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CVS(1)									CVS(1)

NAME
cvs - Concurrent Versions System

SYNOPSIS
cvs [ cvs_options ]
cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

NOTE
This  manpage is a summary of some of the features of cvs.  It is auto-
generated from an appendix of the CVS manual.  For more in-depth	 docu‐
mentation,  please consult the Cederqvist manual (via the info CVS com‐
mand or otherwise, as described in the SEE ALSO section	of  this  man‐
page).  Cross-references in this man page refer to nodes in the same.

CVS commands
Guide to CVS commands
This  appendix  describes  the  overall	structure of cvs commands, and
describes some commands in detail (others are described elsewhere;  for
a  quick	 reference to cvs commands, see node Invoking CVS' in the CVS
manual).

Structure
Overall structure of CVS commands
The overall format of all cvs commands is:

cvs [ cvs_options ] cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

cvs

The name of the cvs program.

cvs_options

Some  options	that  affect  all  sub-commands	 of  cvs.   These  are
described below.

cvs_command

One  of  several  different  sub-commands.  Some of the commands have
aliases that can be used instead; those aliases are noted in the ref‐
erence	 manual for that command.  There are only two situations where
you may omit cvs_command: cvs -H elicits a  list  of  available  com‐
mands, and cvs -v displays version information on cvs itself.

command_options

Options that are specific for the command.

command_args

Arguments to the commands.

There	is  unfortunately  some confusion between cvs_options and com‐
mand_options.	When given as a cvs_option, some options  only	affect
some  of  the commands.  When given as a command_option it may have a
different meaning, and be accepted by more commands.  In other words,
do not take the above categorization too seriously.  Look at the doc‐

Exit status
CVS's exit status
cvs can indicate to the calling environment  whether  it	 succeeded  or
failed  by  setting its exit status.  The exact way of testing the exit
status will vary from one operating system to another.  For example  in
a  unix	shell  script  the  $? variable will be 0 if the last command returned a successful exit status, or greater than 0 if the exit status indicated failure. If cvs is successful, it returns a successful status; if there is an error, it prints an error message and returns a failure status. The one exception to this is the cvs diff command. It will return a suc‐ cessful status if it found no differences, or a failure status if there were differences or if there was an error. Because this behavior pro‐ vides no good way to detect errors, in the future it is possible that cvs diff will be changed to behave like the other cvs commands. ~/.cvsrc Default options and the ~/.cvsrc file There are some command_options that are used so often that you might have set up an alias or some other means to make sure you always spec‐ ify that option. One example (the one that drove the implementation of the .cvsrc support, actually) is that many people find the default out‐ put of the diff command to be very hard to read, and that either con‐ text diffs or unidiffs are much easier to understand. The ~/.cvsrc file is a way that you can add default options to cvs_com‐ mands within cvs, instead of relying on aliases or other shell scripts. The format of the ~/.cvsrc file is simple. The file is searched for a line that begins with the same name as the cvs_command being executed. If a match is found, then the remainder of the line is split up (at whitespace characters) into separate options and added to the command arguments before any options from the command line. If a command has two names (e.g., checkout and co), the official name, not necessarily the one used on the command line, will be used to match against the file. So if this is the contents of the user's ~/.cvsrc file: log -N diff -uN rdiff -u update -Pd checkout -P release -d the command cvs checkout foo would have the -P option added to the arguments, as well as cvs co foo. With the example file above, the output from cvs diff foobar will be in unidiff format. cvs diff -c foobar will provide context diffs, as usual. Getting "old" format diffs would be slightly more complicated, because diff doesn't have an option to specify use of the "old" format, so you would need cvs -f diff foobar. In place of the command name you can use cvs to specify global options (see node Global options' in the CVS manual). For example the follow‐ ing line in .cvsrc cvs -z6 causes cvs to use compression level 6. Global options The available cvs_options (that are given to the left of cvs_command) are: --allow-root=rootdir Specify legal cvsroot directory. See Password authentication server' in the CVS manual. -a Authenticate all communication between the client and the server. Only has an effect on the cvs client. As of this writing, this is only implemented when using a GSSAPI connection (see node GSSAPI authenticated' in the CVS manual). Authentication prevents certain sorts of attacks involving hijacking the active tcp connection. Enabling authentication does not enable encryption. -b bindir In cvs 1.9.18 and older, this specified that rcs programs are in the bindir directory. Current versions of cvs do not run rcs programs; for compatibility this option is accepted, but it does nothing. -T tempdir Use tempdir as the directory where temporary files are located. Overrides the setting of the$TMPDIR environment variable and any
precompiled directory.	 This parameter	 should	 be  specified	as  an
absolute  pathname.  (When running client/server, -T affects only the
local process; specifying -T for the client  has  no  effect  on  the
server and vice versa.)

-d cvs_root_directory

Use  cvs_root_directory as the root directory pathname of the reposi‐
tory.	Overrides the setting of the  $CVSROOT environment variable. See Repository' in the CVS manual. -e editor Use editor to enter revision log information. Overrides the setting of the$CVSEDITOR and $EDITOR environment variables. For more infor‐ mation, see Committing your changes' in the CVS manual. -f Do not read the ~/.cvsrc file. This option is most often used because of the non-orthogonality of the cvs option set. For example, the cvs log option -N (turn off display of tag names) does not have a corresponding option to turn the display on. So if you have -N in the ~/.cvsrc entry for log, you may need to use -f to show the tag names. -H --help Display usage information about the specified cvs_command (but do not actually execute the command). If you don't specify a command name, cvs -H displays overall help for cvs, including a list of other help options. -n Do not change any files. Attempt to execute the cvs_command, but only to issue reports; do not remove, update, or merge any existing files, or create any new files. Note that cvs will not necessarily produce exactly the same output as without -n. In some cases the output will be the same, but in other cases cvs will skip some of the processing that would have been required to produce the exact same output. -Q Cause the command to be really quiet; the command will only generate output for serious problems. -q Cause the command to be somewhat quiet; informational messages, such as reports of recursion through subdirectories, are suppressed. -r Make new working files read-only. Same effect as if the$CVSREAD
environment  variable is set (see node Environment variables' in the
CVS manual).  The default is to make working files  writable,	unless
watches are on (see node Watches' in the CVS manual).

-s variable=value

Set a user variable (see node Variables' in the CVS manual).

-t

Trace	program	 execution;  display messages showing the steps of cvs
activity.  Particularly useful	 with  -n  to  explore	the  potential
impact of an unfamiliar command.

-v

--version

Display version and copyright information for cvs.

-w

Make  new  working  files  read-write.	  Overrides the setting of the
$CVSREAD environment variable. Files are created read-write by default, unless$CVSREAD is set or -r is given.

-x

Encrypt  all  communication  between the client and the server.  Only
has an effect on the cvs client.  As of this writing,	this  is  only
implemented  when using a GSSAPI connection (see node GSSAPI authen‐
ticated' in the CVS manual) or a Kerberos connection (see node	 Ker‐
beros authenticated' in the CVS manual).  Enabling encryption implies
that message traffic is also authenticated.   Encryption  support  is
not  available by default; it must be enabled using a special config‐
ure option, --enable-encryption, when you build cvs.

-z gzip-level

Set the compression level.  Valid levels are 1 (high speed, low  com‐
pression)  to	9  (low speed, high compression), or 0 to disable com‐
pression (the default).  Only has an effect on the cvs client.

Common options
Common command options
This section describes the command_options that	are  available	across
several	cvs  commands.	These options are always given to the right of
cvs_command. Not all commands support all of these options; each option
is  only	 supported for commands where it makes sense.  However, when a
command has one of these options you can almost	always	count  on  the
same  behavior  of  the	option	as  in other commands.	(Other command
options, which are listed with the individual commands, may  have  dif‐
ferent behavior from one cvs command to the other).

The history command is an exception; it supports many options that con‐
flict even with these standard options.

-D date_spec

Use the most recent revision no later than date_spec.	date_spec is a
single argument, a date description specifying a date in the past.

The specification is sticky when you use it to make a private copy of
a source file; that is, when you get a working	 file  using  -D,  cvs
records  the  date you specified, so that further updates in the same
directory will use the same date  (for	 more  information  on	sticky
tags/dates, see node Sticky tags' in the CVS manual).

-D  is	 available with the annotate, checkout, diff, export, history,
rdiff, rtag, and update commands.  (The  history  command  uses  this
option in a slightly different way; see node history options' in the
CVS manual).

A wide variety of date formats are supported by cvs.  The most	 stan‐
dard ones are ISO8601 (from the International Standards Organization)
and the Internet e-mail standard (specified in RFC822 as  amended  by
RFC1123).

ISO8601 dates have many variants but a few examples are:

1972-09-24
1972-09-24 20:05

There	are  a	lot more ISO8601 date formats, and cvs accepts many of
them, but you probably don't want to hear the whole long story :-).

In addition to the dates allowed in Internet e-mail itself, cvs  also
allows some of the fields to be omitted.  For example:

24 Sep 1972 20:05
24 Sep

The date is interpreted as being in the local timezone, unless a spe‐
cific timezone is specified.

