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FSTAT(1)		  BSD General Commands Manual		      FSTAT(1)

     fstat — identify active files

     fstat [-fmnv] [-M core] [-N system] [-p pid] [-u user] [file ...]

     The fstat utility identifies open files.  A file is considered open by a
     process if it was explicitly opened, is the working directory, root
     directory, jail root directory, active executable text, or kernel trace
     file for that process.  If no options are specified, fstat reports on all
     open files in the system.

     The following options are available:

     -f	     Restrict examination to files open in the same file systems as
	     the named file arguments, or to the file system containing the
	     current directory if there are no additional filename arguments.
	     For example, to find all files open in the file system where the
	     directory /usr/src resides, type “fstat -f /usr/src”.

     -M	     Extract values associated with the name list from the specified
	     core instead of the default /dev/kmem.

     -N	     Extract the name list from the specified system instead of the
	     default, which is the kernel image the system has booted from.

     -m	     Include memory-mapped files in the listing; normally these are
	     excluded due to the extra processing required.

     -n	     Numerical format.	Print the device number (maj,min) of the file
	     system the file resides in rather than the mount point name; for
	     special files, print the device number that the special device
	     refers to rather than the filename in /dev; and print the mode of
	     the file in octal instead of symbolic form.

     -p	     Report all files open by the specified process.

     -u	     Report all files open by the specified user.

     -v	     Verbose mode.  Print error messages upon failures to locate par‐
	     ticular system data structures rather than silently ignoring
	     them.  Most of these data structures are dynamically created or
	     deleted and it is possible for them to disappear while fstat is
	     running.  This is normal and unavoidable since the rest of the
	     system is running while fstat itself is running.

     file ...
	     Restrict reports to the specified files.

     The following fields are printed:

     USER   The username of the owner of the process (effective uid).

     CMD    The command name of the process.

     PID    The process id.

     FD	    The file number in the per-process open file table or one of the
	    following special names:

		  jail	  - jail root directory
		  mmap	  - memory-mapped file
		  root	  - root inode
		  text	  - executable text inode
		  tr	  - kernel trace file
		  wd	  - current working directory

	    If the file number is followed by an asterisk (``*''), the file is
	    not an inode, but rather a socket, FIFO, or there is an error.  In
	    this case the remainder of the line does not correspond to the
	    remaining headers -- the format of the line is described later
	    under SOCKETS.

     MOUNT  If the -n flag was not specified, this header is present and is
	    the pathname that the file system the file resides in is mounted

     DEV    If the -n flag is specified, this header is present and is the
	    major/minor number of the device that this file resides in.

     INUM   The inode number of the file.

     MODE   The mode of the file.  If the -n flag is not specified, the mode
	    is printed using a symbolic format (see strmode(3)); otherwise,
	    the mode is printed as an octal number.

     SZ|DV  If the file is not a character or block special, prints the size
	    of the file in bytes.  Otherwise, if the -n flag is not specified,
	    prints the name of the special file as located in /dev.  If that
	    cannot be located, or the -n flag is specified, prints the
	    major/minor device number that the special device refers to.

     R/W    This column describes the access mode that the file allows.	 The
	    letter ``r'' indicates open for reading; the letter ``w'' indi‐
	    cates open for writing.  This field is useful when trying to find
	    the processes that are preventing a file system from being down
	    graded to read-only.

     NAME   If filename arguments are specified and the -f flag is not, then
	    this field is present and is the name associated with the given
	    file.  Normally the name cannot be determined since there is no
	    mapping from an open file back to the directory entry that was
	    used to open that file.  Also, since different directory entries
	    may reference the same file (via ln(1)), the name printed may not
	    be the actual name that the process originally used to open that

     The formating of open sockets depends on the protocol domain.  In all
     cases the first field is the domain name, the second field is the socket
     type (stream, dgram, etc), and the third is the socket flags field (in
     hex).  The remaining fields are protocol dependent.  For tcp, it is the
     address of the tcpcb, and for udp, the inpcb (socket pcb).	 For unix
     domain sockets, its the address of the socket pcb and the address of the
     connected pcb (if connected).  Otherwise the protocol number and address
     of the socket itself are printed.	The attempt is to make enough informa‐
     tion available to permit further analysis without duplicating netstat(1).

     For example, the addresses mentioned above are the addresses which the
     “netstat -A” command would print for tcp, udp, and unixdomain.  Note that
     since pipes are implemented using sockets, a pipe appears as a connected
     unix domain stream socket.	 A unidirectional unix domain socket indicates
     the direction of flow with an arrow (``<-'' or ``->''), and a full duplex
     socket shows a double arrow (``<->'').

     netstat(1), nfsstat(1), procstat(1), ps(1), sockstat(1), systat(1),
     tcp(4), unix(4), iostat(8), pstat(8), vmstat(8)

     The fstat command appeared in 4.3BSD-Tahoe.

     Since fstat takes a snapshot of the system, it is only correct for a very
     short period of time.

BSD				 July 9, 2009				   BSD

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