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MAN(1)									MAN(1)

NAME
     man - print entries from the on-line reference manuals; find manual
     entries by keyword

SYNOPSIS
     man [-cdwWtpr] [-M path] [-T macropackage] [section] title ...
     man [-M path] -k keyword ...
     man [-M path] -f filename ...

DESCRIPTION
     man locates and prints the titled entries from the on-line reference
     manuals.  man also prints summaries of manual entries selected by keyword
     or by associated filename.

     If a section is given, only that particular section is searched for the
     specified title.  The current list of valid sections are any single digit
     [0-9], the letter 'D', plus the sections local, public, new, and old,
     corresponding to the sections l, p, n, and o, respectively.  When a
     section name of this form is given, the first character is used to form
     the directory, thus "local", will cause directories ending in "manl" to
     be searched.  To find a man page with the name of one of these sections,
     it is necessary to first give a dummy name, such as "man junk local",
     which is unfortunate.

     If no section is given, all sections of the on-line reference manuals are
     searched and all occurrences of title are printed.	 The default sections
     are searched in this order:  1nl6823457poD

     Manual entries are retrieved in the following order:  for each root
     directory in the search path, language specific directories are searched
     first (see discussion of the LANG environment variable below), followed
     by generic directories. Within each of those searches, local additions
     are searched first, followed by the standard manual directories.  In each
     leaf directory, there may be actual pages or subdirectories.  If the
     subdirectory name has the format cat[1-8lnopD] then the pages in that
     subdirectory are treated as pre-formatted "cat" manual entries.  If the
     subdirectory name has the format man[1-8lnopD] then the pages in that
     subdirectory are treated as unformatted nroff(1) source manual entries.
     Unformatted manual entries will be processed by neqn(1), tbl(1),
     nroff(1), and col(1).  (See the CAVEATS section concerning formatting
     unformatted manual pages.)	 These must be installed with a standard
     suffix, such as .1m, in order for the man command to find them (i.e.,
     name, period, suffix).  The "cat" manual entries are compressed to save
     disk space using pack(1), compress(1), or gzip(1); all pre-formatted man
     pages must be compressed with one of the above in order for the man
     command to find them.  man will automatically uncompress compressed "cat"
     manual entries using pcat(1), zcat(1), or gzcat(1) respectively.

     After the local additions are searched, the standard pre-formatted manual
     entries in /usr/share/catman/[agpu]_man are searched.

									Page 1

MAN(1)									MAN(1)

     After searching /usr/share/catman, man will search /usr/share/man ,
     /usr/catman , then /usr/man , for manual pages.  The user may override
     these default root directories for manual entries with the environment
     variable MANPATH or with the command-line options -M and -d.  (See
     discussion below.)

     IRIX is derived from four main sources: AT&T, Berkeley, MIPS Computer
     Systems, and Sun Microsystems.  Because development at these sources is
     more or less independent, in several cases programs have been given the
     same name but have vastly different functionality.	 The manual entries
     for such programs have been distinguished by giving them suffixes:	 _att,
     _bsd, _mips, or _sun.  You do not need to give the suffixes.  If man is
     given an un-suffixed title title for which suffixed entries exist, it
     will display all of them.

     Searches for titles, keywords, and filenames are case-insensitive.	 For
     example, the manual entry RGBcolor(3G) can be gotten by the command-line:

	  man rgbcolor

     Also, titles, keywords, and filenames may contain special characters
     allowing manual pages to looked up by only specifying partial names in
     much the same way that sh(1) and csh(1) match file names.	For example,
     the summaries of manual entries pertaining to RGB writemasks may be
     searched by the command-line:

	  man -k 'rgb*mask'

     The complete set of special characters is as follows:

     *	    Match any sequence of characters, including none-at-all.

     ?	    Match any single character.

     [...]  Matches any of the set of characters between the brackets.	A pair
	    of characters separated by - matches any one of the characters
	    which comes between the two characters, including the two
	    characters, based on ASCII character encoding (see ascii(5)).

     man also supports a more sophisticated means for looking up manual pages
     using regular expressions.	 To use regular expressions to lookup manual
     pages, you must use the -r option discussed below.