These two date formats are preferred.	However, cvs currently accepts
a  wide  variety  of  other date formats.  They are intentionally not
documented here in any detail, and future versions of cvs  might  not
accept all of them.

One  such  format is month/day/year.  This may confuse people who are
accustomed to having the month and day in the other order; 1/4/96  is
January 4, not April 1.

Remember  to  quote  the  argument  to the -D flag so that your shell
doesn't interpret spaces as argument separators.  A command using the
-D flag can look like this:

$cvs diff -D "1 hour ago" cvs.texinfo -f When you specify a particular date or tag to cvs commands, they nor‐ mally ignore files that do not contain the tag (or did not exist prior to the date) that you specified. Use the -f option if you want files retrieved even when there is no match for the tag or date. (The most recent revision of the file will be used). Note that even with -f, a tag that you specify must exist (that is, in some file, not necessary in every file). This is so that cvs will continue to give an error if you mistype a tag name. -f is available with these commands: annotate, checkout, export, rdiff, rtag, and update. WARNING: The commit and remove commands also have a -f option, but it has a different behavior for those commands. See commit options' in the CVS manual, and Removing files' in the CVS manual. -k kflag Alter the default processing of keywords. See Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual, for the meaning of kflag. Your kflag specifica‐ tion is sticky when you use it to create a private copy of a source file; that is, when you use this option with the checkout or update commands, cvs associates your selected kflag with the file, and con‐ tinues to use it with future update commands on the same file until you specify otherwise. The -k option is available with the add, checkout, diff, rdiff, import and update commands. -l Local; run only in current working directory, rather than recursing through subdirectories. Available with the following commands: annotate, checkout, commit, diff, edit, editors, export, log, rdiff, remove, rtag, status, tag, unedit, update, watch, and watchers. -m message Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor. Available with the following commands: add, commit and import. -n Do not run any tag program. (A program can be specified to run in the modules database (see node modules' in the CVS manual); this option bypasses it). This is not the same as the cvs -n program option, which you can specify to the left of a cvs command! Available with the checkout, export, and rtag commands. -P Prune empty directories. See Removing directories' in the CVS man‐ ual. -p Pipe the files retrieved from the repository to standard output, rather than writing them in the current directory. Available with the checkout and update commands. -R Process directories recursively. This is on by default. Available with the following commands: annotate, checkout, commit, diff, edit, editors, export, rdiff, remove, rtag, status, tag, unedit, update, watch, and watchers. -r tag Use the revision specified by the tag argument instead of the default head revision. As well as arbitrary tags defined with the tag or rtag command, two special tags are always available: HEAD refers to the most recent version available in the repository, and BASE refers to the revision you last checked out into the current working direc‐ tory. The tag specification is sticky when you use this with checkout or update to make your own copy of a file: cvs remembers the tag and continues to use it on future update commands, until you specify oth‐ erwise (for more information on sticky tags/dates, see node Sticky tags' in the CVS manual). The tag can be either a symbolic or numeric tag, as described in Tags' in the CVS manual, or the name of a branch, as described in Branching and merging' in the CVS manual. When a command expects a specific revision, the name of a branch is interpreted as the most recent revision on that branch. Specifying the -q global option along with the -r command option is often useful, to suppress the warning messages when the rcs file does not contain the specified tag. This is not the same as the overall cvs -r option, which you can specify to the left of a cvs command! -r is available with the annotate, checkout, commit, diff, history, export, rdiff, rtag, and update commands. -W Specify file names that should be filtered. You can use this option repeatedly. The spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the .cvswrappers file. Available with the following commands: import, and update. add Add files and directories to the repository · Synopsis: add [-k rcs-kflag] [-m message] files... · Requires: repository, working directory. · Changes: repository, working directory. The add command is used to present new files and directories for addition into the cvs repository. When add is used on a directory, a new directory is created in the repository immediately. When used on a file, only the working directory is updated. Changes to the repos‐ itory are not made until the commit command is used on the newly added file. The add command also resurrects files that have been previously removed. This can be done before or after the commit command is used to finalize the removal of files. Resurrected files are restored into the working directory at the time the add command is executed. add options These standard options are supported by add (see node Common options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them): -k kflag Process keywords according to kflag. See Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual. This option is sticky; future updates of this file in this working directory will use the same kflag. The status com‐ mand can be viewed to see the sticky options. For more information on the status command, see node Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual. -m message Use message as the log message, instead of invoking an editor. add examples Adding a directory$ mkdir doc
$cvs add doc Directory /path/to/repository/doc added to the repository Adding a file$ >TODO
$cvs add TODO cvs add: scheduling file TODO' for addition cvs add: use 'cvs commit' to add this file permanently Undoing a remove command$ rm -f makefile
$cvs remove makefile cvs remove: scheduling makefile' for removal cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently$ cvs add makefile
U makefile
cvs add: makefile, version 1.2, resurrected

· Requires: repository, working directory.

· Changes: repository.

· Synonym: rcs

This  is  the	cvs  interface	to assorted administrative facilities.
Some of them have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist for  his‐
torical  purposes.   Some  of	the questionable options are likely to
disappear in the future.  This	 command  does	work  recursively,  so
extreme care should be used.

On  unix,  if	there  is a group named cvsadmin, only members of that
group can run cvs admin (except for the cvs admin -k  command,	 which
can  be  run  by anybody).  This group should exist on the server, or
any system running the non-client/server cvs.	To disallow cvs	 admin
for all users, create a group with no users in it.  On NT, the cvsad‐
min feature does not exist and all users can run cvs admin.

Some of these options have questionable usefulness for  cvs  but	 exist
for historical purposes.	 Some even make it impossible to use cvs until
you undo the effect!

-Aoldfile

Might not work together with cvs.  Append the access list of  oldfile
to the access list of the rcs file.

Might	not  work together with cvs.  Append the login names appearing
in the comma-separated list logins to the  access  list  of  the  rcs
file.

-b[rev]

Set  the  default branch to rev.  In cvs, you normally do not manipu‐
late default branches; sticky tags (see node Sticky tags' in the CVS
manual)  are a better way to decide which branch you want to work on.
There is one reason to run cvs admin -b: to revert  to	 the  vendor's
version  when	using  vendor  branches	 (see  node  Reverting	 local
changes' in the CVS manual).  There can be no space  between  -b  and
its argument.

-cstring

Sets the comment leader to string.  The comment leader is not used by
current versions of cvs or rcs 5.7.  Therefore, you can almost surely
not worry about it.  See Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual.

Might not work together with cvs.  Erase the login names appearing in
the comma-separated list logins from the access list of the RCS file.
If  logins is omitted, erase the entire access list.  There can be no
space between -e and its argument.

-I

Run interactively, even if the standard  input	 is  not  a  terminal.
This option does not work with the client/server cvs and is likely to
disappear in a future release of cvs.

-i

Useless with cvs.  This creates and initializes a new rcs file, with‐
out depositing a revision.  With cvs, add files with the cvs add com‐
mand (see node Adding files' in the CVS manual).

-ksubst

Set the default keyword substitution to subst.	 See Keyword  substi‐
tution'  in  the  CVS	manual.	  Giving  an explicit -k option to cvs
update, cvs export, or cvs checkout overrides this default.

-l[rev]

Lock the revision with number rev.  If a branch is  given,  lock  the
latest	 revision  on that branch.  If rev is omitted, lock the latest
revision on the default branch.  There can be no space between -l and
its argument.

This  can  be	used  in conjunction with the rcslock.pl script in the
contrib directory of the cvs source distribution to provide  reserved
checkouts  (where  only  one  user  can  be editing a given file at a
time).	 See the comments in that file for details (and see the README
file  in  that directory for disclaimers about the unsupported nature
of contrib).  According to comments in that file, locking must set to
strict (which is the default).

-L

Set locking to strict.	 Strict locking means that the owner of an RCS
file is not exempt from locking  for  checkin.	  For  use  with  cvs,
strict	 locking  must	be set; see the discussion under the -l option
above.

-mrev:msg

Replace the log message of revision rev with msg.

-Nname[:[rev]]

Act like -n, except override any previous assignment  of  name.   For
use  with  magic branches, see Magic branch numbers' in the CVS man‐
ual.

