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GROPS(1)							      GROPS(1)

NAME
       grops - PostScript driver for groff

SYNOPSIS
       grops [ -glmv ] [ -bn ] [ -cn ] [ -Fdir ] [ -ppapersize ]
	     [ -Pprologue ] [ -wn ] [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its
       parameter.

DESCRIPTION
       grops translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript.	Normally grops
       should be invoked by using  the	groff  command	with  a	 -Tps  option.
       (Actually,  this	 is  the  default  for groff.)	If no files are given,
       grops will read the standard input.  A filename of -  will  also	 cause
       grops  to read the standard input.  PostScript output is written to the
       standard output.	 When grops is run by groff options can be  passed  to
       grops using the groff -P option.

OPTIONS
       -bn    Workaround  broken spoolers and previewers.  Normally grops pro‐
	      duces output that conforms the Document Structuring  Conventions
	      version  3.0.   Unfortunately some spoolers and previewers can't
	      handle such output.  The value of n controls what grops does  to
	      its output acceptable to such programs.  A value of 0 will cause
	      grops not to employ any workarounds.  Add 1 if  no  %%BeginDocu‐
	      mentSetup	 and  %%EndDocumentSetup comments should be generated;
	      this is needed for early versions of TranScript  that  get  con‐
	      fused  by anything between the %%EndProlog comment and the first
	      %%Page comment.  Add 2 if lines in included files beginning with
	      %!   should  be  stripped out; this is needed for Sun's pageview
	      previewer.  Add 4 if %%Page, %%Trailer and %%EndProlog  comments
	      should  be  stripped  out	 of included files; this is needed for
	      spoolers that don't understand the %%BeginDocument and %%EndDoc‐
	      ument  comments.	Add 8 if the first line of the PostScript out‐
	      put should be %!PS-Adobe-2.0 rather than %!PS-Adobe-3.0; this is
	      needed  when  using Sun's Newsprint with a printer that requires
	      page reversal.  The default value can be specified by a

		     broken n

	      command in the DESC file.	 Otherwise the default value is 0.

       -cn    Print n copies of each page.

       -Fdir  Prepend directory dir/devname to the search path	for  prologue,
	      font,  and  device  description  files;  name is the name of the
	      device, usually ps.

       -g     Guess the page length.   This  generates	PostScript  code  that
	      guesses  the page length.	 The guess will be correct only if the
	      imageable area is vertically centered on the page.  This	option
	      allows  you  to  generate	 documents that can be printed both on
	      letter (8.5×11) paper and on A4 paper without change.

       -l     Print the document in landscape format.

       -m     Turn manual feed on for the document.

       -ppaper-size
	      Set physical dimension of output	medium.	  This	overrides  the
	      papersize	 and paperlength commands in the DESC file; it accepts
	      the same arguments as the papersize command.

       -Pprologue-file
	      Use the file prologue-file (in the font path)  as	 the  prologue
	      instead  of  the	default	 prologue  file prologue.  This option
	      overrides the environment variable GROPS_PROLOGUE.

       -wn    Lines should be drawn using a thickness of n thousandths	of  an
	      em.  If this option is not given, the line thickness defaults to
	      0.04 em.

       -v     Print the version number.

USAGE
       There are styles called R, I, B, and BI mounted	at  font  positions  1
       to  4.  The fonts are grouped into families A, BM, C, H, HN, N, P and T
       having members in each of these styles:

	      AR     AvantGarde-Book

	      AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique

	      AB     AvantGarde-Demi

	      ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique

	      BMR    Bookman-Light

	      BMI    Bookman-LightItalic

	      BMB    Bookman-Demi

	      BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic

	      CR     Courier

	      CI     Courier-Oblique

	      CB     Courier-Bold

	      CBI    Courier-BoldOblique

	      HR     Helvetica

	      HI     Helvetica-Oblique

	      HB     Helvetica-Bold

	      HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique

	      HNR    Helvetica-Narrow

	      HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique

	      HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold

	      HNBI   Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique

	      NR     NewCenturySchlbk-Roman

	      NI     NewCenturySchlbk-Italic

	      NB     NewCenturySchlbk-Bold

	      NBI    NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic

	      PR     Palatino-Roman

	      PI     Palatino-Italic

	      PB     Palatino-Bold

	      PBI    Palatino-BoldItalic

	      TR     Times-Roman

	      TI     Times-Italic

	      TB     Times-Bold

	      TBI    Times-BoldItalic

       There is also the following font which is not a member of a family:

