFD patterns used in CDE application
       app-defaults files will always match one of the full  XLFD  names  pro‐

       The Standard Interface Font Names are identified by the presence of the
       following XLFD field name values:

	  ·  FOUNDRY is dt

	  ·  FAMILY_NAME is either interface system or interface  user	(there
	     is a single space between the two words in each family name)

       In  addition,  the other fields of the XLFD names defining the standard
       names are constrained as follows:

	  ·  WEIGHT_NAME is either medium or bold

	  ·  SLANT is always r

	  ·  SETWIDTH_NAME is always normal

	  ·  SPACING is p or m (it must be m for  interface  user  fonts,  and
	     should be p for interface system fonts, although m is acceptable)

	  ·  ADD_STYLE_NAME  contains  both  a nominal size value in the range
	     xxs to xxl (see below), as well as either	sans  for  sans	 serif
	     fonts or serif for serif, if appropriate for the underlying font

	  ·  The  numeric fields ( PIXEL_SIZE, POINT_SIZE, RESOLUTION_X, RESO‐
	     LUTION_Y, and AVERAGE_WIDTH) must contain the same values as  the
	     underlying font.

	  ·  CHARSET_REGISTRY  and  CHARSET_ENCODING  are  not	specified; the
	     standard names may be implemented for any CDE locale.

       Although the sans and serif values in the ADD_STYLE_NAME field are  not
       required	 by  the XLFD font convention, they are always part of the CDE
       Standard Font Names when the  underlying	 fonts	are  characterized  as
       serif  or  sans serif. However, this document imposes no restriction on
       whether the interface fonts are	serif  or  sans	 serif.	 The  relevant
       attribute must be coded in the ADD_STYLE_NAME field. Thus, for example,
       the standard names for Japanese fonts, which are not  characterized  as
       being  serif  or	 sans serif, would not include this designation in the
       ADD_STYLE_NAME field.

   Restricted Set of Styles Available
       Unlike the Standard Application Font  Names,  only  a  limited  set  of
       styles  is  available  in the Standard Interface Font Names. The styles
       available represent the minimum set currently considered necessary  for
       the desktop GUI needs:

	  ·  a	medium	weight of an interface system font, preferably propor‐
	     tionally spaced (but mono-spaced is acceptable if appropriate for
	     the locale)

	  ·  a medium weight of an interface user font, always mono-spaced

	  ·  a	bold weight of an interface user font, always mono-spaced (the
	     standard font names for this generic typeface are recommended  if
	     available	for  the  targeted  fonts  and	locale,	 but  are  not

   Named Set of Point Sizes Available
       In addition, the set of seven point sizes for each of the three	styles
       that  are part of this document are ``named'' point sizes, using string
       values in the ADD_STYLE_NAME field. Thus, XLFD patterns matching	 these
       names match a size based on the named size, not on a numeric size, even
       though the latter does exist in the XLFD name. These  named  sizes  are
       used because the exact size of an interface font is less important than
       its nominal size, and implementation  differences  for  the  hand-tuned
       interface  fonts	 do not allow common numeric point sizes to be assured
       across systems.	The seven nominal sizes are as follows:

       xxs	 extra extra small

       xs	 extra small

       s	 small

       m	 medium

       l	 large

       xl	 extra large

       xxl	 extra extra large

       The goal of these named sizes is to provide enough fonts so  that  both
       the  variety of display monitor sizes and resolutions that CDE will run
       on, and the range of user preferences for  comfortably  reading	button
       labels,	window	titles	and  so forth, can be accommodated in the GUI.
       Thus, both the smallest size, xxs, and the largest size, xxl, are meant
       to  be  reasonable  sizes for displaying and viewing the CDE desktop on
       common displays and X terminals; they are not  meant  to	 imply	either
       hard-to-read fine print or headline-sized display type.

       These  named  size values must occur first in the ADD_STYLE_NAME field,
       before any use of the values serif or sans  (one	 of  which  is	always
       required	 when  the underlying font can be so characterized) and before
       any other additional stylistic attribute	 that  might  be  appropriate.
       This  is	 important  when specifying wild-carded patterns in a resource
       specification for these fonts, since whether the underlying font	 these
       names are mapped to is serif or sans serif is not specified by CDE, and
       the match must work for all XLFD names provided by CDE  system  vendors
       or other X server vendors.

   Example XLFD Patterns for the Standard Names
       Using these values, the XLFD pattern


       logically  matches  the	full set of CDE Standard Interface Font Names.
       (Note that no specific X server behavior is implied).

