X man page on HP-UX

Man page or keyword search:  
man Server   10987 pages
apropos Keyword Search (all sections)
Output format
HP-UX logo
[printable version]

X(1)									  X(1)

       X - a portable, network-transparent window system

       The  X  Window System is a network transparent window system which runs
       on a wide range of computing and graphics machines.  It should be rela‐
       tively  straightforward to build the X Consortium software distribution
       on most ANSI C and POSIX compliant systems.  Commercial implementations
       are also available for a wide range of platforms.

       The  X Consortium requests that the following names be used when refer‐
       ring to this software:

				   X Window System
				    X Version 11
			     X Window System, Version 11

       X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group.

       X Window System servers run on computers	 with  bitmap  displays.   The
       server distributes user input to and accepts output requests from vari‐
       ous client programs through a variety of different interprocess	commu‐
       nication	 channels.   Although  the  most common case is for the client
       programs to be running on the same machine as the server,  clients  can
       be  run transparently from other machines (including machines with dif‐
       ferent architectures and operating systems) as well.

       X supports overlapping hierarchical subwindows and  text	 and  graphics
       operations, on both monochrome and color displays.  For a full explana‐
       tion of the functions that are available, see the Xlib - C  Language  X
       Interface  manual,  the	X  Window System Protocol specification, the X
       Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface manual, and  various  toolkit

       Hewlett-Packard provides a graphical user environment called The Common
       Desktop Environment (CDE).  CDE is the  user  interface,	 enabling  the
       user  to	 control  a  system  by	 directly manipulating graphic objects
       instead of typing commands on a	command-line  prompt.	See  the  "CDE
       User's  Guide"  and  "CDE  Advanced  User's  and System Administrator's
       Guide" for more information on CDE.

       Hewlett-Packard does not provide or support the entire X Window	System
       distribution.  Many of these programs or clients are sample implementa‐
       tions, or perform tasks that  are  accomplished	by  other  clients  in
       Hewlett-Packard's  Common Desktop Environment.  The primary differences
       between the core X Window System distribution and  the  Hewlett-Packard
       X11 release are listed below.

       Terminal Emulation
	      dtterm  is  the  primary	terminal emulator.  xterm is also pro‐

       Window Management
	      twm is replaced by mwm and dtwm.

       Display Manager
	      xdm is replaced by an enhanced version called dtlogin.  terminal

       Bitmap Editing
	      bitmap is replaced by dticon.

       Font Display
	      Handled  by the terminal emulation option	 -fn override.	xfd is
	      supplied but not supported.

       A number of unsupported clients and miscellaneous  utilities  are  pro‐
       vided in /usr/contrib/bin/X11.

       Normally,  the X Window System is started on Hewlett-Packard systems by
       dtlogin, which is an enhanced version of the client xdm.	 If dtlogin is
       not used, xinit may be used with x11start.  See the man pages for these
       functions for more information.

       From the user's perspective, every X server has a display name  of  the


       This  information is used by the application to determine how it should
       connect to the server and which screen it should	 use  by  default  (on
       displays with multiple monitors):

	       The  hostname  specifies	 the  name of the machine to which the
	       display is physically connected.	 If the hostname is not given,
	       the most efficient way of communicating to a server on the same
	       machine will be used.

	       The phrase "display" is usually used to refer to the collection
	       of  monitors  that  share a common keyboard and pointer (mouse,
	       tablet, etc.).  Most systems tend to only  have	one  keyboard,
	       and  therefore,	only one display.  Larger, multi-user systems,
	       however, will frequently have several  displays	so  that  more
	       than  one  person can be doing graphics work at once.  To avoid
	       confusion, each display on a machine is assigned a display num‐
	       ber  (beginning	at  0)	when  the X server for that display is
	       started.	 The display number must always be given in a  display

	       Some  displays share a single keyboard and pointer among two or
	       more monitors.  Since each monitor has its own set of  windows,
	       each  screen  is assigned a screen number (beginning at 0) when
	       the X server for that display is started.  If the screen number
	       is not given, screen 0 will be used.

       On  POSIX  systems,  the default display name is stored in your DISPLAY
       environment variable.  This variable is set automatically by the	 xterm
       terminal	 emulator.   However,  when  you log into another machine on a
       network, you will need to set DISPLAY by hand to point to your display.
       For example,

	   % setenv DISPLAY mysys:0
	   $ DISPLAY=mysys:0; export DISPLAY

       The  xon	 script can be used to start an X program on a remote machine;
       it automatically sets the DISPLAY variable correctly.