OPTIONS
     -M path	  Use path as the search path for manual entries.  path is a
		  colon-separated list of directories where manual
		  subdirectories may be found.	The default path is
		  /usr/share/catman:/usr/share/man:/usr/catman:/usr/man.  -M
		  is useful for searching locations other than the standard
		  manual directories for manual entries.  These locations

									Page 2

MAN(1)									MAN(1)

		  could be personal manual page trees or NFS mounted BSD style
		  manual page trees from another system.  For example, the
		  standard manual directories could be augmented with personal
		  manual pages by specifying the path:

		    /usr/share/catman:/usr/share/man:/usr/catman:/usr/man:$HOME/man

		  -M must be given before -k and -f.  -M will override the
		  environment variable MANPATH.	 -M and -d are mutually
		  exclusive.  At most 100 directories may be specified; if
		  more are specified, the rest will be ignored.

     -c		  Copy the manual page to the standard output instead of using
		  more(1) or the user specified PAGER or MANPAGER.

     -d		  Use the direct path specified for finding the manual page
		  title.  The -d option uses the full path name of the
		  specified title as the manual page to print, formatting it
		  if necessary.	 Since -d does no searching, any suffixes like
		  ".1" must be specified otherwise the manual page will not be
		  found.  If no leading path is specified, the current
		  directory (.) is assumed.  -d is useful for formatting
		  manual page sources you are editing as part of your software
		  development.	The -t option may be used in conjunction with
		  -d to format a manual page source file and send it to the
		  printer.  -d will ignore the environment variable MANPATH.
		  -d and -M are mutually exclusive.

     -p		  Print on standard output the commands that would be executed
		  to format and display the specified manual pages instead of
		  actually executing the commands.  The printed command
		  reflects the environment variable settings described below.

     -w		  Print only the pathname of each entry matching the given
		  title.  The actual matching entry will not be printed, only
		  its path is given.

     -t		  Typeset each titled manual entry and send the result to the
		  printer.  In the case of the preformatted "cat" manual pages
		  which come standard with IRIX, the entry is unpacked using
		  pcat(1) and then sent to the default printer using lp(1).
		  If, however, the manual entry is a locally added,
		  unformatted nroff(1) source, the entry will be formatted
		  using psroff(1) and sent to the printer.  The environment
		  variable TROFF may be used to specify another formatting
		  program other than psroff (see the discussion on ENVIRONMENT
		  below.  If the BSD lpr(1) printing facility is used, the
		  TCAT and NCAT environment variables should be set to send
		  the output to lpr instead of lp.

									Page 3

MAN(1)									MAN(1)

     -T macropackage
		  The given nroff(1) macro package will be used for formatting
		  unformatted manual entries.  By default,
		  /usr/lib/tmac/tmac.an is used.

     -k keyword	  Print the manual entry summaries which contain the given
		  keywords.  The summaries are gotten from the whatis
		  database.  (See also apropos(1).)

     -f filename  Print the manual entry summaries which might pertain to the
		  given filenames.  Any leading pathname components are
		  stripped from the filename before the filename is matched
		  against the summaries.  The summaries are gotten from the
		  whatis database.  (See also whatis(1).)

     -W		  is normally used only by the makewhatis(1m) command to build
		  the whatis and apropos databases.

     -r		  Treat specified names as regular expressions for searches.
		  The regular expressions handled are those supported by
		  regex(3X).

ENVIRONMENT
     MANPATH  If set, MANPATH overrides the default manual entry search path.
	      MANPATH is a colon-separated list of directories where manual
	      subdirectories may be found.  (See the discussion of -M.)	 -M
	      and -d will override MANPATH.

     LANG     If set, then for each directory to be searched (as determined by
	      the -M option, the MANPATH variable, or the default search
	      path), an additional directory is constructed and searched which
	      has the value of the LC_MESSAGES locale category appended to it.
	      These language specific directories are searched before the
	      corresponding generic directory.	LC_MESSAGES may be set either
	      in the environment or will automatically be set based on the
	      setting of the LANG variable (see environ(5)).

     PAGER and MANPAGER
	      If set, PAGER and MANPAGER specify a program for interactively
	      displaying the output from man.  MANPAGER will override PAGER so
	      a program other than the user's standard paging program may be
	      used for displaying man output.  If neither PAGER or MANPAGER
	      are set, the command "ul -b | more -s -f" is used.  See ul(1)
	      and more(1) for details on these options.

     MANFMTCMD
	      may be used to specify the full command to format unformatted
	      man pages.  If set, the other formatter environment variables
	      are ignored, as is the -T option.	 The command will be given a
	      single argument, which is the full pathname of the man page that
	      is to be formatted.