-nname[:[rev]]

Associate the symbolic name name with the branch or revision rev.  It
is  normally  better  to use cvs tag or cvs rtag instead.  Delete the
symbolic name if both : and rev  are  omitted;	 otherwise,  print  an
error	message if name is already associated with another number.  If
rev is symbolic, it is expanded before association.  A rev consisting
of  a	branch	number	followed  by a . stands for the current latest
revision in the branch.  A : with an empty rev stands for the current
latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk.  For exam‐
ple, cvs admin -nname: associates name with the current latest	 revi‐
sion  of  all	the  RCS files; this contrasts with cvs admin -nname:$which associates name with the revision numbers extracted from key‐ word strings in the corresponding working files. -orange Deletes (outdates) the revisions given by range. Note that this command can be quite dangerous unless you know exactly what you are doing (for example see the warnings below about how the rev1:rev2 syntax is confusing). If you are short on disc this option might help you. But think twice before using it—there is no way short of restoring the latest backup to undo this command! If you delete different revisions than you planned, either due to carelessness or (heaven forbid) a cvs bug, there is no opportunity to correct the error before the revisions are deleted. It probably would be a good idea to experiment on a copy of the repository first. Specify range in one of the following ways: rev1::rev2 Collapse all revisions between rev1 and rev2, so that cvs only stores the differences associated with going from rev1 to rev2, not intermediate steps. For example, after -o 1.3::1.5 one can retrieve revision 1.3, revision 1.5, or the differences to get from 1.3 to 1.5, but not the revision 1.4, or the differences between 1.3 and 1.4. Other examples: -o 1.3::1.4 and -o 1.3::1.3 have no effect, because there are no intermediate revisions to remove. ::rev Collapse revisions between the beginning of the branch containing rev and rev itself. The branchpoint and rev are left intact. For example, -o ::1.3.2.6 deletes revision 1.3.2.1, revision 1.3.2.5, and everything in between, but leaves 1.3 and 1.3.2.6 intact. rev:: Collapse revisions between rev and the end of the branch containing rev. Revision rev is left intact but the head revision is deleted. rev Delete the revision rev. For example, -o 1.3 is equivalent to -o 1.2::1.4. rev1:rev2 Delete the revisions from rev1 to rev2, inclusive, on the same branch. One will not be able to retrieve rev1 or rev2 or any of the revisions in between. For example, the command cvs admin -oR_1_01:R_1_02 . is rarely useful. It means to delete revisions up to, and including, the tag R_1_02. But beware! If there are files that have not changed between R_1_02 and R_1_03 the file will have the same numerical revision number assigned to the tags R_1_02 and R_1_03. So not only will it be impossible to retrieve R_1_02; R_1_03 will also have to be restored from the tapes! In most cases you want to specify rev1::rev2 instead. :rev Delete revisions from the beginning of the branch containing rev up to and including rev. rev: Delete revisions from revision rev, including rev itself, to the end of the branch containing rev. None of the revisions to be deleted may have branches or locks. If any of the revisions to be deleted have symbolic names, and one specifies one of the :: syntaxes, then cvs will give an error and not delete any revisions. If you really want to delete both the symbolic names and the revisions, first delete the symbolic names with cvs tag -d, then run cvs admin -o. If one specifies the non-:: syntaxes, then cvs will delete the revisions but leave the symbolic names pointing to nonexistent revisions. This behavior is preserved for compatibility with previous versions of cvs, but because it isn't very useful, in the future it may change to be like the :: case. Due to the way cvs handles branches rev cannot be specified symbol‐ ically if it is a branch. See Magic branch numbers' in the CVS manual for an explanation. Make sure that no-one has checked out a copy of the revision you outdate. Strange things will happen if he starts to edit it and tries to check it back in. For this reason, this option is not a good way to take back a bogus commit; commit a new revision undoing the bogus change instead (see node Merging two revisions' in the CVS manual). -q Run quietly; do not print diagnostics. -sstate[:rev] Useful with cvs. Set the state attribute of the revision rev to state. If rev is a branch number, assume the latest revision on that branch. If rev is omitted, assume the latest revision on the default branch. Any identifier is acceptable for state. A useful set of states is Exp (for experimental), Stab (for stable), and Rel (for released). By default, the state of a new revision is set to Exp when it is created. The state is visible in the output from cvs log (see node log' in the CVS manual), and in the$Log$and$State$key‐ words (see node Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual). Note that cvs uses the dead state for its own purposes (see node Attic' in the CVS manual); to take a file to or from the dead state use commands like cvs remove and cvs add (see node Adding and removing' in the CVS manual), not cvs admin -s. -t[file] Useful with cvs. Write descriptive text from the contents of the named file into the RCS file, deleting the existing text. The file pathname may not begin with -. The descriptive text can be seen in the output from cvs log (see node log' in the CVS manual). There can be no space between -t and its argument. If file is omitted, obtain the text from standard input, terminated by end-of-file or by a line containing . by itself. Prompt for the text if interaction is possible; see -I. -t-string Similar to -tfile. Write descriptive text from the string into the rcs file, deleting the existing text. There can be no space between -t and its argument. -U Set locking to non-strict. Non-strict locking means that the owner of a file need not lock a revision for checkin. For use with cvs, strict locking must be set; see the discussion under the -l option above. -u[rev] See the option -l above, for a discussion of using this option with cvs. Unlock the revision with number rev. If a branch is given, unlock the latest revision on that branch. If rev is omitted, remove the latest lock held by the caller. Normally, only the locker of a revision may unlock it; somebody else unlocking a revision breaks the lock. This causes the original locker to be sent a commit notifica‐ tion (see node Getting Notified' in the CVS manual). There can be no space between -u and its argument. -Vn In previous versions of cvs, this option meant to write an rcs file which would be acceptable to rcs version n, but it is now obsolete and specifying it will produce an error. -xsuffixes In previous versions of cvs, this was documented as a way of specify‐ ing the names of the rcs files. However, cvs has always required that the rcs files used by cvs end in ,v, so this option has never done anything useful. annotate What revision modified each line of a file? · Synopsis: annotate [options] files... · Requires: repository. · Synonym: blame · Changes: nothing. For each file in files, print the head revision of the trunk, together with information on the last modification for each line. annotate options These standard options are supported by annotate (see node Common options' in the CVS manual for a complete description of them): -l Local directory only, no recursion. -R Process directories recursively. -f Use head revision if tag/date not found. -F Annotate binary files. -r revision Annotate file as of specified revision/tag. -D date Annotate file as of specified date. annotate example For example:$ cvs annotate ssfile
Annotations for ssfile
***************
1.1	      (mary	27-Mar-96): ssfile line 1
1.2	      (joe	28-Mar-96): ssfile line 2

The file ssfile currently contains two lines.  The ssfile line  1  line
was  checked  in	 by  mary on March 27.	Then, on March 28, joe added a
line ssfile line 2, without modifying the ssfile	 line  1  line.	  This
report doesn't tell you anything about lines which have been deleted or
replaced; you need to use cvs diff for that (see node diff' in the CVS
manual).

The  options  to	 cvs  annotate are listed in Invoking CVS' in the CVS
manual, and can be used to select the files and revisions to  annotate.
The  options are described in more detail there and in Common options'
in the CVS manual.

checkout
Check out sources for editing
· Synopsis: checkout [options] modules...

· Requires: repository.

· Changes: working directory.

· Synonyms: co, get

Create or update a working directory containing copies of the	source
files	specified  by modules.	You must execute checkout before using
most of the other cvs commands, since most of them  operate  on  your
working directory.

The  modules  are either symbolic names for some collection of source
directories and files, or paths to directories or files in the repos‐
itory.	  The  symbolic	 names	are  defined in the modules file.  See
modules' in the CVS manual.

Depending on the modules you specify, checkout may recursively create
directories and populate them with the appropriate source files.  You
can then edit these source files at any time (regardless  of  whether
other	software  developers  are  editing  their  own	copies	of the
sources); update them to include new changes applied by others to the
source	 repository;  or commit your work as a permanent change to the
source repository.

Note that checkout is used  to	 create	 directories.	The  top-level
directory  created is always added to the directory where checkout is
invoked, and usually has the same name as the specified  module.   In
the case of a module alias, the created sub-directory may have a dif‐
ferent name, but you can be sure that it will be a sub-directory, and
that  checkout will show the relative path leading to each file as it
is extracted into your private work area (unless you specify  the  -Q
global option).

The  files  created by checkout are created read-write, unless the -r
option to cvs (see node Global options' in the CVS manual) is speci‐
fied,	the CVSREAD environment variable is specified (see node Envi‐
ronment variables' in the CVS manual), or a watch is  in  effect  for
that file (see node Watches' in the CVS manual).

Note that running checkout on a directory that was already built by a
prior checkout is also permitted.  This is similar to specifying  the
-d  option  to	 the  update command in the sense that new directories
that have been created in the repository will	appear	in  your  work
area.	 However,  checkout takes a module name whereas update takes a
directory name.  Also to use checkout this way it must	 be  run  from
the  top level directory (where you originally ran checkout from), so
before you run checkout to update an existing directory, don't forget
to change your directory to the top level directory.

For  the  output  produced  by the checkout command, see node update
output' in the CVS manual.

checkout options
These standard options are supported  by	 checkout  (see	 node  Common
options' in the CVS manual for a complete description of them):

-D date

Use  the  most	 recent	 revision  no later than date.	This option is
sticky, and implies -P.  See Sticky tags' in the CVS manual for more
information on sticky tags/dates.

-f

Only  useful  with the -D date or -r tag flags.  If no matching revi‐
sion is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring
the file).

-k kflag

Process  keywords  according to kflag.	 See Keyword substitution' in
the CVS manual.  This option is sticky; future updates of  this  file
in  this  working directory will use the same kflag.  The status com‐
mand can be viewed to see the sticky options.	See Invoking CVS'  in

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.