       Finally, most X programs accept a command line option of -display  dis‐
       playname to temporarily override the contents of DISPLAY.  This is most
       commonly used to pop windows on another person's screen or as part of a
       "remote shell" command to start an xterm pointing back to your display.
       For example,

	   % xload -display joesys:0 -geometry 100x100+0+0
	   % rsh big xterm -display mysys:0 -ls </dev/null &

       X servers listen for connections on a variety of	 different  communica‐
       tions  channels	(network  byte	streams,  shared memory, etc.).	 Since
       there can be more than one way of contacting a given server, The	 host‐
       name  part of the display name is used to determine the type of channel
       (also called a transport layer) to be used.  X servers  generally  sup‐
       port the following types of connections:

	       The  hostname  part  of	the  display  name should be the empty
	       string.	For example:  :0, :1, and :0.1.	  The  most  efficient
	       local transport will be chosen.

	       The  hostname  part  of	the  display name should be the server
	       machine's IP address name.  Full	 Internet  names,  abbreviated
	       names,	and  IP	 addresses  are	 all  allowed.	 For  example:
	       expo.lcs.mit.edu:0, expo:0,,  bigmachine:1,  and

       An  X  server can use several types of access control.  Mechanisms pro‐
       vided in Release 6 are:
	   Host Access			 Simple host-based access control.
	   MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1		 Shared plain-text "cookies".
	   XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1		 Secure DES based private-keys.
	   SUN-DES-1			 Based on Sun's secure rpc system.

       dtlogin/Xdm initializes access control for the server, and also	places
       authorization  information in a file accessible to the user.  Normally,
       the list of hosts from which connections are always accepted should  be
       empty,  so that only clients with are explicitly authorized can connect
       to the display.	When you add entries to the host  list	(with  xhost),
       the  server  no	longer	performs any authorization on connections from
       those machines.	Be careful with this.

       The file from which Xlib extracts authorization data can	 be  specified
       with  the  environment  variable	 XAUTHORITY,  and defaults to the file
       .Xauthority in the home directory.  dtlogin/Xdm uses  $HOME/.Xauthority
       and  will  create  it  or  merge in authorization records if it already
       exists when a user logs in.

       If you use several machines, and share a common home  directory	across
       all of the machines by means of a network file system, you never really
       have to worry about authorization files, the system  should  work  cor‐
       rectly  by default.  Otherwise, as the authorization files are machine-
       independent, you can simply copy the files to share  them.   To	manage
       authorization  files,  use  xauth.   This program allows you to extract
       records and insert them into other files.  Using	 this,	you  can  send
       authorization  to remote machines when you login, if the remote machine
       does not share a common home directory with your local  machine.	  Note
       that  authorization  information transmitted ``in the clear'' through a
       network file system or using ftp or rcp can be ``stolen'' by a  network
       eavesdropper,  and  as  such  may  enable unauthorized access.  In many
       environments, this level of security is not a concern, but  if  it  is,
       you  need  to  know the exact semantics of the particular authorization
       data to know if this is actually a problem.

       One of the advantages of using window systems instead of hardwired ter‐
       minals is that applications don't have to be restricted to a particular
       size or location on the screen.	Although the layout of	windows	 on  a
       display	is  controlled	by the window manager that the user is running
       (described below), most X programs accept a command  line  argument  of
       the  form  -geometry WIDTHxHEIGHT+XOFF+YOFF (where WIDTH, HEIGHT, XOFF,
       and YOFF are numbers) for specifying a preferred size and location  for
       this application's main window.

       The  WIDTH  and	HEIGHT parts of the geometry specification are usually
       measured in either pixels or characters, depending on the  application.
       The  XOFF and YOFF parts are measured in pixels and are used to specify
       the distance of the window from the left or right and  top  and	bottom
       edges  of the screen, respectively.  Both types of offsets are measured
       from the indicated edge of the screen to the corresponding edge of  the
       window.	The X offset may be specified in the following ways:

       +XOFF   The left edge of the window is to be placed XOFF pixels in from
	       the left edge of the screen (i.e., the X coordinate of the win‐
	       dow's  origin  will  be	XOFF).	XOFF may be negative, in which
	       case the window's left edge will be off the screen.

       -XOFF   The right edge of the window is to be  placed  XOFF  pixels  in
	       from  the  right	 edge of the screen.  XOFF may be negative, in
	       which case the window's right edge will be off the screen.

       The Y offset has similar meanings:

       +YOFF   The top edge of the window is to be YOFF pixels below  the  top
	       edge of the screen (i.e., the Y coordinate of the window's ori‐
	       gin will be YOFF).  YOFF may be negative,  in  which  case  the
	       window's top edge will be off the screen.

       -YOFF   The  bottom  edge  of the window is to be YOFF pixels above the
	       bottom edge of the screen.  YOFF may be negative, in which case
	       the window's bottom edge will be off the screen.

       Offsets	must  be  given	 as pairs; in other words, in order to specify
       either XOFF or YOFF both must be present.  Windows can be placed in the
       four corners of the screen using the following specifications:

       +0+0    upper left hand corner.

