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HTTP::Message(3)      User Contributed Perl Documentation     HTTP::Message(3)

       HTTP::Message - HTTP style message (base class)

	use base 'HTTP::Message';

       An "HTTP::Message" object contains some headers and a content body.
       The following methods are available:

       $mess = HTTP::Message->new
       $mess = HTTP::Message->new( $headers )
       $mess = HTTP::Message->new( $headers, $content )
	   This constructs a new message object.  Normally you would want con‐
	   struct "HTTP::Request" or "HTTP::Response" objects instead.

	   The optional $header argument should be a reference to an
	   "HTTP::Headers" object or a plain array reference of key/value
	   pairs.  If an "HTTP::Headers" object is provided then a copy of it
	   will be embedded into the constructed message, i.e. it will not be
	   owned and can be modified afterwards without affecting the message.

	   The optional $content argument should be a string of bytes.

       $mess = HTTP::Message->parse( $str )
	   This constructs a new message object by parsing the given string.

	   Returns the embedded "HTTP::Headers" object.

       $mess->headers_as_string( $eol )
	   Call the as_string() method for the headers in the message.	This
	   will be the same as


	   but it will make your program a whole character shorter :-)

       $mess->content( $bytes )
	   The content() method sets the raw content if an argument is given.
	   If no argument is given the content is not touched.	In either case
	   the original raw content is returned.

	   Note that the content should be a string of bytes.  Strings in perl
	   can contain characters outside the range of a byte.	The "Encode"
	   module can be used to turn such strings into a string of bytes.

       $mess->add_content( $bytes )
	   The add_content() methods appends more data bytes to the end of the
	   current content buffer.

       $mess->add_content_utf8( $string )
	   The add_content_utf8() method appends the UTF-8 bytes representing
	   the string to the end of the current content buffer.

       $mess->content_ref( \$bytes )
	   The content_ref() method will return a reference to content buffer
	   string.  It can be more efficient to access the content this way if
	   the content is huge, and it can even be used for direct manipula‐
	   tion of the content, for instance:

	     ${$res->content_ref} =~ s/\bfoo\b/bar/g;

	   This example would modify the content buffer in-place.

	   If an argument is passed it will setup the content to reference
	   some external source.  The content() and add_content() methods will
	   automatically dereference scalar references passed this way.	 For
	   other references content() will return the reference itself and
	   add_content() will refuse to do anything.

       $mess->decoded_content( %options )
	   Returns the content with any "Content-Encoding" undone and the raw
	   content encoded to perl's Unicode strings.  If the "Content-Encod‐
	   ing" or "charset" of the message is unknown this method will fail
	   by returning "undef".

	   The following options can be specified.

	       This override the charset parameter for text content.  The
	       value "none" can used to suppress decoding of the charset.

	       This override the default charset of "ISO-8859-1".

	       Abort decoding if malformed characters is found in the content.
	       By default you get the substitution character ("\x{FFFD}") in
	       place of malformed characters.

	       If TRUE then raise an exception if not able to decode content.
	       Reason might be that the specified "Content-Encoding" or
	       "charset" is not supported.  If this option is FALSE, then
	       decoded_content() will return "undef" on errors, but will still
	       set $@.

	       If TRUE then a reference to decoded content is returned.	 This
	       might be more efficient in cases where the decoded content is
	       identical to the raw content as no data copying is required in
	       this case.

	   This returns the encoding identifiers that decoded_content() can
	   process.  In scalar context returns a comma separated string of

	   This value is suitable for initializing the "Accept-Encoding"
	   request header field.

	   This method tries to replace the content of the message with the
	   decoded version and removes the "Content-Encoding" header.  Return
	   TRUE if successful and FALSE if not.

	   If the message does not have a "Content-Encoding" header this
	   method does nothing and returns TRUE.

	   Note that the content of the message is still bytes after this
	   method has been called and you still need to call decoded_content()
	   if you want to process its content as a string.