									Page 4

MAN(1)									MAN(1)

     TCAT     may be used to specify the command for printing or displaying
	      unformatted (nroff/troff source) manual pages when the -t option
	      is selected.  If TCAT is not set, the command "lp" is used.  For
	      systems using the BSD lpr(1) printing facility, TCAT should be
	      set to "lpr".  If a troff formatting program which does not
	      output PostScript is used, TCAT should be set to "lpr <option>"
	      where <option> specifies the proper printing for the troff
	      output.

     NCAT     may be used to specify the command for printing or displaying
	      preformatted manual pages when the -t option is selected.	 If
	      NCAT is not set, the command specified by TCAT is used.  It is
	      only necessary to set NCAT if TCAT is set to "lpr <option>"
	      where <option> specifies printing of some special (non-ASCII)
	      format.

     TROFF    may be used to specify a formatter to use when the -t option is
	      selected, and unformatted man pages are processed.  The command
	      specified by TROFF must output its results to the standard
	      output for TCAT to work.	If TROFF is not set, the command
	      "psroff -t" is used.

     NROFF    Similar to TROFF above, used when the -t option is not
	      specified.

FILES
     /usr/share/catman			 root directory of on-line reference
					 manual entry tree
     /usr/share/catman/whatis		 table of contents and keyword
					 database
     /usr/share/catman/u_man/cat[1,6]/*	 user manual pages
     /usr/share/catman/a_man/cat[1,4,7]/*
					 system administrator manual pages
     /usr/share/catman/p_man/cat[2-5]/*	 programmer manual pages
     /usr/share/catman/g_man/cat3/*	 Graphics Library manual pages
     /usr/share/catman/local/cat[1-8lnop]/*
					 local pre-formatted manual entries
     /usr/catman/local/man[1-8lnop]/*	 local unformatted nroff(1) source
					 manual entries
     /usr/share/man/*			 additional unformatted manual pages
     /usr/lib/tmac/tmac.an		 default macro package used for
					 formatting manual entries (contained
					 in the Documentor's Work Bench
					 software option)

SEE ALSO
     apropos(1), col(1), compress(1), csh(1), eqn(1), grep(1), gzip(1), lp(1),
     lpr(1), makewhatis(1M), more(1), neqn(1), nroff(1), pack(1), pcat(1),
     psroff(1), sh(1), tbl(1), troff(1), ul(1), whatis(1), zcat(1), regex(3X),
     ascii(5), environ(5), man(5), term(5).

									Page 5

MAN(1)									MAN(1)

CAVEATS
     apropos (man -k) and whatis (man -f) require that the whatis database be
     kept up to date by running makewhatis(1M) after installing or removing
     software from the system.	This command is run by default on system
     reboot when software is installed or removed by the inst(1m) command.  If
     the whatis database is not kept up to date, apropos (man -k) and whatis
     (man -f) will not find entries for new manual pages and will erroneously
     refer to manual pages which no longer exist on the system.

     The /usr/share/catman directories have all been processed by nroff(1).

     To format locally added, unformatted manual pages, man requires nroff(1),
     tbl(1), and neqn(1) or eqn(1) and psroff(1) with the -t option; these are
     contained in the Documentor's Work Bench software option, except
     psroff(1), which is part of the Impressario product.  If they are not
     found in the search path, a message to this effect will be printed once
     per invocation of man.  The awf(1) command is then searched for, and if
     found, it will be used instead.  It does not understand all the
     formatting commands, but is usually good enough (the -T option is ignored
     in this case).  If awf isn't found either, then any unformatted man pages
     will be skipped.

     psroff and nroff may be overridden with environment variables (see
     above), but the others may not; they must exist somewhere in the search
     path, unless the MANFMTCMD variable is set.  If none of these can be
     used, it may be possible to format the man pages on a system that does
     have the formatting commands available.  The resulting formatted versions
     may be installed on IRISes which do not have the Documentor's Work Bench.
     To create pre-formatted manual pages, use the commands:

	  neqn mymanpage.1 | tbl | nroff -man > mymanpage
	  pack -f mymanpage

     The resulting mymanpage.z file may be copied into the appropriate
     /usr/local/man/cat[1-8] directory.

     man will not locate manual pages in directories with names containing a
     period (.).

     man may produce some extra matches if man page names have a period (.) in
     them, as it matches up to a period, assuming the rest is a suffix.

									Page 6

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