       -0+0    upper right hand corner.

       -0-0    lower right hand corner.

       +0-0    lower left hand corner.

       In the following examples, a terminal emulator is placed in roughly the
       center of the screen and a load average monitor, mailbox, and clock are
       placed in the upper right hand corner:

	   xterm -fn 6x10 -geometry 80x24+30+200 &
	   xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 &
	   xload -geometry 48x48-96+0 &
	   xbiff -geometry 48x48-48+0 &

       The  layout  of windows on the screen is controlled by special programs
       called window managers.	Although many window managers will honor geom‐
       etry specifications as given, others may choose to ignore them (requir‐
       ing the user to explicitly draw the window's region on the screen  with
       the pointer, for example).

       Since  window  managers are regular (albeit complex) client programs, a
       variety of different user interfaces can be built.  The Hewlett-Packard
       distribution  comes  with window managers named mwm and dtwm which sup‐
       port overlapping windows, popup menus, point-and-click or click-to-type
       input models, title bars, nice icons (and an icon manager for those who
       don't like separate icon windows).

       Collections of characters for displaying text  and  symbols  in	X  are
       known  as  fonts.  A font typically contains images that share a common
       appearance and look nice together (for example, a  single  size,	 bold‐
       ness,  slant, and character set).  Similarly, collections of fonts that
       are based on a common type face	(the  variations  are  usually	called
       roman, bold, italic, bold italic, oblique, and bold oblique) are called

       Fonts come in various sizes.  The X  server  supports  scalable	fonts,
       meaning it is possible to create a font of arbitrary size from a single
       source for the font.  The server supports scaling  from	outline	 fonts
       and bitmap fonts.  Scaling from outline fonts usually produces signifi‐
       cantly better results than scaling from bitmap fonts.

       An X server can obtain fonts from individual files stored  in  directo‐
       ries  in	 the  file system, or from one or more font servers, or from a
       mixtures of directories and font	 servers.   The	 list  of  places  the
       server looks when trying to find a font is controlled by its font path.
       Although most installations will choose to have	the  server  start  up
       with  all  of  the commonly used font directories in the font path, the
       font path can be changed at any time with the xset  program.   However,
       it  is  important  to  remember	that  the  directory  names are on the
       server's machine, not on the application's.  Usually, fonts used	 by  X
       servers	 and  font  servers  can  be  found  in	 subdirectories	 under

	       This directory contains bitmap fonts contributed by Adobe  Sys‐
	       tems,  Inc.,  Digital  Equipment	 Corporation, Bitstream, Inc.,
	       Bigelow and Holmes, and Sun Microsystems, Inc.  for 75 dots per
	       inch  displays.	 An integrated selection of sizes, styles, and
	       weights are provided for each family.

	       This directory contains 100 dots per inch versions of  some  of
	       the fonts in the 75dpi directory.

       Bitmap  font  files  are	 usually  created  by compiling a textual font
       description into binary form, using bdftopcf.  Font databases are  cre‐
       ated  by	 running the mkfontdir program in the directory containing the
       source or compiled versions of the fonts.  Whenever fonts are added  to
       a  directory, mkfontdir should be rerun so that the server can find the
       new fonts.  To make the server reread the font database, reset the font
       path  with  the	xset program.  For example, to add a font to a private
       directory, the following commands could be used:

	   % cp newfont.pcf ~/myfonts
	   % mkfontdir ~/myfonts
	   % xset fp rehash

       The xlsfonts program can be used to  list  the  fonts  available	 on  a
       server.	 Font  names tend to be fairly long as they contain all of the
       information needed to uniquely identify individual fonts.  However, the
       X server supports wildcarding of font names, so the full specification


       might be abbreviated as:


       Because	the  shell  also  has special meanings for * and ?, wildcarded
       font names should be quoted:

	   % xlsfonts -fn '-*-courier-medium-r-normal--*-100-*-*-*-*-*-*'

       The xlsfonts program can be used to list all of the fonts that match  a
       given  pattern.	With no arguments, it lists all available fonts.  This
       will usually list the same font at many different sizes.	 To  see  just
       the base scalable font names, try using one of the following patterns:


       To  convert  one of the resulting names into a font at a specific size,
       replace one of the first two zeros with a  nonzero  value.   The	 field
       containing the first zero is for the pixel size; replace it with a spe‐
       cific height in pixels to name a font at that size.  Alternatively, the
       field containing the second zero is for the point size; replace it with
       a specific size in decipoints (there are 722.7 decipoints to the	 inch)
       to  name a font at that size.  The last zero is an average width field,
       measured in tenths of pixels; some servers will anamorphically scale if
       this value is specified.