       The full set of 21 CDE Standard Interface Font Names can also be repre‐
       sented, in a more meaningful way, as follows:

       -dt-interface system-medium-r-normal-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-iso8859-1
       -dt-interface user-medium-r-normal-*-*-*-*-*-m-*-iso8859-1
       -dt-interface user-bold-r-normal-*-*-*-*-*-m-*-iso8859-1

       The  full  set of patterns, usable in app-defaults files, for all seven
       sizes for the system font, for example, is:

       -dt-interface system-medium-r-normal-xxs*-*-*-*-*-*-*-iso8859-1
       -dt-interface system-medium-r-normal-xs*-*-*-*-*-*-*-iso8859-1
       -dt-interface system-medium-r-normal-s*-*-*-*-*-*-*-iso8859-1
       -dt-interface system-medium-r-normal-m*-*-*-*-*-*-*-iso8859-1
       -dt-interface system-medium-r-normal-l*-*-*-*-*-*-*-iso8859-1
       -dt-interface system-medium-r-normal-xl*-*-*-*-*-*-*-iso8859-1
       -dt-interface system-medium-r-normal-xxl*-*-*-*-*-*-*-iso8859-1

       These patterns could be used in a resource file and will match the full
       CDE Standard Interface Names for Latin-1 locales on all CDE, or comply‐
       ing X server, systems.

       Note in these wild-carded XLFD names that the ADD_STYLE_NAME field  has
       a pattern, such as xxs*, and that the pattern is partly a string ( xxs)
       and partly the pattern-matching character *. The full  XLFD  name  this
       pattern matches—the XLFD name implementing the Standard Interface name—
       will often contain sans or serif in the field,  after  the  xxs	and  a
       space,  and  so	the  * is essential to match that sans or serif string
       (and any additional style attribute string that might be in the	under‐
       lying  name).  Note  also  that the SPACING field is wild-carded in the
       pattern for the system font, since either p or  m  may  appear  in  the
       standard name being matched.

   Implementation of Font Names
       Each CDE system vendor and X server vendor provides mappings of its own
       fonts to XLFD names as described by  this  document.  The  actual  XLFD
       names  will  vary  from	system	to  system, just as the fonts they are
       mapped to, since they contain some of the same values as the XLFD  name
       of  the underlying font. What does not vary is the behavior: the common
       patterns in which only specified fields are used will match  each  sys‐
       tem's  standard	names.	This is guaranteed by the field specifications
       given earlier.

       There is no precise specification of how the named sizes xxs to xxl are
       mapped to sizes of underlying fonts in each system or X server product,
       although each size must be equal to or larger than the  previous	 size.
       Nonetheless, some guidelines are appropriate.

       Interface  fonts	 have been developed because of human factors research
       on visual clarity of text on displays, and this has been	 done  in  the
       context	of the display technology typically available today, mostly in
       the 100 dots per inch (DPI) range. That, and the use of standard	 point
       sizes  (10,  12,	 14,  18)  in  the graphics arts, have resulted in the
       development in the industry of hand-tuned bitmapped fonts for a set  of
       ``pixel	heights'' that are likely to be used for these standard names.
       However, making the CDE desktop usable with  a  range  of  point	 sizes
       effectively  means,  in	addition  to legibility for the user, that the
       various CDE applications fit  ``appropriately''	on  the	 screen	 using
       those  point  sizes. This means, for example, that two application win‐
       dows can appear side by side on a typical display  or  that  a  certain
       number of buttons can appear across the screen.

       Thus,  these  guidelines	 are  expressed	 not  only  in pixel sizes, to
       reflect current usage, but also in percentage of monitor	 height.  This
       allows  them  to remain appropriate as technological evolution improves
       display resolution and monitor size (for	 example,  wall-mounted	 moni‐
       tors).  The ideal set of sizes would form a linear progression from the
       smallest ( xxs) to the largest ( xxl), although this is not achievable.
       The  basic guideline is that the xxs font should be, in pixels, no less
       than 0.9% of the height of the display resolution, in pixels;  the  xxl
       font should be no more than 2.6% of the height.