-n

Do  not  run any checkout program (as specified with the -o option in
the modules file; see node modules' in the CVS manual).

-P

Prune empty directories.  See Moving directories' in the CVS manual.

-p

Pipe files to the standard output.

-R

Checkout directories recursively.  This option is on by default.

-r tag

Use revision tag.  This  option  is  sticky,  and  implies  -P.   See
Sticky  tags'	 in  the  CVS  manual,	for more information on sticky
tags/dates.

In addition to those, you can use these special command options  with
checkout:

-A

Reset	any  sticky tags, dates, or -k options.	 Does not reset sticky
-k options on modified files.	See Sticky tags' in  the  CVS	manual

-c

Copy the module file, sorted, to the standard output, instead of cre‐
ating or modifying any files or directories in	 your  working	direc‐
tory.

-d dir

Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using
the module name.  In general, using this flag is equivalent to	 using
mkdir	dir;  cd  dir  followed by the checkout command without the -d
flag.

There is an important exception, however.  It is very convenient when
checking  out	a single item to have the output appear in a directory
that doesn't contain empty intermediate directories.	In  this  case
only,	cvs tries to shorten'' pathnames to avoid those empty direc‐
tories.

For example, given a module foo that contains	the  file  bar.c,  the
command  cvs  co -d dir foo will create directory dir and place bar.c
inside.  Similarly, given a module bar	 which	has  subdirectory  baz
wherein  there	 is  a	file quux.c, the command cvs co -d dir bar/baz
will create directory dir and place quux.c inside.

Using the -N flag will defeat this behavior.  Given the  same	module
definitions  above,  cvs  co  -N  -d  dir foo will create directories
dir/foo and place bar.c inside, while cvs co -N -d dir	 bar/baz  will
create directories dir/bar/baz and place quux.c inside.

-j tag

With  two  -j options, merge changes from the revision specified with
the first -j option to the  revision  specified  with	the  second  j
option, into the working directory.

With  one  -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision to the
revision specified with the -j option, into  the  working  directory.
The  ancestor	revision  is the common ancestor of the revision which
the working directory is based on, and the revision specified in  the
-j option.

In  addition,	each -j option can contain an optional date specifica‐
tion which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to
one  within a specific date.  An optional date is specified by adding
a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

See Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.

-N

Only useful together with -d dir.  With this  option,	cvs  will  not
shorten'' module paths in your working directory when you check out
a single module.  See the -d flag for examples and a discussion.

-s

Like -c, but include the status of all modules, and sort  it  by  the
status	 string.   See modules' in the CVS manual, for info about the
-s option that is used inside the modules file to set the module sta‐
tus.

checkout examples
Get a copy of the module tc:

$cvs checkout tc Get a copy of the module tc as it looked one day ago:$ cvs checkout -D yesterday tc

commit
Check files into the repository
· Synopsis:  commit  [-lRf]  [-m 'log_message' | -F file] [-r revision]
[files...]

· Requires: working directory, repository.

· Changes: repository.

· Synonym: ci

Use commit when you want to incorporate  changes  from	 your  working
source files into the source repository.

If  you don't specify particular files to commit, all of the files in
your working current directory are examined.  commit  is  careful  to
change	 in  the  repository  only  those  files  that you have really
changed.  By default (or if you explicitly specify  the  -R  option),
files	in subdirectories are also examined and committed if they have
changed; you can use the -l option to limit  commit  to  the  current
directory only.

commit	 verifies that the selected files are up to date with the cur‐
rent revisions in the source repository; it will notify you, and exit
without  committing,  if any of the specified files must be made cur‐
rent first with update (see node update' in the CVS manual).	commit
does  not call the update command for you, but rather leaves that for
you to do when the time is right.

When all is well, an editor is invoked to allow you to	 enter	a  log
message  that	will  be  written to one or more logging programs (see
node modules' in the CVS manual, and see node loginfo' in  the  CVS
manual)  and  placed in the rcs file inside the repository.  This log
message can be retrieved with the log command; see node log' in  the
CVS manual.  You can specify the log message on the command line with
the -m message option, and thus avoid the editor invocation,  or  use
the -F file option to specify that the argument file contains the log
message.

commit options
These standard options  are  supported  by  commit  (see	 node  Common
options' in the CVS manual for a complete description of them):

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.

-R

Commit directories recursively.  This is on by default.

-r revision

Commit	 to revision.  revision must be either a branch, or a revision
on the main trunk that is higher than any  existing  revision	number
(see  node Assigning revisions' in the CVS manual).  You cannot com‐
mit to a specific revision on a branch.

commit also supports these options:

-F file

-f

Note that this is not the standard  behavior  of  the	-f  option  as
defined in Common options' in the CVS manual.

Force	cvs  to	 commit	 a  new	 revision even if you haven't made any
changes to the file.  If the current revision of file	is  1.7,  then
the following two commands are equivalent:

$cvs commit -f file$ cvs commit -r 1.8 file

The -f option disables recursion (i.e., it implies -l).  To force cvs
to commit a new revision for all files	 in  all  subdirectories,  you
must use -f -R.

-m message

Use message as the log message, instead of invoking an editor.

commit examples
Committing to a branch
You  can	 commit	 to  a branch revision (one that has an even number of
dots) with the -r option.  To create a  branch  revision,  use  the  -b
option of the rtag or tag commands (see node Branching and merging' in
the CVS manual).	 Then, either checkout or update can be used  to  base
your sources on the newly created branch.  From that point on, all com‐
mit changes made within these working  sources  will  be	 automatically
added  to  a branch revision, thereby not disturbing main-line develop‐
ment in any way.	 For example, if you had to create a patch to the  1.2
version	of  the	 product, even though the 2.0 version is already under
development, you might do:

$cvs rtag -b -r FCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module$ cvs checkout -r FCS1_2_Patch product_module
$cd product_module [[ hack away ]]$ cvs commit

This works automatically since the -r option is sticky.

Creating the branch after editing
Say you have been working  on  some  extremely  experimental  software,
based on whatever revision you happened to checkout last week.  If oth‐
ers in your group would like to work on this  software  with  you,  but
without	disturbing main-line development, you could commit your change
to a new branch.	 Others can then checkout your experimental stuff  and
utilize	the  full  benefit  of	cvs conflict resolution.  The scenario
might look like:

[[ hacked sources are present ]]
$cvs tag -b EXPR1$ cvs update -r EXPR1
$cvs commit The update command will make the -r EXPR1 option sticky on all files. Note that your changes to the files will never be removed by the update command. The commit will automatically commit to the correct branch, because the -r is sticky. You could also do like this: [[ hacked sources are present ]]$ cvs tag -b EXPR1
$cvs commit -r EXPR1 but then, only those files that were changed by you will have the -r EXPR1 sticky flag. If you hack away, and commit without specifying the -r EXPR1 flag, some files may accidentally end up on the main trunk. To work with you on the experimental change, others would simply do$ cvs checkout -r EXPR1 whatever_module

diff
Show differences between revisions
· Synopsis:  diff  [-lR]	 [-k  kflag]  [format_options]	[[-r rev1 | -D
date1] [-r rev2 |  -D date2]] [files...]

· Requires: working directory, repository.

· Changes: nothing.

The diff command is used to compare  different	 revisions  of	files.
The  default  action  is to compare your working files with the revi‐
sions they were based on, and report any differences that are found.

If any file names are given, only those files are compared.   If  any
directories are given, all files under them will be compared.

The  exit  status  for diff is different than for other cvs commands;
for details see node Exit status' in the CVS manual.

diff options
These standard options are supported by diff (see node Common options'
in the CVS manual for a complete description of them):

-D date

Use the most recent revision no later than date.  See -r for how this
affects the comparison.

-k kflag

Process keywords according to kflag.  See Keyword  substitution'  in
the CVS manual.

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.

-R

Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by default.

-r tag

Compare  with	revision  tag.	 Zero,	one  or	 two -r options can be
present.  With no -r option, the working file will be	compared  with
the  revision	it  was	 based on.  With one -r, that revision will be
compared to your current working file.	 With two -r options those two
revisions will be compared (and your working file will not affect the
outcome in any way).

One or both -r options can be replaced by a -D date option, described
above.

The  following	 options  specify the format of the output.  They have
the same meaning as in GNU diff.  Most options	 have  two  equivalent
names,	 one  of which is a single letter preceded by -, and the other
of which is a long name preceded by --.

-lines

Show lines (an integer) lines of context.  This option does not spec‐
ify  an  output  format by itself; it has no effect unless it is com‐
bined with -c or -u.  This option is obsolete.	 For proper operation,
patch typically needs at least two lines of context.

-a

Treat	all  files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they
do not seem to be text.

-b

Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences  of  one
or more white space characters to be equivalent.

-B

Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.

--binary

Read and write data in binary mode.

--brief

Report	 only whether the files differ, not the details of the differ‐
ences.

-c

Use the context output format.