       One  of	the  following	forms  can  be used to name a font server that
       accepts TCP connections:


       The hostname specifies the name (or decimal  numeric  address)  of  the
       machine	on  which the font server is running.  The port is the decimal
       TCP port on which the font server is listening  for  connections.   The
       cataloguelist  specifies a list of catalogue names, with '+' as a sepa‐

       Examples: tcp/expo.lcs.mit.edu:7000, tcp/

       Most applications provide ways of tailoring (usually through  resources
       or  command  line arguments) the colors of various elements in the text
       and graphics they display.  A color  can	 be  specified	either	by  an
       abstract color name, or by a numerical color specification.  The numer‐
       ical specification can identify	a  color  in  either  device-dependent
       (RGB) or device-independent terms.  Color strings are case-insensitive.

       X supports the use of abstract color names, for example, "red", "blue".
       A value for this abstract name is obtained by  searching	 one  or  more
       color  name  databases.	 Xlib  first searches zero or more client-side
       databases; the number, location, and  content  of  these	 databases  is
       implementation  dependent.   If	the  name  is  not found, the color is
       looked up in the X server's database.  The text form of	this  database
       is commonly stored in the file /etc/X11/rgb.txt.

       A  numerical  color  specification consists of a color space name and a
       set of values in the following syntax:


       An RGB Device specification is identified by the prefix "rgb:" and  has
       the following syntax:


	       <red>, <green>, <blue> := h | hh | hhh | hhhh
	       h := single hexadecimal digits
       Note  that  h indicates the value scaled in 4 bits, hh the value scaled
       in 8 bits, hhh the value scaled in 12 bits, and hhhh the	 value	scaled
       in  16  bits,  respectively.  These values are passed directly to the X
       server, and are assumed to be gamma corrected.

       The eight primary colors can be represented as:

	   black		rgb:0/0/0
	   red			rgb:ffff/0/0
	   green		rgb:0/ffff/0
	   blue			rgb:0/0/ffff
	   yellow		rgb:ffff/ffff/0
	   magenta		rgb:ffff/0/ffff
	   cyan			rgb:0/ffff/ffff
	   white		rgb:ffff/ffff/ffff

       For backward compatibility, an older syntax  for	 RGB  Device  is  sup‐
       ported, but its continued use is not encouraged.	 The syntax is an ini‐
       tial sharp sign character followed by a numeric specification,  in  one
       of the following formats:

	   #RGB			     (4 bits each)
	   #RRGGBB		     (8 bits each)
	   #RRRGGGBBB		     (12 bits each)
	   #RRRRGGGGBBBB	     (16 bits each)

       The  R,	G, and B represent single hexadecimal digits.  When fewer than
       16 bits each are specified, they represent the most-significant bits of
       the  value (unlike the "rgb:" syntax, in which values are scaled).  For
       example, #3a7 is the same as #3000a0007000.

       An RGB intensity specification is identified by the prefix "rgbi:"  and
       has the following syntax:


       The red, green, and blue are floating point values between 0.0 and 1.0,
       inclusive.  They represent linear intensity values, with 1.0 indicating
       full  intensity,	 0.5  half intensity, and so on.  These values will be
       gamma corrected by Xlib before being sent to the X server.   The	 input
       format for these values is an optional sign, a string of numbers possi‐
       bly containing a decimal point, and an optional exponent field contain‐
       ing an E or e followed by a possibly signed integer string.

       The  standard device-independent string specifications have the follow‐
       ing syntax:

	   CIEXYZ:<X>/<Y>/<Z>		  (none, 1, none)
	   CIEuvY:<u>/<v>/<Y>		  (~.6, ~.6, 1)
	   CIExyY:<x>/<y>/<Y>		  (~.75, ~.85, 1)
	   CIELab:<L>/<a>/<b>		  (100, none, none)
	   CIELuv:<L>/<u>/<v>		  (100, none, none)
	   TekHVC:<H>/<V>/<C>		  (360, 100, 100)

       All of the values (C, H, V, X, Y, Z, a, b, u, v,	 y,  x)	 are  floating
       point  values.	Some  of the values are constrained to be between zero
       and some upper bound; the upper bounds are given in parentheses	above.
       The syntax for these values is an optional '+' or '-' sign, a string of
       digits possibly containing a decimal point, and	an  optional  exponent
       field  consisting  of  an 'E' or 'e' followed by an optional '+' or '-'
       followed by a string of digits.

       For more information on device independent color, see the  Xlib	refer‐
       ence manual.

