dvips man page on Oracle

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DVIPS(1)							      DVIPS(1)

       dvips - convert a TeX DVI file to PostScript

       dvips [OPTIONS] file[.dvi]

       THIS MAN PAGE IS OBSOLETE!  See the Texinfo documentation instead.  You
       can read it either in Emacs or with the standalone info	program	 which
       comes  with  the	 GNU  texinfo distribution as ftp.gnu.org:pub/gnu/tex‐

       The program dvips takes a DVI file file[.dvi] produced by  TeX  (or  by
       some  other  processor  such as GFtoDVI) and converts it to PostScript,
       sending the output to a file or directly to a printer.	The  DVI  file
       may  be specified without the .dvi extension.  Fonts used may either be
       resident in the printer or defined as bitmaps in PK files, or  a	 `vir‐
       tual'  combination of both.  If the mktexpk program is installed, dvips
       will automatically invoke METAFONT to generate fonts that don't already

       For  more  information, see the Texinfo manual dvips.texi, which should
       be installed somewhere on your system, hopefully accessible through the
       standard Info tree.

       -a     Conserve	memory	by  making  three  passes  over	 the .dvi file
	      instead of two and only loading those characters actually	 used.
	      Generally	 only useful on machines with a very limited amount of
	      memory, like some PCs.

       -A     Print only odd pages (TeX pages, not sequence pages).

       -b num Generate num copies of each page, but duplicating the page  body
	      rather  than using the #numcopies option.	 This can be useful in
	      conjunction with a header file setting  \bop-hook	 to  do	 color
	      separations or other neat tricks.

       -B     Print only even pages (TeX pages, not sequence pages).

       -c num Generate num copies of every page.  Default is 1.	 (For collated
	      copies, see the -C option below.)

       -C num Create num copies, but collated (by replicating the data in  the
	      PostScript  file).  Slower than the -c option, but easier on the
	      hands, and faster than resubmitting  the	same  PostScript  file
	      multiple times.

       -d num Set  the	debug flags.  This is intended only for emergencies or
	      for unusual fact-finding expeditions; it will work only if dvips
	      has  been	 compiled  with	 the DEBUG option.  If nonzero, prints
	      additional information on standard error.	 For maximum  informa‐
	      tion,  you  can use `-1'.	 See the Dvips Texinfo manual for more

       -D num Set the resolution in dpi (dots per inch) to num.	 This  affects
	      the  choice  of  bitmap fonts that are loaded and also the posi‐
	      tioning of letters in resident PostScript fonts. Must be between
	      10  and  10000.	This  affects both the horizontal and vertical
	      resolution.  If a high resolution (something  greater  than  400
	      dpi, say) is selected, the -Z flag should probably also be used.

       -e num Make sure that each character is placed at most this many pixels
	      from its `true' resolution-independent position on the page. The
	      default value of this parameter is resolution dependent.	Allow‐
	      ing  individual  characters  to  `drift'	from  their  correctly
	      rounded  positions  by  a	 few  pixels, while regaining the true
	      position at the beginning of each new word, improves the spacing
	      of letters in words.

       -E     makes dvips attempt to generate an EPSF file with a tight bound‐
	      ing box.	This only works on one-page files, and it  only	 looks
	      at  marks	 made  by  characters  and  rules, not by any included
	      graphics.	 In addition, it gets the glyph metrics from  the  tfm
	      file, so characters that lie outside their enclosing tfm box may
	      confuse it.  In addition, the bounding box might be  a  bit  too
	      loose  if the character glyph has significant left or right side
	      bearings.	 Nonetheless, this  option  works  well	 for  creating
	      small EPSF files for equations or tables or the like.  (Note, of
	      course, that dvips output is resolution dependent and thus  does
	      not  make	 very good EPSF files, especially if the images are to
	      be scaled; use these EPSF files with a great deal of care.)