-C lines

--context[=lines]

Use the context output format, showing lines (an  integer)  lines  of
context, or three if lines is not given.  For proper operation, patch
typically needs at least two lines of context.

--changed-group-format=format

Use format to output a line group  containing	differing  lines  from
both  files  in if-then-else format.  See Line group formats' in the
CVS manual.

-d

Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.	  This
makes diff slower (sometimes much slower).

-e

--ed

Make output that is a valid ed script.

--expand-tabs

Expand	 tabs  to  spaces  in the output, to preserve the alignment of
tabs in the input files.

-f

Make output that looks vaguely like an ed script but has  changes  in
the order they appear in the file.

-F regexp

In  context  and  unified  format, for each hunk of differences, show
some of the last preceding line that matches regexp.

--forward-ed

Make output that looks vaguely like an ed script but has  changes  in
the order they appear in the file.

-H

Use  heuristics  to  speed handling of large files that have numerous
scattered small changes.

--horizon-lines=lines

Do not discard the last lines lines of	 the  common  prefix  and  the
first lines lines of the common suffix.

-i

Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case letters equiv‐
alent.

-I regexp

Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.

--ifdef=name

Make merged if-then-else output using name.

--ignore-all-space

Ignore white space when comparing lines.

--ignore-blank-lines

Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.

--ignore-case

Ignore changes in case; consider upper-  and  lower-case  to  be  the
same.

--ignore-matching-lines=regexp

Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.

--ignore-space-change

Ignore	 trailing  white space and consider all other sequences of one
or more white space characters to be equivalent.

--initial-tab

Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in	normal
or  context format.  This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to
look normal.

-L label

Use label instead of the file name in the context format and  unified

--label=label

Use  label instead of the file name in the context format and unified

--left-column

Print only the left column of two common lines in side by  side  for‐
mat.

--line-format=format

Use  format  to  output  all input lines in if-then-else format.  See
Line formats' in the CVS manual.

--minimal

Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.	  This
makes diff slower (sometimes much slower).

-n

Output	 RCS-format  diffs; like -f except that each command specifies
the number of lines affected.

-N

--new-file

In directory comparison, if a file is found in	 only  one  directory,
treat it as present but empty in the other directory.

--new-group-format=format

Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the second file
in if-then-else format.  See Line group formats' in the CVS manual.

--new-line-format=format

Use format to output a line taken from just the second	 file  in  if-
then-else format.  See Line formats' in the CVS manual.

--old-group-format=format

Use  format to output a group of lines taken from just the first file
in if-then-else format.  See Line group formats' in the CVS manual.

--old-line-format=format

Use format to output a line taken from just the  first	 file  in  if-
then-else format.  See Line formats' in the CVS manual.

-p

Show which C function each change is in.

--rcs

Output	 RCS-format  diffs; like -f except that each command specifies
the number of lines affected.

--report-identical-files

-s

Report when two files are the same.

--show-c-function

Show which C function each change is in.

--show-function-line=regexp

In context and unified format, for each  hunk	of  differences,  show
some of the last preceding line that matches regexp.

--side-by-side

Use the side by side output format.

--speed-large-files

Use  heuristics  to  speed handling of large files that have numerous
scattered small changes.

--suppress-common-lines

Do not print common lines in side by side format.

-t

Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to  preserve  the	 alignment  of
tabs in the input files.

-T

Output	 a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal
or context format.  This causes the alignment of tabs in the line  to
look normal.

--text

Treat	all  files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they
do not appear to be text.

-u

Use the unified output format.

--unchanged-group-format=format

Use format to output a group of common lines taken from both files in
if-then-else  format.	 see node Line group formats' in the CVS man‐
ual.

--unchanged-line-format=format

Use format to output a line common to both files in if-then-else for‐
mat.  see node Line formats' in the CVS manual.

-U lines

--unified[=lines]

Use  the  unified  output format, showing lines (an integer) lines of
context, or three if lines is not given.  For proper operation, patch
typically needs at least two lines of context.

-w

Ignore white space when comparing lines.

-W columns

--width=columns

Use an output width of columns in side by side format.

-y

Use the side by side output format.

Line group formats
Line  group  formats let you specify formats suitable for many applica‐
tions that allow if-then-else input,  including	programming  languages
and  text formatting languages.	A line group format specifies the out‐
put format for a contiguous group of similar lines.

For example, the following command compares the TeX  file  myfile  with
the  original version from the repository, and outputs a merged file in
which old regions are surrounded by \begin{em}-\end{em} lines, and  new
regions are surrounded by \begin{bf}-\end{bf} lines.

cvs diff \

--old-group-format='\begin{em}
%<\end{em}
' \

--new-group-format='\begin{bf}
%>\end{bf}
' \

myfile

The  following  command is equivalent to the above example, but it is a
little more verbose, because it spells out the default line group  for‐
mats.

cvs diff \

--old-group-format='\begin{em}
%<\end{em}
' \

--new-group-format='\begin{bf}
%>\end{bf}
' \

--unchanged-group-format='%=' \

--changed-group-format='\begin{em}
%<\end{em}
\begin{bf}
%>\end{bf}
' \

myfile

Here  is	 a  more  advanced  example, which outputs a diff listing with
headers containing line numbers in a plain English'' style.

cvs diff \

--unchanged-group-format='' \

--old-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) deleted at %df:
%<' \

--new-group-format='-------- %dN line%(N=1?:s) added after %de:
%>' \

--changed-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) changed at %df:
%<-------- to:
%>' \

myfile

To specify a line group format, use one of the  options	listed	below.
You  can	 specify  up  to four line group formats, one for each kind of
line group.  You should quote format,  because  it  typically  contains
shell metacharacters.

--old-group-format=format

These	line  groups  are  hunks  containing only lines from the first
file.	The default old group format is the same as the changed	 group
format	 if it is specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs the
line group as-is.

--new-group-format=format

These line groups are hunks containing only  lines  from  the	second
file.	The default new group format is same as the changed group for‐
mat if it is specified; otherwise it is a  format  that  outputs  the
line group as-is.

--changed-group-format=format

These	line  groups  are hunks containing lines from both files.  The
default changed group format is the concatenation of the old and  new
group formats.

--unchanged-group-format=format

These	line  groups  contain lines common to both files.  The default
unchanged group format is a format that outputs the line group as-is.

In a line group format,  ordinary  characters	represent  themselves;
forms.

%<

stands for the lines from the first file, including the trailing new‐
line.	 Each  line is formatted according to the old line format (see
node Line formats' in the CVS manual).

%>

stands for the lines from the second  file,  including	 the  trailing
newline.  Each line is formatted according to the new line format.

%=

stands	 for  the  lines  common to both files, including the trailing
newline.  Each line is formatted according to the unchanged line for‐
mat.

%%

stands for %.

%c'C'

where	C  is  a single character, stands for C.  C may not be a back‐
slash or an apostrophe.  For example, %c':' stands for a colon,  even
inside	 the  then-part of an if-then-else format, which a colon would
normally terminate.

%c'\O'

where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the	 char‐
acter with octal code O.  For example, %c'\0' stands for a null char‐
acter.

Fn

where F is a printf conversion specification and n is one of the fol‐
lowing letters, stands for n's value formatted with F.

e

The line number of the line just before the group in the old file.

f

The	line  number  of  the first line in the group in the old file;
equals e + 1.

l

The line number of the last line in the group in the old file.

m

The line number of the line just after the group in the  old	 file;
equals l + 1.

n

The number of lines in the group in the old file; equals l - f + 1.

E, F, L, M, N

Likewise, for lines in the new file.

The printf conversion specification can be %d, %o, %x, or %X, spec‐
ifying decimal, octal, lower case hexadecimal, or upper case	 hexa‐
decimal output respectively.	 After the % the following options can
appear in sequence: a - specifying left-justification;  an  integer
specifying  the  minimum  field  width; and a period followed by an
optional integer specifying the  minimum  number  of	 digits.   For
example,  %5dN  prints  the	number	of new lines in the group in a
field of width 5 characters, using the printf format "%5d".

(A=B?T:E)

If A equals B then T else E.  A and B are each either a decimal  con‐
stant	or  a single letter interpreted as above.  This format spec is
equivalent to T if A's value equals B's; otherwise it	is  equivalent
to E.

For example, %(N=0?no:%dN) line%(N=1?:s) is equivalent to no lines if
N (the number of lines in the group in the new file) is 0, to 1  line
if N is 1, and to %dN lines otherwise.

Line formats
Line  formats  control how each line taken from an input file is output
as part of a line group in if-then-else format.

For example, the following  command  outputs  text  with	 a  one-column
change  indicator  to the left of the text.  The first column of output
is - for deleted lines, | for added lines, and a	 space	for  unchanged
lines.	The  formats  contain  newline	characters  where newlines are
desired on output.

cvs diff \

--old-line-format='-%l
' \

--new-line-format='|%l
' \

--unchanged-line-format=' %l
' \

myfile

To specify a line format, use one of the following options.  You should
quote format, since it often contains shell metacharacters.

--old-line-format=format

formats lines just from the first file.

--new-line-format=format

formats lines just from the second file.