       The  X keyboard model is broken into two layers:	 server-specific codes
       (called keycodes) which represent the physical keys,  and  server-inde‐
       pendent	symbols	 (called keysyms) which represent the letters or words
       that appear on the keys.	 Two tables are kept in the  server  for  con‐
       verting keycodes to keysyms:

       modifier list
	       Some  keys (such as Shift, Control, and Caps Lock) are known as
	       modifier and are used to	 select	 different  symbols  that  are
	       attached	 to  a single key (such as Shift-a generates a capital
	       A, and Control-l generates a control character ^L).  The server
	       keeps  a list of keycodes corresponding to the various modifier
	       keys.  Whenever a key is pressed or released, the server gener‐
	       ates an event that contains the keycode of the indicated key as
	       well as a mask that specifies which of the  modifier  keys  are
	       currently  pressed.  Most servers set up this list to initially
	       contain the various shift, control, and shift lock keys on  the

       keymap table
	       Applications  translate	event keycodes and modifier masks into
	       keysyms using a keysym table which contains one	row  for  each
	       keycode and one column for various modifier states.  This table
	       is initialized by the server to correspond to normal typewriter
	       conventions.   The  exact  semantics of how the table is inter‐
	       preted to produce keysyms depends on  the  particular  program,
	       libraries,  and	language  input method used, but the following
	       conventions for the first four keysyms in each row  are	gener‐
	       ally adhered to:

       The  first  four	 elements  of  the  list  are split into two groups of
       keysyms.	 Group 1 contains the first and second keysyms; Group  2  con‐
       tains  the  third  and fourth keysyms.  Within each group, if the first
       element is alphabetic and the the second element is the special	keysym
       NoSymbol,  then	the group is treated as equivalent to a group in which
       the first element is the lowercase letter and the second element is the
       uppercase letter.

       Switching between groups is controlled by the keysym named MODE SWITCH,
       by attaching that keysym to some key and attaching that key to any  one
       of  the	modifiers  Mod1	 through  Mod5.	  This	modifier is called the
       ``group modifier.''  Group 1 is used when the group  modifier  is  off,
       and Group 2 is used when the group modifier is on.

       Within a group, the modifier state determines which keysym to use.  The
       first keysym is used when the Shift and Lock modifiers  are  off.   The
       second keysym is used when the Shift modifier is on, when the Lock mod‐
       ifier is on and the second keysym is uppercase alphabetic, or when  the
       Lock  modifier  is on and is interpreted as ShiftLock.  Otherwise, when
       the Lock modifier is on and is interpreted as CapsLock,	the  state  of
       the  Shift  modifier  is	 applied first to select a keysym; but if that
       keysym is lowercase alphabetic, then the corresponding uppercase keysym
       is used instead.

       Most  X programs attempt to use the same names for command line options
       and arguments.  All applications written with the X Toolkit  Intrinsics
       automatically accept the following options:

       -display display
	       This option specifies the name of the X server to use.

       -geometry geometry
	       This option specifies the initial size and location of the win‐

       -bg color, -background color
	       Either option specifies the color to use for the	 window	 back‐

       -bd color, -bordercolor color
	       Either option specifies the color to use for the window border.

       -bw number, -borderwidth number
	       Either  option specifies the width in pixels of the window bor‐

       -fg color, -foreground color
	       Either option specifies the color to use for text or graphics.

       -fn font, -font font
	       Either option specifies the font to use for displaying text.

	       This option indicates that  the	user  would  prefer  that  the
	       application's  windows  initially not be visible as if the win‐
	       dows had be immediately iconified by the user.  Window managers
	       may choose not to honor the application's request.

	       This  option  specifies	the name under which resources for the
	       application should be found.  This option is  useful  in	 shell
	       aliases	to  distinguish between invocations of an application,
	       without resorting to creating links  to	alter  the  executable
	       file name.

       -rv, -reverse
	       Either  option  indicates  that	the  program  should  simulate
	       reverse video if possible, often by swapping the foreground and
	       background colors.  Not all programs honor this or implement it
	       correctly.  It is usually only used on monochrome displays.

	       This option indicates that  the	program	 should	 not  simulate
	       reverse	video.	 This  is  used to override any defaults since
	       reverse video doesn't always work properly.

	       This option specifies the timeout in milliseconds within	 which
	       two  communicating applications must respond to one another for
	       a selection request.

	       This option indicates that requests to the X server  should  be
	       sent synchronously, instead of asynchronously.  Since Xlib nor‐
	       mally buffers requests to the server, errors do not necessarily
	       get  reported  immediately after they occur.  This option turns
	       off the buffering so that the application can be debugged.   It
	       should never be used with a working program.

       -title string
	       This  option  specifies	the  title to be used for this window.
	       This information is sometimes used by a window manager to  pro‐
	       vide some sort of header identifying the window.

       -xnllanguage language[_territory][.codeset]
	       This  option specifies the language, territory, and codeset for
	       use in resolving resource and other filenames.