       -f     Run as a filter.	Read the .dvi file  from  standard  input  and
	      write  the  PostScript  to  standard output.  The standard input
	      must be seekable, so it cannot be a pipe.	 If  you  must	use  a
	      pipe, write a shell script that copies the pipe output to a tem‐
	      porary file and then points dvips at  this  file.	  This	option
	      also  disables  the automatic reading of the PRINTER environment
	      variable, and turns off the automatic sending of control D if it
	      was  turned  on with the -F option or in the configuration file;
	      use -F after this option if you want both.

       -F     Causes Control-D (ASCII code 4) to be appended as the very  last
	      character	 of the PostScript file.  This is useful when dvips is
	      driving the  printer  directly  instead  of  working  through  a
	      spooler,	as is common on extremely small systems.  NOTE! DO NOT

       -G     Causes dvips to shift non-printing characters to higher-numbered
	      positions.  This may be useful sometimes.

       -h name
	      Prepend file name as an additional header file. (However, if the
	      name is simply `-' suppress all header files from	 the  output.)
	      This header file gets added to the PostScript userdict.

       -i     Make  each  section  be  a separate file.	 Under certain circum‐
	      stances, dvips will split the document up into `sections' to  be
	      processed independently; this is most often done for memory rea‐
	      sons.  Using this option tells dvips to place each section  into
	      a	 separate  file;  the new file names are created replacing the
	      suffix of	 the  supplied	output	file  name  by	a  three-digit
	      sequence	number.	 This option is most often used in conjunction
	      with the -S option which sets  the  maximum  section  length  in
	      pages.   For  instance,  some phototypesetters cannot print more
	      than ten or so consecutive pages before running  out  of	steam;
	      these  options  can  be  used to automatically split a book into
	      ten-page sections, each to its own file.

       -j     Download only needed characters from Type 1 fonts. This  is  the
	      default in the current release.  Some debugging flags trace this
	      operation.  You can also control partial downloading on  a  per-
	      font basis, via the psfonts.map file.

       -k     Print  crop  marks.  This option increases the paper size (which
	      should be specified, either with a paper size  special  or  with
	      the  -T option) by a half inch in each dimension.	 It translates
	      each page by a quarter inch and draws  cross-style  crop	marks.
	      It  is mostly useful with typesetters that can set the page size

       -K     This option causes comments  in  included	 PostScript  graphics,
	      font files, and headers to be removed.  This is sometimes neces‐
	      sary to get around bugs in spoolers or PostScript	 post-process‐
	      ing  programs.  Specifically, the %%Page comments, when left in,
	      often cause difficulties.	 Use  of  this	flag  can  cause  some
	      included	graphics  to  fail, since the PostScript header macros
	      from some software packages read portions of  the	 input	stream
	      line  by	line, searching for a particular comment.  This option
	      has been turned off by default because PostScript previewers and
	      spoolers have been getting better.

       -l num The last page printed will be the first one numbered num Default
	      is the last page in the document.	 If the num is prefixed by  an
	      equals  sign,  then  it  (and  any argument to the -p option) is
	      treated as a sequence number, rather than	 a  value  to  compare
	      with  \count0 values.  Thus, using -l =9 will end with the ninth
	      page of the document, no matter what the pages are actually num‐

       -m     Specify manual feed for printer.

       -mode mode
	      Use mode as the Metafont device name for path searching and font
	      generation.  This overrides any value from configuration	files.
	      With  the	 default  paths,  explicitly  specifying the mode also
	      makes the program assume the fonts are in a  subdirectory	 named

       -M     Turns  off the automatic font generation facility.  If any fonts
	      are missing, commands to generate the fonts are appended to  the
	      file  missfont.log  in the current directory; this file can then
	      be executed and deleted to create the missing fonts.

       -n num At most num pages will be printed. Default is 100000.

       -N     Turns off structured comments; this might be necessary  on  some
	      systems that try to interpret PostScript comments in weird ways,
	      or on some PostScript printers.  Old versions of	TranScript  in
	      particular cannot handle modern Encapsulated PostScript.

	      This  will disable the use of Omega extensions when interpreting
	      DVI files.  By default, the additional opcodes 129 and  134  are
	      recognized  by dvips as Omega or pTeX extensions and interpreted
	      as requests to set 2-byte characters.