       $mess->encode( $encoding, ... )
	   Apply the given encodings to the content of the message.  Returns
	   TRUE if successful. Currently supported encodings are "gzip",
	   "deflate", "x-bzip2" and "base64".

	   A successful call to this function will set the "Content-Encoding"

	   Note that "multipart/*" or "message/*" messages can't be encoded
	   and this method will croak if you try.

       $mess->parts( @parts )
       $mess->parts( \@parts )
	   Messages can be composite, i.e. contain other messages.  The com‐
	   posite messages have a content type of "multipart/*" or "mes‐
	   sage/*".  This method give access to the contained messages.

	   The argumentless form will return a list of "HTTP::Message"
	   objects.  If the content type of $msg is not "multipart/*" or "mes‐
	   sage/*" then this will return the empty list.  In scalar context
	   only the first object is returned.  The returned message parts
	   should be regarded as read-only (future versions of this library
	   might make it possible to modify the parent by modifying the

	   If the content type of $msg is "message/*" then there will only be
	   one part returned.

	   If the content type is "message/http", then the return value will
	   be either an "HTTP::Request" or an "HTTP::Response" object.

	   If an @parts argument is given, then the content of the message
	   will be modified. The array reference form is provided so that an
	   empty list can be provided.	The @parts array should contain
	   "HTTP::Message" objects.  The @parts objects are owned by $mess
	   after this call and should not be modified or made part of other

	   When updating the message with this method and the old content type
	   of $mess is not "multipart/*" or "message/*", then the content type
	   is set to "multipart/mixed" and all other content headers are

	   This method will croak if the content type is "message/*" and more
	   than one part is provided.

       $mess->add_part( $part )
	   This will add a part to a message.  The $part argument should be
	   another "HTTP::Message" object.  If the previous content type of
	   $mess is not "multipart/*" then the old content (together with all
	   content headers) will be made part #1 and the content type made
	   "multipart/mixed" before the new part is added.  The $part object
	   is owned by $mess after this call and should not be modified or
	   made part of other messages.

	   There is no return value.

	   Will clear the headers and set the content to the empty string.
	   There is no return value

       $mess->protocol( $proto )
	   Sets the HTTP protocol used for the message.	 The protocol() is a
	   string like "HTTP/1.0" or "HTTP/1.1".

	   Returns a copy of the message object.

       $mess->as_string( $eol )
	   Returns the message formatted as a single string.

	   The optional $eol parameter specifies the line ending sequence to
	   use.	 The default is "\n".  If no $eol is given then as_string will
	   ensure that the returned string is newline terminated (even when
	   the message content is not).	 No extra newline is appended if an
	   explicit $eol is passed.

       $mess->dump( %opt )
	   Returns the message formatted as a string.  In void context print
	   the string.

	   This differs from "$mess->as_string" in that it escapes the bytes
	   of the content so that it's safe to print them and it limits how
	   much content to print.  The escapes syntax used is the same as for
	   Perl's double quoted strings.  If there is no content the string
	   "(no content)" is shown in its place.

	   Options to influence the output can be passed as key/value pairs.
	   The following options are recognized:

	   maxlength => $num
	       How much of the content to show.	 The default is 512.  Set this
	       to 0 for unlimited.

	       If the content is longer then the string is chopped at the
	       limit and the string "...\n(### more bytes not shown)"

	   prefix => $str
	       A string that will be prefixed to each line of the dump.

       All methods unknown to "HTTP::Message" itself are delegated to the
       "HTTP::Headers" object that is part of every message.  This allows con‐
       venient access to these methods.	 Refer to HTTP::Headers for details of
       these methods:

	   $mess->header( $field => $val )
	   $mess->push_header( $field => $val )
	   $mess->init_header( $field => $val )
	   $mess->remove_header( $field )
	   $mess->scan( \&doit )


       Copyright 1995-2004 Gisle Aas.

       This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.

perl v5.8.8			  2008-09-24		      HTTP::Message(3)

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