       -xrm resourcestring
	       This option specifies a resource name and value to override any
	       defaults.   It  is  also very useful for setting resources that
	       don't have explicit command line arguments.

       To make the tailoring of applications to personal preferences easier, X
       provides	 a  mechanism for storing default values for program resources
       (e.g. background color, window title, etc.)  Resources are specified as
       strings	that  are  read	 in from various places when an application is
       run.  Program components are named in a hierarchical fashion, with each
       node  in	 the hierarchy identified by a class and an instance name.  At
       the top level is the class and instance name of the application itself.
       By  convention,	the  class  name of the application is the same as the
       program name, but with  the first  letter  capitalized,	although  some
       programs	 that  begin  with the letter ``x'' also capitalize the second
       letter for historical reasons.

       The precise syntax for resources is:

       ResourceLine	 = Comment | IncludeFile | ResourceSpec | <empty line>
       Comment		 = "!" {<any character except null or newline>}
       IncludeFile	 = "#" WhiteSpace "include" WhiteSpace FileName WhiteSpace
       FileName		 = <valid filename for operating system>
       ResourceSpec	 = WhiteSpace ResourceName WhiteSpace ":" WhiteSpace Value
       ResourceName	 = [Binding] {Component Binding} ComponentName
       Binding		 = "." | "*"
       WhiteSpace	 = {<space> | <horizontal tab>}
       Component	 = "?" | ComponentName
       ComponentName	 = NameChar {NameChar}
       NameChar		 = "a"-"z" | "A"-"Z" | "0"-"9" | "_" | "-"
       Value		 = {<any character except null or unescaped newline>}

       Elements separated by vertical bar (|) are alternatives.	 Curly	braces
       ({...})	indicate  zero	or  more repetitions of the enclosed elements.
       Square brackets ([...]) indicate that the enclosed element is optional.
       Quotes ("...") are used around literal characters.

       IncludeFile  lines  are interpreted by replacing the line with the con‐
       tents of the specified file.  The word "include" must be in  lowercase.
       The  filename  is  interpreted relative to the directory of the file in
       which the line occurs (for example, if the filename contains no	direc‐
       tory or contains a relative directory specification).

       If a ResourceName contains a contiguous sequence of two or more Binding
       characters, the sequence will be replaced with single "." character  if
       the  sequence contains only "." characters, otherwise the sequence will
       be replaced with a single "*" character.

       A resource database never contains more than  one  entry	 for  a	 given
       ResourceName.  If a resource file contains multiple lines with the same
       ResourceName, the last line in the file is used.

       Any whitespace character before	or  after  the	name  or  colon	 in  a
       ResourceSpec  are  ignored.  To allow a Value to begin with whitespace,
       the two-character sequence ``\space'' (backslash followed by space)  is
       recognized  and	replaced  by  a space character, and the two-character
       sequence ``\tab'' (backslash followed by horizontal tab) is  recognized
       and  replaced  by a horizontal tab character.  To allow a Value to con‐
       tain embedded newline characters, the two-character sequence ``\n''  is
       recognized and replaced by a newline character.	To allow a Value to be
       broken across multiple lines in a text file, the two-character sequence
       ``\newline''  (backslash followed by newline) is recognized and removed
       from the value.	To allow a Value to contain arbitrary character codes,
       the four-character sequence ``\nnn'', where each n is a digit character
       in the range of ``0''-``7'', is recognized and replaced with  a	single
       byte that contains the octal value specified by the sequence.  Finally,
       the two-character sequence ``\\'' is recognized	and  replaced  with  a
       single backslash.

       When  an	 application looks for the value of a resource, it specifies a
       complete path in the hierarchy, with both  class	 and  instance	names.
       However,	 resource  values are usually given with only partially speci‐
       fied names and classes, using pattern matching constructs.  An asterisk
       (*) is a loose binding and is used to represent any number of interven‐
       ing components, including none.	A period (.) is a tight binding and is
       used  to separate immediately adjacent components.  A question mark (?)
       is used to match any single component name or class.  A database	 entry
       cannot  end  in	a  loose binding; the final component (which cannot be
       "?") must be specified.	The lookup  algorithm  searches	 the  resource
       database for the entry that most closely matches (is most specific for)
       the full name and class being queried.  When  more  than	 one  database
       entry  matches  the  full  name and class, precedence rules are used to
       select just one.

       The full name and class are scanned from left to	 right	(from  highest
       level  in  the  hierarchy to lowest), one component at a time.  At each
       level, the corresponding component  and/or  binding  of	each  matching
       entry  is  determined,  and  these matching components and bindings are
       compared according to precedence rules.	Each of the rules  is  applied
       at  each level, before moving to the next level, until a rule selects a
       single entry over all others.  The rules (in order of precedence) are:

       1.   An entry that contains a matching component (whether name,	class,
	    or	"?")  takes precedence over entries that elide the level (that
	    is, entries that match the level in a loose binding).