	      ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic

       There are also some special fonts called SS and S.   Zapf  Dingbats  is
       available  as  ZD  and a reversed version of ZapfDingbats (with symbols
       pointing in the opposite direction) is available as ZDR;	 most  charac‐
       ters in these fonts are unnamed and must be accessed using \N.

       The  default  color  for	 \m and \M is black; for colors defined in the
       `rgb' color space, setrgbcolor is used, for `cmy' and  `cmyk'  setcmyk‐
       color, and for `gray' setgray.

       grops  understands  various  X  commands	 produced  using the \X escape
       sequence; grops will only interpret commands that begin with a ps: tag.

       \X'ps: exec code'
	      This executes the arbitrary PostScript commands  in  code.   The
	      PostScript  currentpoint	will  be set to the position of the \X
	      command before executing code.  The origin will be  at  the  top
	      left  corner  of	the page, and y coordinates will increase down
	      the page.	 A procedure u will be	defined	 that  converts	 groff
	      units to the coordinate system in effect.	 For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     \X'ps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke'

	      will  draw  a  horizontal	 line  one  inch  long.	 code may make
	      changes to the graphics state, but any changes will persist only
	      to the end of the page.  A dictionary containing the definitions
	      specified by the def and mdef will be on top of  the  dictionary
	      stack.   If  your	 code adds definitions to this dictionary, you
	      should allocate space for them using \X'ps mdef n'.  Any defini‐
	      tions  will  persist only until the end of the page.  If you use
	      the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a macro, code
	      can extend over multiple lines.  For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     .de y
		     ps: exec
		     \nx u 0 rlineto
		     stroke
		     ..
		     \Yy

	      is another way to draw a horizontal line one inch long.

       \X'ps: file name'
	      This  is the same as the exec command except that the PostScript
	      code is read from file name.

       \X'ps: def code'
	      Place a PostScript definition contained in code in the prologue.
	      There  should  be	 at  most one definition per \X command.  Long
	      definitions can be split over several \X commands; all the  code
	      arguments are simply joined together separated by newlines.  The
	      definitions are placed in a dictionary  which  is	 automatically
	      pushed on the dictionary stack when an exec command is executed.
	      If you use the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names  a
	      macro, code can extend over multiple lines.

       \X'ps: mdef n code'
	      Like  def,  except  that	code  may contain up to n definitions.
	      grops needs to know how many definitions code contains  so  that
	      it  can  create  an appropriately sized PostScript dictionary to
	      contain them.

       \X'ps: import file llx lly urx ury width [ height ]'
	      Import a PostScript graphic from file.  The arguments llx,  lly,
	      urx, and ury give the bounding box of the graphic in the default
	      PostScript coordinate system; they should all be	integers;  llx
	      and  lly are the x and y coordinates of the lower left corner of
	      the graphic; urx and ury are the x  and  y  coordinates  of  the
	      upper right corner of the graphic; width and height are integers
	      that give the desired width and height in	 groff	units  of  the
	      graphic.	 The  graphic will be scaled so that it has this width
	      and height and translated so that the lower left corner  of  the
	      graphic  is  located at the position associated with \X command.
	      If the height argument is omitted it will be scaled uniformly in
	      the x and y directions so that it has the specified width.  Note
	      that the contents of the	\X  command  are  not  interpreted  by
	      troff;  so  vertical  space for the graphic is not automatically
	      added, and the width and height arguments	 are  not  allowed  to
	      have  attached  scaling indicators.  If the PostScript file com‐
	      plies with the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions  and  con‐
	      tains  a	%%BoundingBox  comment,	 then  the bounding box can be
	      automatically extracted from within  groff  by  using  the  psbb
	      request.