       As  an approximate example that does not represent any existing mapping
       of fonts to a display, this table shows how the named sizes  might  map
       to  real	 bitmapped  fonts  of  a given pixel size, and how large those
       sizes are in percentage and point size terms:

       Range	of
       Named Sizes
       on	 a
       named size    number of
       pixels	     size as % of 1024 height	point size on 100 DPI screen
       xxs	     10				0.98%			       7.2
       xs	     12				1.12%			       8.7
       s	     14				1.37%			       10.1
       m	     17				1.66%			       12.3
       l	     20				1.95%			       14.6
       xl	     23				2.25%			       16.6
       xxl	     26				2.54%			       18.8

       Thus,  the  following requirements are placed on each implementation of
       the Standard Interface Font Names:

	  ·  The names must be fully specified XLFD names, without wild cards.

	     and  CHARSET_ENCODING fields must contain valid values as defined
	     previously and must match those in the underlying font.

	  ·  The ADD_STYLE_NAME field must contain  both  a  named  size  (for
	     example,  xxs) and, if appropriate, either the serif or sans des‐
	     ignation, whichever matches the underlying font;  any  additional
	     words  about the style of the underlying font, if defined for the
	     underlying font, must also be used. The named size must be	 first
	     in	 the  field,  and must be separated from any following word in
	     the field with a blank.

	  ·  The named sizes xxs through xxl must be mapped to fonts that  are
	     progressively  larger  than  or  equal to the previous one in the
	     list. Thus, several standard names with adjacent sizes (for exam‐
	     ple,  xxs and xs) may be mapped to the same font (for example, if
	     there is not enough variety in sizes in the underlying fonts).

	  ·  The implemented names should attempt to meet the guidelines  dis‐
	     cussed in the previous paragraph and table.

       For  example,  system A is assumed to be using the following sans serif
       font for the extra small system font:


       System B is using the following serif font for the extra	 small	system


       Their  respective  standard names would be implemented on their systems

       -dt-interface system-medium-r-normal-xssans-11-90-85-85-p-81-iso8859-1
       -dt-interface system-medium-r-normal-xsserif Expert-8-80-75-75-m-72-iso8859-1

       Defined this way, both names will match the single XLFD pattern used in
       a common app-defaults file:

       -dt-interface system-medium-r-normal-xs*-*-*-*-*-*-*-iso8859-1

   Default CDE Mapping of the Standard Interface Font Names
       There  is  no  default mapping of these interface names to X11R5 fonts;
       the mapping is implementation-specific.

       A CDE desktop client developer will code a single app-defaults file  to
       specify	font resources for their client and use it across all CDE sys‐
       tems.  Since  the  FOUNDRY,   FAMILY_NAME,   WEIGHT_NAME,   SLANT   and
       SETWIDTH_NAME  fields of the standard names are the same across differ‐
       ent systems, these values can be used in the resource specification  in
       the   app-defaults   file.  However,  other  fields  (  ADD_STYLE_NAME,
       AGE_WIDTH)  will vary across systems, and so must be wild-carded in the
       resource specification ( ADD_STYLE_NAME is partially wild-carded).   As
       was shown in the previous example:

       -dt-interface system-medium-r-normal-xs*-*-*-*-*-*-*-iso8859-1

       is  an  XLFD  pattern,  used  in	 a single resource specification, that
       matches a single standard name on different CDE or X server  platforms.
       (And  if the last 2 fields, CHARSET_REGISTRY and CHARSET_ENCODING, were
       wild-carded, then the pattern could work across locales as well.)  Note
       that  the  named size ( xs in this example) is part of the pattern, but
       the serif/ sans serif designation is not; this is  required  to	obtain
       the desired nominal size (whatever it may be in the mapped font), while
       still matching either serif or sans serif in the standard name.

       Note that if a CDE desktop application tries to open a font  using  one
       of  these  standard  names,  and the X server does not know about these
       names, the application will usually fall back on using  the  fixed  and
       variable	 font  aliases	that  are typically provided in all X servers.
       When this happens, the CDE desktop will be more difficult to use,  vis‐
       ually, than if its expected font names were available.

       There is no requirement on a CDE system or X server vendor to implement
       these standard names in a particular way. Several mechanisms are possi‐
       ble:  duplicate	font  files with altered naming attributes, X11R5 font
       aliases, or vendor-specific mechanisms. The only requirement is that an
       XLFD  pattern,  written	with attributes taken from the set that define
       the standard names, can be successfully used to open a  font  with  the
       Xlib  function  XLoadFont;  and, specifically, the Xlib function XList‐
       Fonts need NOT return the same XLFD name for the pattern	 on  different
       CDE or X server systems.

       dtstyle(1), dtterm(1), DtStdAppFontNames(5)

					 DtStdInterfaceFontNames(file formats)

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