--unchanged-line-format=format

formats lines common to both files.

--line-format=format

formats  all lines; in effect, it sets all three above options simul‐
taneously.

In a line format, ordinary characters represent  themselves;  conver‐
sion specifications start with % and have one of the following forms.

%l

stands	 for  the contents of the line, not counting its trailing new‐
line (if any).	 This format ignores whether the line is incomplete.

%L

stands for the contents of the line, including its  trailing  newline
(if  any).  If a line is incomplete, this format preserves its incom‐
pleteness.

%%

stands for %.

%c'C'

where C is a single character, stands for C.  C may not  be  a	 back‐
slash or an apostrophe.  For example, %c':' stands for a colon.

%c'\O'

where	O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the char‐
acter with octal code O.  For example, %c'\0' stands for a null char‐
acter.

Fn

where	F  is  a  printf conversion specification, stands for the line
number formatted with F.  For example, %.5dn prints the  line	number
using the printf format "%.5d".  see node Line group formats' in the
CVS manual, for more about printf conversion specifications.

The default line format is %l followed by a newline character.

If the input contains tab characters and it is	 important  that  they
line  up  on output, you should ensure that %l or %L in a line format
is just after a tab stop (e.g. by preceding %l or %L with a tab char‐
acter), or you should use the -t or --expand-tabs option.

Taken	together, the line and line group formats let you specify many
different formats.  For example, the following command uses a	format
similar  to diff's normal format.  You can tailor this command to get
fine control over diff's output.

cvs diff \

--old-line-format='< %l
' \

--new-line-format='> %l
' \

--old-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)d%dE
%<' \

--new-group-format='%dea%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
%>' \

--changed-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)c%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
%<—
%>' \

--unchanged-group-format='' \

myfile

diff examples
The following line produces a Unidiff (-u flag) between	revision  1.14
and  1.19  of  backend.c.   Due to the -kk flag no keywords are substi‐
tuted, so differences that only	depend	on  keyword  substitution  are
ignored.

$cvs diff -kk -u -r 1.14 -r 1.19 backend.c Suppose the experimental branch EXPR1 was based on a set of files tagged RELEASE_1_0. To see what has happened on that branch, the fol‐ lowing can be used:$ cvs diff -r RELEASE_1_0 -r EXPR1

A  command  like this can be used to produce a context diff between two
releases:

$cvs diff -c -r RELEASE_1_0 -r RELEASE_1_1 > diffs If you are maintaining ChangeLogs, a command like the following just before you commit your changes may help you write the ChangeLog entry. All local modifications that have not yet been committed will be printed.$ cvs diff -u | less

export
Export sources from CVS, similar to checkout
· Synopsis:  export  [-flNnR] [-r rev|-D date] [-k subst] [-d dir] mod‐
ule...

· Requires: repository.

· Changes: current directory.

This command is a variant of checkout; use it when you want a copy of
the  source  for  module  without the cvs administrative directories.
For example, you might use export to prepare source for shipment off-
site.	 This command requires that you specify a date or tag (with -D
or -r), so that you can count on reproducing the source you  ship  to
others (and thus it always prunes empty directories).

One  often  would  like  to use -kv with cvs export.  This causes any
keywords to be expanded such that an import done at some  other  site
will  not  lose  the keyword revision information.  But be aware that
doesn't handle an export containing binary files correctly.  Also  be
aware	that  after  having  used -kv, one can no longer use the ident
command (which is part of the rcs suite—see ident(1)) which looks for
keyword  strings.   If	 you want to be able to use ident you must not
use -kv.

export options
These standard options  are  supported  by  export  (see	 node  Common
options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):

-D date

Use the most recent revision no later than date.

-f

If  no	 matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.

-n

Do not run any checkout program.

-R

Export directories recursively.  This is on by default.

-r tag

Use revision tag.

In addition, these options (that are common to checkout  and  export)
are also supported:

-d dir

Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using
the module name.  See checkout options' in the CVS manual  for  com‐
plete details on how cvs handles this flag.

-k subst

Set  keyword expansion mode (see node Substitution modes' in the CVS
manual).

-N

Only useful together with -d dir.  See checkout options' in the  CVS
manual for complete details on how cvs handles this flag.

history
Show status of files and users
· Synopsis:     history [-report] [-flags] [-options args] [files...]

· Requires: the file $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history · Changes: nothing. cvs can keep a history file that tracks each use of the checkout, commit, rtag, update, and release commands. You can use history to display this information in various formats. Logging must be enabled by creating the file$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/his‐
tory.

history uses -f, -l, -n, and -p in ways that conflict with the normal
use inside cvs (see node Common options' in the CVS manual).

history options
Several	options (shown above as -report)  control  what kind of report
is generated:

-c

Report on each time commit was used (i.e., each time  the  repository
was modified).

-e

Everything  (all record types).  Equivalent to specifying -x with all
record types.	Of course, -e will also include record types which are
added	in  a future version of cvs; if you are writing a script which
can only handle certain record types, you'll want to specify -x.

-m module

Report on a particular module.	 (You can  meaningfully	 use  -m  more
than once on the command line.)

-o

Report on checked-out modules.	 This is the default report type.

-T

Report on all tags.

-x type

Extract  a  particular set of record types type from the cvs history.
The types are indicated by single letters, which you may  specify  in
combination.

Certain commands have a single record type:

F

release

O

checkout

E

export

T

rtag

One of five record types may result from an update:

C

A  merge was necessary but collisions were detected (requiring man‐
ual merging).

G

A merge was necessary and it succeeded.

U

A working file was copied from the repository.

P

A working file was patched to match the repository.

W

The working copy of a file was deleted during  update  (because  it
was gone from the repository).

One of three record types results from commit:

A

A file was added for the first time.

M

A file was modified.

R

A file was removed.

The	options shown as -flags constrain or expand the report without
requiring option arguments:

-a

Show data for all users (the default is to show  data	only  for  the
user executing history).

-l

Show last modification only.

-w

Show  only  the  records for modifications done from the same working
directory where history is executing.

The options shown as -options args constrain the report based	on  an
argument:

-b str

Show  data  back  to a record containing  the	string str  in	either
the module name, the file name, or the repository path.

-D date

Show data since date.	This is slightly different from the normal use
of -D date, which selects the newest revision older than date.

-f file

Show  data  for a particular file (you can specify several -f options
on the same command line).  This is equivalent to specifying the file
on the command line.

-n module

Show data for a particular module (you can specify several -n options
on the same command line).

-p repository

Show data for a particular source repository  (you can	 specify  sev‐
eral -p options on the same command line).

-r rev

Show  records	referring to revisions since the revision or tag named
rev appears in individual rcs files.  Each rcs file is	 searched  for
the revision or tag.

-t tag

Show  records since tag tag was last added to the history file.  This
differs from the -r flag above in that	 it  reads  only  the  history
file, not the rcs files, and is much faster.

-u name

Show records for user name.

-z timezone

Show  times  in  the  selected	 records using the specified time zone

import
Import sources into CVS, using vendor branches
· Synopsis: import [-options] repository vendortag releasetag...

· Requires: Repository, source distribution directory.

· Changes: repository.

Use import to incorporate an entire source distribution from an  out‐
side  source  (e.g.,  a  source  vendor)  into your source repository
directory.  You can use this command both for initial creation	 of  a
repository,  and for wholesale updates to the module from the outside
source.  See Tracking sources' in the CVS manual for a discussion on
this subject.

The repository argument gives a directory name (or a path to a direc‐
tory) under the cvs root directory for repositories; if the directory
did not exist, import creates it.

When  you  use import for updates to source that has been modified in
your source repository (since a prior import), it will notify you  of
any  files  that  conflict  in	 the  two branches of development; use
checkout -j to reconcile the differences, as import instructs you  to
do.

If  cvs decides a file should be ignored (see node cvsignore' in the
CVS manual), it does not import it and	 prints	 I   followed  by  the
filename  (see	 node import output' in the CVS manual for a complete
description of the output).