	      The  -mps	 macros	 (which are automatically loaded when grops is
	      run by the groff command) include a PSPIC macro which  allows  a
	      picture to be easily imported.  This has the format

		     .PSPIC [-L|-R|-I n] file [width [height]]

	      file  is the name of the file containing the illustration; width
	      and height give the desired width and  height  of	 the  graphic.
	      The  width  and  height  arguments  may  have scaling indicators
	      attached; the default scaling indicator is i.  This  macro  will
	      scale the graphic uniformly in the x and y directions so that it
	      is no more than width wide and height  high.   By	 default,  the
	      graphic  will be horizontally centered.  The -L and -R cause the
	      graphic to be left-aligned and right-aligned respectively.   The
	      -I option causes the graphic to be indented by n.

       \X'ps: invis'
       \X'ps: endinvis'
	      No  output  will be generated for text and drawing commands that
	      are bracketed  with  these  \X  commands.	  These	 commands  are
	      intended for use when output from troff will be previewed before
	      being processed with grops; if the previewer is unable  to  dis‐
	      play  certain characters or other constructs, then other substi‐
	      tute characters or constructs can	 be  used  for	previewing  by
	      bracketing them with these \X commands.

	      For  example,  gxditview	is  not	 able to display a proper \(em
	      character because the standard X11 fonts do not provide it; this
	      problem can be overcome by executing the following request

		     .char \(em \X'ps: invis'\
		     \Z'\v'-.25m'\h'.05m'\D'l .9m 0'\h'.05m''\
		     \X'ps: endinvis'\(em

	      In this case, gxditview will be unable to display the \(em char‐
	      acter and will draw the line, whereas grops will print the  \(em
	      character and ignore the line.

       The  input  to grops must be in the format output by troff(1).  This is
       described in groff_out(5).  In addition the device and font description
       files  for  the device used must meet certain requirements.  The device
       and font description files  supplied  for  ps  device  meet  all	 these
       requirements.   afmtodit(1)  can	 be used to create font files from AFM
       files.  The resolution must be an integer  multiple  of	72  times  the
       sizescale.  The ps device uses a resolution of 72000 and a sizescale of
       1000.  The device description file should contain a command

	      paperlength n

       which says that output should be generated which is suitable for print‐
       ing  on	a  page	 whose	length	is n machine units.  Common values are
       792000 for letter paper and 841890 for paper in	A4  format.   Alterna‐
       tively, it can contain

	      papersize string

       to  specify a paper size; see groff_font(5) for more information.  Each
       font description file must contain a command

	      internalname psname

       which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname.  It may also
       contain a command

	      encoding enc_file

       which  says  that  the  PostScript  font	 should be reencoded using the
       encoding described in enc_file; this file should consist of a  sequence
       of lines of the form:

	      pschar code

       where  pschar  is the PostScript name of the character, and code is its
       position in the encoding expressed as a decimal integer.	 Lines	start‐
       ing  with  #  and blank lines are ignored.  The code for each character
       given in the font file must correspond to the code for the character in
       encoding	 file,	or to the code in the default encoding for the font if
       the PostScript font is not to be reencoded.  This code can be used with
       the  \N	escape	sequence in troff to select the character, even if the
       character does not have a groff name.  Every character in the font file
       must  exist  in	the  PostScript font, and the widths given in the font
       file must match the widths used in the  PostScript  font.   grops  will
       assume  that  a character with a groff name of space is blank (makes no
       marks on the page); it can make use of such  a  character  to  generate
       more efficient and compact PostScript output.

       grops  can  automatically  include  the downloadable fonts necessary to
       print  the  document.   Any  downloadable  fonts	 which	should,	  when
       required,   be	included   by	grops  must  be	 listed	 in  the  file
       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/font/devps/download;  this  should  consist  of
       lines of the form

	      font filename

       where font is the PostScript name of the font, and filename is the name
       of the file containing the font; lines beginning with # and blank lines
       are  ignored;  fields may be separated by tabs or spaces; filename will
       be searched for using the same mechanism that is used  for  groff  font
       metric files.  The download file itself will also be searched for using
       this mechanism; currently, only the first found file in the  font  path
       is used.