       2.   An entry with a matching name takes precedence over	 both  entries
	    with  a matching class and entries that match using "?".  An entry
	    with a matching class takes precedence  over  entries  that	 match
	    using "?".

       3.   An entry preceded by a tight binding takes precedence over entries
	    preceded by a loose binding.

       Programs based on the X Tookit Intrinsics  obtain  resources  from  the
       following  sources (other programs usually support some subset of these

       RESOURCE_MANAGER root window property
	       Any global resources that should be available to clients on all
	       machines	 should	 be stored in the RESOURCE_MANAGER property on
	       the root window of the first screen  using  the	xrdb  program.
	       This is frequently taken care of when the user starts X through
	       the display manager.

       SCREEN_RESOURCES root window property
	       Any resources specific to a given  screen  (e.g.	 colors)  that
	       should be available to clients on all machines should be stored
	       in the SCREEN_RESOURCES property on the	root  window  of  that
	       screen.	The xrdb program will sort resources automatically and
	       place them in RESOURCE_MANAGER or SCREEN_RESOURCES,  as	appro‐

       application-specific files
	       Directories  named by the environment variable XUSERFILESEARCH‐
	       PATH or the environment variable XAPPLRESDIR, plus  directories
	       in  a standard place (usually under /usr/lib/X11/, but this can
	       be overridden with the  XFILESEARCHPATH	environment  variable)
	       are searched for for application-specific resources.  For exam‐
	       ple,  application  default  resources  are  usually   kept   in
	       /usr/lib/X11/app-defaults/.   See  the X Toolkit Intrinsics - C
	       Language Interface manual for details.

	       Any user- and machine-specific resources may  be	 specified  by
	       setting	the XENVIRONMENT environment variable to the name of a
	       resource file to be loaded by all applications.	If this	 vari‐
	       able  is not defined, a file named $HOME/.Xdefaults-hostname is
	       looked for instead, where hostname is  the  name	 of  the  host
	       where the application is executing.

       -xrm resourcestring
	       Resources  can  also  be	 specified from the command line.  The
	       resourcestring is a single resource name	 and  value  as	 shown
	       above.  Note that if the string contains characters interpreted
	       by the shell (e.g., asterisk), they must be quoted.  Any number
	       of -xrm arguments may be given on the command line.

       Program	resources  are	organized  into groups called classes, so that
       collections  of	individual  resources  (each  of  which	  are	called
       instances) can be set all at once.  By convention, the instance name of
       a resource begins with a lowercase letter and class name with an	 upper
       case  letter.   Multiple word resources are concatenated with the first
       letter of the succeeding words capitalized.  Applications written  with
       the X Toolkit Intrinsics will have at least the following resources:

       background (class Background)
	       This  resource  specifies the color to use for the window back‐

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
	       This resource specifies the width in pixels of the window  bor‐

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
	       This resource specifies the color to use for the window border.

       Most applications using the X Toolkit Intrinsics also have the resource
       foreground (class Foreground), specifying the color to use for text and
       graphics within the window.

       By combining class and instance specifications, application preferences
       can be set quickly and easily.  Users of color displays will frequently
       want  to	 set Background and Foreground classes to particular defaults.
       Specific color instances such as text cursors can  then	be  overridden
       without having to define all of the related resources.  For example,

	   XTerm*cursorColor:  gold
	   XTerm*multiScroll:  on
	   XTerm*jumpScroll:  on
	   XTerm*reverseWrap:  on
	   XTerm*curses:  on
	   XTerm*Font:	6x10
	   XTerm*scrollBar: on
	   XTerm*scrollbar*thickness: 5
	   XTerm*multiClickTime: 500
	   XTerm*charClass:  33:48,37:48,45-47:48,64:48
	   XTerm*cutNewline: off
	   XTerm*cutToBeginningOfLine: off
	   XTerm*titeInhibit:  on
	   XTerm*ttyModes:  intr ^c erase ^? kill ^u
	   XLoad*Background: gold
	   XLoad*Foreground: red
	   XLoad*highlight: black
	   XLoad*borderWidth: 0
	   Dtterm*Geometry:  80x65-0-0
	   Dtterm*Background:  rgb:5b/76/86
	   Dtterm*Foreground:  white
	   Dtterm*Cursor:  white
	   Dtterm*BorderColor:	white
	   Dtterm*Font:	 6x10

       If these resources were stored in a file called .Xdefaults in your home
       directory, they could be added to any existing resources in the	server
       with the following command:

	   % xrdb -merge $HOME/.Xdefaults

       This  is	 frequently  how user-friendly startup scripts merge user-spe‐
       cific defaults into any site-wide defaults.  All sites  are  encouraged
       to  set	up convenient ways of automatically loading resources. See the
       Xlib manual section Resource Manager Functions for more information.