If the file $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/cvswrappers exists, any file whose names match the specifications in that file will be treated as packages and the appropriate filtering will be performed on the file/directory before being imported. See Wrappers' in the CVS manual. The outside source is saved in a first-level branch, by default 1.1.1. Updates are leaves of this branch; for example, files from the first imported collection of source will be revision 1.1.1.1, then files from the first imported update will be revision 1.1.1.2, and so on. At least three arguments are required. repository is needed to iden‐ tify the collection of source. vendortag is a tag for the entire branch (e.g., for 1.1.1). You must also specify at least one releasetag to uniquely identify the files at the leaves created each time you execute import. The releasetag should be new, not previ‐ ously existing in the repository file, and uniquely identify the imported release, Note that import does not change the directory in which you invoke it. In particular, it does not set up that directory as a cvs work‐ ing directory; if you want to work with the sources import them first and then check them out into a different directory (see node Getting the source' in the CVS manual). import options This standard option is supported by import (see node Common options' in the CVS manual for a complete description): -m message Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor. There are the following additional special options. -b branch See Multiple vendor branches' in the CVS manual. -d Use each file's modification time as the time of import rather than the current time. -k subst Indicate the keyword expansion mode desired. This setting will apply to all files created during the import, but not to any files that previously existed in the repository. See Substitution modes' in the CVS manual for a list of valid -k settings. -I name Specify file names that should be ignored during import. You can use this option repeatedly. To avoid ignoring any files at all (even those ignored by default), specify -I !'. name can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the .cvsignore file. See cvsignore' in the CVS manual. -W spec Specify file names that should be filtered during import. You can use this option repeatedly. spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the .cvswrappers file. see node Wrappers' in the CVS manual. import output import keeps you informed of its progress by printing a line for each file, preceded by one character indicating the status of the file: U file The file already exists in the repository and has not been locally modified; a new revision has been created (if necessary). N file The file is a new file which has been added to the repository. C file The file already exists in the repository but has been locally modi‐ fied; you will have to merge the changes. I file The file is being ignored (see node cvsignore' in the CVS manual). L file The file is a symbolic link; cvs import ignores symbolic links. Peo‐ ple periodically suggest that this behavior should be changed, but if there is a consensus on what it should be changed to, it doesn't seem to be apparent. (Various options in the modules file can be used to recreate symbolic links on checkout, update, etc.; see node modules' in the CVS manual.) import examples See Tracking sources' in the CVS manual, and From files' in the CVS manual. log Print out log information for files · Synopsis: log [options] [files...] · Requires: repository, working directory. · Changes: nothing. Display log information for files. log used to call the rcs utility rlog. Although this is no longer true in the current sources, this history determines the format of the output and the options, which are not quite in the style of the other cvs commands. The output includes the location of the rcs file, the head revision (the latest revision on the trunk), all symbolic names (tags) and some other things. For each revision, the revision number, the author, the number of lines added/deleted and the log message are printed. All times are displayed in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). (Other parts of cvs print times in the local timezone). log uses -R in a way that conflicts with the normal use inside cvs (see node Common options' in the CVS manual). log options By default, log prints all information that is available. All other options restrict the output. Note that the revision selection options (-b, -d, -r, -s, and -w) have no effect, other than possibly causing a search for files in Attic directories, when used in conjunction with the options that restrict the output to only log header fields (-h, -R, and -t) unless the -S option is also specified. -b Print information about the revisions on the default branch, normally the highest branch on the trunk. -d dates Print information about revisions with a checkin date/time in the range given by the semicolon-separated list of dates. The date for‐ mats accepted are those accepted by the -D option to many other cvs commands (see node Common options' in the CVS manual). Dates can be combined into ranges as follows: d1<d2 d2>d1 Select the revisions that were deposited between d1 and d2. <d d> Select all revisions dated d or earlier. d< >d Select all revisions dated d or later. d Select the single, latest revision dated d or earlier. The > or < characters may be followed by = to indicate an inclusive range rather than an exclusive one. Note that the separator is a semicolon (;). -h Print only the name of the rcs file, name of the file in the working directory, head, default branch, access list, locks, symbolic names, and suffix. -l Local; run only in current working directory. (Default is to run recursively). -N Do not print the list of tags for this file. This option can be very useful when your site uses a lot of tags, so rather than "more"'ing over 3 pages of tag information, the log information is presented without tags at all. -n Print the list of tags for this file. This option can be very useful when your .cvsrc file has a log -N entry as a way to get a full list of all of the tags. -R Print only the name of the rcs file. -rrevisions Print information about revisions given in the comma-separated list revisions of revisions and ranges. The following table explains the available range formats: rev1:rev2 Revisions rev1 to rev2 (which must be on the same branch). rev1::rev2 The same, but excluding rev1. :rev ::rev Revisions from the beginning of the branch up to and including rev. rev: Revisions starting with rev to the end of the branch containing rev. rev:: Revisions starting just after rev to the end of the branch contain‐ ing rev. branch An argument that is a branch means all revisions on that branch. branch1:branch2 branch1::branch2 A range of branches means all revisions on the branches in that range. branch. The latest revision in branch. A bare -r with no revisions means the latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk. There can be no space between the -r option and its argument. -S Suppress the header if no revisions are selected. -s states Print information about revisions whose state attributes match one of the states given in the comma-separated list states. Individual states may be any text string, though cvs commonly only uses two states, Exp and dead. See admin options' in the CVS manual for more information. -t Print the same as -h, plus the descriptive text. -wlogins Print information about revisions checked in by users with login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins. If logins is omitted, the user's login is assumed. There can be no space between the -w option and its argument. log prints the intersection of the revisions selected with the options -d, -s, and -w, intersected with the union of the revisions selected by -b and -r. log examples Contributed examples are gratefully accepted. rdiff 'patch' format diffs between releases · rdiff [-flags] [-V vn] [-r t|-D d [-r t2|-D d2]] modules... · Requires: repository. · Changes: nothing. · Synonym: patch Builds a Larry Wall format patch(1) file between two releases, that can be fed directly into the patch program to bring an old release up-to-date with the new release. (This is one of the few cvs com‐ mands that operates directly from the repository, and doesn't require a prior checkout.) The diff output is sent to the standard output device. You can specify (using the standard -r and -D options) any combina‐ tion of one or two revisions or dates. If only one revision or date is specified, the patch file reflects differences between that revi‐ sion or date and the current head revisions in the rcs file. Note that if the software release affected is contained in more than one directory, then it may be necessary to specify the -p option to the patch command when patching the old sources, so that patch is able to find the files that are located in other directories. rdiff options These standard options are supported by rdiff (see node Common options' in the CVS manual for a complete description of them): -D date Use the most recent revision no later than date. -f If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file). -k kflag Process keywords according to kflag. See Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual. -l Local; don't descend subdirectories. -R Examine directories recursively. This option is on by default. -r tag Use revision tag. In addition to the above, these options are available: -c Use the context diff format. This is the default format. -s Create a summary change report instead of a patch. The summary includes information about files that were changed or added between the releases. It is sent to the standard output device. This is useful for finding out, for example, which files have changed between two dates or revisions. -t A diff of the top two revisions is sent to the standard output device. This is most useful for seeing what the last change to a file was. -u Use the unidiff format for the context diffs. Remember that old ver‐ sions of the patch program can't handle the unidiff format, so if you plan to post this patch to the net you should probably not use -u. -V vn Expand keywords according to the rules current in rcs version vn (the expansion format changed with rcs version 5). Note that this option is no longer accepted. cvs will always expand keywords the way that rcs version 5 does. rdiff examples Suppose you receive mail from foo@example.net asking for an update from release 1.2 to 1.4 of the tc compiler. You have no such patches on hand, but with cvs that can easily be fixed with a command such as this:$ cvs rdiff -c -r FOO1_2 -r FOO1_4 tc | \
> Mail -s 'The patches you asked for' foo@example.net

Suppose you have made release 1.3, and forked a branch called  R_1_3fix
for  bug	 fixes.	  R_1_3_1 corresponds to release 1.3.1, which was made
some time ago.  Now, you want to see how much development has been done
on the branch.  This command can be used:

$cvs patch -s -r R_1_3_1 -r R_1_3fix module-name cvs rdiff: Diffing module-name File ChangeLog,v changed from revision 1.52.2.5 to 1.52.2.6 File foo.c,v changed from revision 1.52.2.3 to 1.52.2.4 File bar.h,v changed from revision 1.29.2.1 to 1.2 release Indicate that a Module is no longer in use · release [-d] directories... · Requires: Working directory. · Changes: Working directory, history log. This command is meant to safely cancel the effect of cvs checkout. Since cvs doesn't lock files, it isn't strictly necessary to use this command. You can always simply delete your working directory, if you like; but you risk losing changes you may have forgotten, and you leave no trace in the cvs history file (see node history file' in the CVS manual) that you've abandoned your checkout. Use cvs release to avoid these problems. This command checks that no uncommitted changes are present; that you are executing it from imme‐ diately above a cvs working directory; and that the repository recorded for your files is the same as the repository defined in the module database. If all these conditions are true, cvs release leaves a record of its execution (attesting to your intentionally abandoning your checkout) in the cvs history log. release options The release command supports one command option: -d Delete your working copy of the file if the release succeeds. If this flag is not given your files will remain in your working direc‐ tory. WARNING: The release command deletes all directories and files recursively. This has the very serious side-effect that any direc‐ tory created inside checked-out sources, and not added to the reposi‐ tory (using the add command; see node Adding files' in the CVS man‐ ual) will be silently deleted—even if it is non-empty! release output Before release releases your sources it will print a one-line message for any file that is not up-to-date. U file P file There exists a newer revision of this file in the repository, and you have not modified your local copy of the file (U and P mean the same thing). A file The file has been added to your private copy of the sources, but has not yet been committed to the repository. If you delete your copy of the sources this file will be lost. R file The file has been removed from your private copy of the sources, but has not yet been removed from the repository, since you have not yet committed the removal. See commit' in the CVS manual. M file The file is modified in your working directory. There might also be a newer revision inside the repository. ? file file is in your working directory, but does not correspond to any‐ thing in the source repository, and is not in the list of files for cvs to ignore (see the description of the -I option, and see node cvsignore' in the CVS manual). If you remove your working sources, this file will be lost. release examples Release the tc directory, and delete your local working copy of the files.$ cd ..	 # You must stand immediately above the

# sources when you issue cvs release.
$cvs release -d tc You have [0] altered files in this repository. Are you sure you want to release (and delete) directory tc': y$

remove
Remove files from active use
· Synopsis: remove [-flR] [files...]