	      This will disable the use of pTeX extensions  when  interpreting
	      DVI  files.   By default, the additional opcodes 130 and 135 are
	      recognized by  dvips  as	pTeX  extensions  and  interpreted  as
	      requests	to set 3-byte characters, and 255 as request to change
	      the typesetting direction.

	      The only drawback is that the virtual font array will (at	 least
	      temporarily)  require  65536  or	more  positions instead of the
	      default 256 positions, i.e., the memory  requirements  of	 dvips
	      will  be	somewhat  larger.   If	you  find this unacceptable or
	      encounter another problem with the Omega or pTeX extensions, you
	      can  switch  off the pTeX extension by using -noptex, or both by
	      using -noomega (but please do send a bug report if you find such
	      problems - see the bug address in the AUTHORS section below).

       -o name
	      The  output  will	 be sent to file name If no file name is given
	      (i.e., -o is last on the command	line),	the  default  name  is
	      file.ps  where the .dvi file was called file.dvi; if this option
	      isn't given, any default in the configuration file is used.   If
	      the  first  character  of	 the  supplied	output file name is an
	      exclamation mark, then the remainder will be used as an argument
	      to popen; thus, specifying !lpr as the output file will automat‐
	      ically queue the file for printing.  This option	also  disables
	      the  automatic  reading of the PRINTER environment variable, and
	      turns off the automatic sending of control D if it was turned on
	      with  the	 -F  option or in the configuration file; use -F after
	      this option if you want both.

       -O offset
	      Move the origin by a certain amount.  The offset is a comma-sep‐
	      arated  pair of dimensions, such as .1in,-.3cm (in the same syn‐
	      tax used in the papersize special).  The origin of the  page  is
	      shifted from the default position (of one inch down, one inch to
	      the right from the upper left  corner  of	 the  paper)  by  this

       -p num The  first  page	printed	 will  be  the first one numbered num.
	      Default is the first page in the document.  If the num  is  pre‐
	      fixed  by	 an  equals  sign, then it (and any argument to the -l
	      option) is treated as a sequence number, rather than a value  to
	      compare  with \count0 values.  Thus, using -p =3 will start with
	      the third page of the document, no matter	 what  the  pages  are
	      actually numbered.

       -pp pagelist
	      A	 comma-separated  list of pages and ranges (a-b) may be given,
	      which will be interpreted as \count0 values.  Pages  not	speci‐
	      fied will not be printed.	 Multiple -pp options may be specified
	      or all pages and page ranges  can	 be  specified	with  one  -pp

       -P printername
	      Sets  up the output for the appropriate printer.	This is imple‐
	      mented by reading in config.printername , which can then set the
	      output pipe (as in, !lpr -Pprintername as well as the font paths
	      and any other config.ps defaults for that	 printer  only.	  Note
	      that  config.ps  is  read before config.printername In addition,
	      another file called ~/.dvipsrc is searched for immediately after
	      config.ps;  this	file  is intended for user defaults.  If no -P
	      command is given, the environment variable PRINTER  is  checked.
	      If  that variable exists, and a corresponding configuration file
	      exists, that configuration file is read in.

       -q     Run in quiet mode.  Don't chatter about pages  converted,	 etc.;
	      report nothing but errors to standard error.

       -r     Stack  pages in reverse order.  Normally, page 1 will be printed

	      Run securely.  -R2 disables  both	 shell	command	 execution  in
	      \special'{}  (via	 backticks  `  )  and  config files (via the E
	      option), and opening of  any  absolute  filenames.   -R1	,  the
	      default,	forbids	 shell	escapes but allows absolute filenames.
	      -R0 allows both.	The config file option is z

       -s     Causes the entire global output to be enclosed in a save/restore
	      pair.   This  causes the file to not be truly conformant, and is
	      thus not recommended, but is  useful  if	you  are  driving  the
	      printer  directly	 and don't care too much about the portability
	      of the output.