       If  the	file  containing a downloadable font or imported document con‐
       forms to the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions,  then  grops  will
       interpret any comments in the files sufficiently to ensure that its own
       output is conforming.  It will also supply any  needed  font  resources
       that  are  listed  in  the  download  file  as  well as any needed file
       resources.  It is also able to handle inter-resource dependencies.  For
       example, suppose that you have a downloadable font called Garamond, and
       also a downloadable font called Garamond-Outline which depends on Gara‐
       mond (typically it would be defined to copy Garamond's font dictionary,
       and change the PaintType), then it is  necessary	 for  Garamond	to  be
       appear  before Garamond-Outline in the PostScript document.  grops will
       handle this automatically provided that the downloadable font file  for
       Garamond-Outline	 indicates  its dependence on Garamond by means of the
       Document Structuring Conventions, for example  by  beginning  with  the
       following lines

	      %!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-Font
	      %%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond
	      %%EndComments
	      %%IncludeResource: font Garamond

       In this case both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need to be listed
       in the download file.  A downloadable font should not include  its  own
       name in a %%DocumentSuppliedResources comment.

       grops will not interpret %%DocumentFonts comments.  The %%DocumentNeed‐
       edResources, %%DocumentSuppliedResources, %%IncludeResource, %%BeginRe‐
       source  and %%EndResource comments (or possibly the old %%DocumentNeed‐
       edFonts, %%DocumentSuppliedFonts, %%IncludeFont, %%BeginFont and %%End‐
       Font comments) should be used.

   TrueType fonts
       TrueType	 fonts	can  be	 used with grops if converted first to Type 42
       format, an especial PostScript wrapper equivalent  to  the  PFA	format
       mentioned in pfbtops(1).	 There are several different methods to gener‐
       ate a type42 wrapper and most of them involve the use of	 a  PostScript
       interpreter  such  as Ghostscript — see gs(1).  Yet, the easiest method
       involves the use	 of  the  application  ttftot42.   This	 program  uses
       freetype(3)  (version 1.3.1) to generate type42 font wrappers and well-
       formed AFM files that can be fed to the afmtodit(1)  script  to	create
       appropriate  metric files.  The resulting font wrappers should be added
       to the download file.  ttftot42 source code can be downloaded from
       ftp://www.giga.or.at/pub/nih/ttftot42/ ⟨ftp://www.giga.or.at/pub/nih/
       ttftot42/⟩.

ENVIRONMENT
       GROPS_PROLOGUE
	      If this is set to foo, then grops will use the file foo (in  the
	      font  path)  instead of the default prologue file prologue.  The
	      option -P overrides this environment variable.

FILES
       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/font/devps/DESC
	      Device description file.

       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/font/devps/F
	      Font description file for font F.

       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/font/devps/download
	      List of downloadable fonts.

       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/font/devps/text.enc
	      Encoding used for text fonts.

       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/tmac/ps.tmac
	      Macros for use with grops; automatically loaded by troffrc

       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/tmac/pspic.tmac
	      Definition of PSPIC macro, automatically loaded by ps.tmac.

       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/tmac/psold.tmac
	      Macros to disable use of characters not present in  older	 Post‐
	      Script printers (e.g. `eth' or `thorn').

       /tmp/gropsXXXXXX
	      Temporary file.

SEE ALSO
       afmtodit(1),  groff(1), troff(1), psbb(1), groff_out(5), groff_font(5),
       groff_char(7)

Groff Version 1.18.1		   Nov	2003			      GROPS(1)
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