       The following is a collection of sample command lines for some  of  the
       more  frequently	 used  commands.  For more information on a particular
       command, please refer to that command's manual page.

	   %  xrdb $HOME/.Xdefaults
	   %  xmodmap -e "keysym BackSpace = Delete"
	   %  mkfontdir /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
	   %  xset fp+ /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
	   %  xmodmap $HOME/.keymap.km
	   %  xsetroot -solid 'rgbi:.8/.8/.8'
	   %  xset b 100 400 c 50 s 1800 r on
	   %  xset q
	   %  mwm
	   %  xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 -bg blue -fg white
	   %  xlsfonts '*helvetica*'
	   %  xwininfo -root
	   %  xhost -joessys
	   %  xwd | xwud
	   %  xterm -geometry 80x66-0-0 -name myxterm $*

       A wide variety of error messages are generated from  various  programs.
       The  default  error  handler  in Xlib (also used by many toolkits) uses
       standard resources to construct diagnostic messages when errors	occur.
       The defaults for these messages are usually stored in /usr/lib/X11/XEr‐
       rorDB.  If this file is not present,  error  messages  will  be	rather
       terse and cryptic.

       When  the  X  Toolkit  Intrinsics  encounter errors converting resource
       strings to the appropriate internal format, no error messages are  usu‐
       ally  printed.  This is convenient when it is desirable to have one set
       of resources across a variety of displays (e.g. color  vs.  monochrome,
       lots  of	 fonts	vs. very few, etc.), although it can pose problems for
       trying to determine why an application might be failing.	 This behavior
       can be overridden by the setting the StringConversionsWarning resource.

       To  force  the  X  Toolkit Intrinsics to always print string conversion
       error messages, the following resource should be placed	in  the	 .Xde‐
       faults  file  in	 the  user's home directory.  This file is then loaded
       into the RESOURCE_MANAGER property using the xrdb program.

	   *StringConversionWarnings: on

       To have conversion messages printed for just a particular  application,
       the appropriate instance name can be placed before the asterisk:

	   xterm*StringConversionWarnings: on

       bdftopcf(1),   bitmap(1),   fs(1),   dtterm(1)	mkfontdir(1),  mwm(1),
       xauth(1),  xclock(1),  xcmsdb(1),  xfd(1),  xhost(1),  xload(1),	  xls‐
       fonts(1),  xmodmap(1), xpr(1), xprop(1), xrdb(1), xrefresh(1), xset(1),
       xsetroot(1), xterm(1), xwd(1), xwininfo(1), xwud(1), Xserver(1), Xlib -
       C Language X Interface, and X Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface

       The  following  copyright and permission notice outlines the rights and
       restrictions covering most parts of the core distribution of the X Win‐
       dow  System.   Other  parts have additional or different copyrights and
       permissions; see the individual source files.

       Copyright 1984 - 1991, 1993, 1994, 1998	The Open Group

       Permission to use, copy, modify, distribute, and sell this software and
       its  documentation  for any purpose is hereby granted without fee, pro‐
       vided that the above copyright notice appear in	all  copies  and  that
       both  that  copyright  notice and this permission notice appear in sup‐
       porting documentation.

       The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
       in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.


       Except  as  contained  in this notice, the name of The Open Group shall
       not be used in advertising or otherwise to promote  the	sale,  use  or
       other  dealings	in  this  Software without prior written authorization
       from The Open Group.

       X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group.

       A cast of thousands, literally.	The Release 6.3 distribution was  from
       The X Consortium, Inc.  The staff members at the X Consortium responsi‐
       ble for that release were: Donna Converse  (emeritus),  Stephen	Gildea
       (emeritus),  Kaleb  Keithley, Matt Landau (emeritus), Ralph Mor (emeri‐
       tus), Janet O'Halloran, Bob Scheifler, Ralph Swick, Dave Wiggins (emer‐
       itus), and Reed Augliere.

       The X Window System standard was originally developed at the Laboratory
       for Computer Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,  and
       all  rights  thereto  were  assigned  to the X Consortium on January 1,
       1994.  X Consortium, Inc. closed its doors on December 31,  1996.   All
       rights to the X Window System have been assigned to The Open Group.

X Version 11			   Release 6				  X(1)

List of man pages available for HP-UX

Copyright (c) for man pages and the logo by the respective OS vendor.

For those who want to learn more, the polarhome community provides shell access and support.

[legal] [privacy] [GNU] [policy] [cookies] [netiquette] [sponsors] [FAQ]
Polarhome, production since 1999.
Member of Polarhome portal.
Based on Fawad Halim's script.
Vote for polarhome
Free Shell Accounts :: the biggest list on the net