       -S num Set the maximum number of pages in each `section'.  This	option
	      is most commonly used with the -i option; see that documentation
	      above for more information.

       -t papertype
	      This sets the paper type to papertype.  The papertype should  be
	      defined in one of the configuration files, along with the appro‐
	      priate code to select it.	 (Currently known types	 include  let‐
	      ter, legal, ledger, a4, a3).  You can also specify -t landscape,
	      which rotates a document by 90 degrees.  To  rotate  a  document
	      whose  size is not letter, you can use the -t option twice, once
	      for the page size, and once for landscape.  You should  not  use
	      any  -t  option  when  the DVI file already contains a papersize
	      special, as is done  by  some  LaTeX  packages,  notably	hyper‐

	      The  upper  left	corner of each page in the .dvi file is placed
	      one inch from the left and one inch from the top.	 Use  of  this
	      option is highly dependent on the configuration file.  Note that
	      executing the letter or a4 or other PostScript  operators	 cause
	      the  document  to be nonconforming and can cause it not to print
	      on certain printers, so the paper size should not	 execute  such
	      an operator if at all possible.

       -T papersize
	      Set the paper size to the given pair of dimensions.  This option
	      takes its arguments in the same style as -O.  It	overrides  any
	      paper size special in the dvi file.

       -u psmapfile
	      Set  psmapfile  to  be  the  file that dvips uses for looking up
	      PostScript font aliases.	If psmapfile begins with a  +  charac‐
	      ter,  then  the  rest of the name is used as the name of the map
	      file, and the map file is appended to  the  list	of  map	 files
	      (instead	of  replacing the list).  In either case, if psmapfile
	      has no extension, then .map is added at the end.

       -U     Disable a PostScript virtual  memory  saving  optimization  that
	      stores  the character metric information in the same string that
	      is used to store the bitmap information.	This is only necessary
	      when  driving  the  Xerox	 4045  PostScript  interpreter.	 It is
	      caused by a bug in that interpreter that results in `garbage' on
	      the  bottom  of each character.  Not recommended unless you must
	      drive this printer.

       -v     Print the dvips version number and exit.

       -V     Download	non-resident  PostScript  fonts	 as   bitmaps.	  This
	      requires	use  of	 `gsftopk' or `pstopk' or some other such pro‐
	      gram(s) in order to generate the required	 bitmap	 fonts;	 these
	      programs are supplied with dvips.

       -x num Set the magnification ratio to num/1000.	Overrides the magnifi‐
	      cation specified in the .dvi  file.   Must  be  between  10  and
	      100000.	Instead	 of  an	 integer, num may be a real number for
	      increased precision.

       -X num Set the horizontal resolution in dots per inch to num.

       -y num Set the magnification ratio to num/1000 times the	 magnification
	      specified in the .dvi file.  See -x above.

       -Y num Set the vertical resolution in dots per inch to num.

       -z     Pass  html  hyperdvi specials through to the output for eventual
	      distillation into PDF.  This is not enabled by default to	 avoid
	      including	 the  header files unnecessarily, and use of temporary
	      files in creating the output.

       -Z     Causes bitmapped fonts to be compressed before  they  are	 down‐
	      loaded,  thereby	reducing the size of the PostScript font-down‐
	      loading information.  Especially useful at high  resolutions  or
	      when  very  large fonts are used.	 Will slow down printing some‐
	      what, especially on early 68000-based PostScript printers.

       mf(1),	 afm2tfm(1),	tex(1),	   latex(1),	lpr(1),	   dvips.texi,

       Dvipsk  uses  the same environment variables and algorithms for finding
       font files as TeX and its friends do.  See the  documentation  for  the
       Kpathsea library for details.  (Repeating it here is too cumbersome.)

       KPATHSEA_DEBUG: Trace Kpathsea lookups; set to -1 for complete tracing.

       PRINTER: see above.

       PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

       Tomas  Rokicki  <rokicki@cs.stanford.edu>; extended to virtual fonts by
       Don Knuth.  Path searching  and	configuration  modifications  by  Karl

				  4 May 2010			      DVIPS(1)

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