· Requires: repository, working directory.

· Changes: working directory.

The  remove command is used to remove unwanted files from active use.
The user normally deletes the files from the working directory	 prior
to  invocation	 of the remove command.	 Only the working directory is
updated.  Changes to the repository are not  made  until  the	commit
command is run.

The  remove  command  does not delete files from from the repository.
cvs keeps all historical data in the repository so that it is	possi‐
ble  to  reconstruct  previous	 states of the projects under revision
control.

To undo cvs  remove  or  to  resurrect	 files	that  were  previously
removed, see node add' in the CVS manual.

remove options
These  standard	options	 are  supported	 by  remove  (see node Common
options' in the CVS manual for a complete description of them):

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.	See Recursive	behav‐
ior' in the CVS manual.

-R

Process directories recursively.  See Recursive behavior' in the CVS
manual.

In addition, these options are also supported:

-f

Note that this is not the standard  behavior  of  the	-f  option  as
defined in Common options' in the CVS manual.

Delete files before removing them.

Entire	 directory  hierarchies	 are easily removed using -f, but take
note that it is not as easy to resurrect directory hierarchies as  it
is to remove them.

remove examples
Removing a file
$cvs remove remove.me cvs remove: file remove.me' still in working directory cvs remove: 1 file exists; remove it first$ rm -f remove.me
$cvs remove remove.me cvs remove: scheduling remove.me' for removal cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently$ ls remove.it
remove.it
$cvs remove -f remove.it cvs remove: scheduling remove.it' for removal cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently Removing entire directories$ tree -d a
a
|-- CVS
-- b

-- CVS

3 directories
\$ cvs remove -f a
cvs remove: Removing a
cvs remove: Removing a/b
cvs remove: scheduling a/b/c' for removal
cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently

update
Bring work tree in sync with repository
· update	 [-ACdflPpR] [-I name] [-j rev [-j rev]] [-k kflag] [-r tag|-D
date] [-W spec] files...

· Requires: repository, working directory.

· Changes: working directory.

After you've run checkout to create your private copy of source  from
the  common  repository,  other developers will continue changing the
central source.  From time to time, when it  is  convenient  in  your
development  process, you can use the update command from within your
working directory to reconcile your work with any  revisions  applied
to the source repository since your last checkout or update.

update options
These  standard	options	 are  available	 with update (see node Common
options' in the CVS manual for a complete description of them):

-D date

Use the most recent revision no later	than  date.   This  option  is
sticky, and implies -P.  See Sticky tags' in the CVS manual for more
information on sticky tags/dates.

-f

Only useful with the -D date or -r tag flags.	If no  matching	 revi‐
sion is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring
the file).

-k kflag

Process keywords according to kflag.  See Keyword  substitution'  in
the  CVS  manual.  This option is sticky; future updates of this file
in this working directory will use the same kflag.  The  status  com‐
mand  can be viewed to see the sticky options.	 See Invoking CVS' in

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.	See Recursive	behav‐
ior' in the CVS manual.

-P

Prune empty directories.  See Moving directories' in the CVS manual.

-p

Pipe files to the standard output.

-R

Update	 directories  recursively (default).  See Recursive behavior'
in the CVS manual.

-r rev

Retrieve revision/tag rev.  This option is sticky,  and  implies  -P.
See  Sticky  tags' in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky
tags/dates.

These special options are also available with update.

-A

Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options.  Does not	 reset	sticky
-k  options  on  modified files.  See Sticky tags' in the CVS manual

-C

Overwrite locally modified files with clean copies from  the  reposi‐
tory (the modified file is saved in .#file.revision, however).

-d

Create	 any directories that exist in the repository if they're miss‐
ing from the working directory.  Normally, update acts only on direc‐
tory.

This is useful for updating directories  that	were  created  in  the
repository since the initial checkout; but it has an unfortunate side
effect.  If you  deliberately	avoided	 certain  directories  in  the
repository  when  you	created your working directory (either through
use of a module name or by listing explicitly the files and  directo‐
ries you wanted on the command line), then updating with -d will cre‐
ate those directories, which may not be what you want.

-I name

Ignore files whose names match name (in your working directory)  dur‐
ing  the  update.   You  can specify -I more than once on the command
line to specify several files to ignore.  Use -I ! to avoid  ignoring
any  files  at all.  See cvsignore' in the CVS manual for other ways
to make cvs ignore some files.

-Wspec

Specify file names that should be filtered during  update.   You  can
use this option repeatedly.

spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify
in the .cvswrappers file.  See Wrappers' in the CVS manual.

-jrevision

With two -j options, merge changes from the revision  specified  with
the  first  -j	 option	 to  the  revision specified with the second j
option, into the working directory.

With one -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision  to  the
revision  specified  with  the -j option, into the working directory.
The ancestor revision is the common ancestor of  the  revision	 which
the  working directory is based on, and the revision specified in the
-j option.

Note that using a single -j tagname option rather than -j  branchname
to merge changes from a branch will often not remove files which were
removed on the branch.	 See Merging adds and removals'  in  the  CVS

In  addition,	each -j option can contain an optional date specifica‐
tion which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to
one  within a specific date.  An optional date is specified by adding
a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

See Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.

update output
update and checkout keep you informed of their progress by  printing  a
line  for each file, preceded by one character indicating the status of
the file:

U file

The file was brought up to date with respect to the repository.  This
is  done  for	any file that exists in the repository but not in your
working directory, and for files that you haven't changed but are not

P file

Like  U,  but the cvs server sends a patch instead of an entire file.
This accomplishes the same thing as U using less bandwidth.

A file

The file has been added to your private copy of the sources, and will
be  added  to	the source repository when you run commit on the file.
This is a reminder to you that the file needs to be committed.

R file

The file has been removed from your private copy of the sources,  and
will be removed from the source repository when you run commit on the
file.	This is a reminder to you that the file needs to be committed.

M file

The file is modified in  your	working	 directory.

M can indicate one of two states for a file you're working on: either
there	were  no  modifications to the same file in the repository, so
that your file remains as you last saw it; or	there  were  modifica‐
tions in the repository as well as in your copy, but they were merged
successfully, without conflict, in your working directory.

cvs will print some messages if it merges your	 work,	and  a	backup
copy  of  your working file (as it looked before you ran update) will
be made.  The exact name of that file is printed while update runs.

C file

A conflict was detected while trying to merge your  changes  to  file
with  changes	from  the  source  repository.	file (the copy in your
working directory) is now the result of attempting to merge  the  two
revisions;  an	 unmodified  copy of your file is also in your working
directory, with the name .#file.revision where revision is the	 revi‐
sion  that  your modified file started from.  Resolve the conflict as
described in Conflicts example' in the CVS manual.  (Note that  some
systems automatically purge files that begin with .# if they have not
been accessed for a few days.	If you intend to keep a copy  of  your
original  file, it is a very good idea to rename it.)	Under vms, the
file name starts with __ rather than .#.

? file

file is in your working directory, but does not  correspond  to  any‐
thing	in  the source repository, and is not in the list of files for
cvs to ignore (see the description of the -I  option,	and  see  node
cvsignore' in the CVS manual).

AUTHORS
Dick Grune
Original	author	of  the	 cvs  shell  script  version posted to
comp.sources.unix in the	volume6	 release  of  December,	 1986.
Credited with much of the cvs conflict resolution algorithms.

Brian Berliner
Coder  and  designer  of	the cvs program itself in April, 1989,
based on the original work done by Dick.

Jeff Polk
Helped Brian with the design of the cvs module and vendor branch
support  and author of the checkin(1) shell script (the ancestor
of cvs import).

Larry Jones, Derek R. Price, and Mark D. Baushke
Have helped maintain cvs for many years.

And many others too numerous to mention here.

The most comprehensive manual for CVS is Version Management with CVS by
Per Cederqvist et al.  Depending on your system, you may be able to get
it with the info CVS command or it may be available as cvs.pdf  (Porta‐
ble   Document	Format),  cvs.ps  (PostScript),	 cvs.texinfo  (Texinfo
source), or cvs.html.

CVS, development of CVS, and more, see:

http://cvs.nongnu.org

ci(1),	 co(1),	 cvs(5),  cvsbug(8), diff(1), grep(1), patch(1), rcs(1), rcsd‐
iff(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1).

CVS(1)

[top]
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| |       | |       | |
__ | | __ __ | | __ __ | | __
\ \| |/ / \ \| |/ / \ \| |/ /
\ \ / /   \ \ / /   \ \ / /
\   /     \   /     \   /
\_/       \_/       \_/ 

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