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PMC.K8(3)		 BSD Library Functions Manual		     PMC.K8(3)

NAME
     pmc.k8 — measurement events for AMD Athlon 64 (K8 family) CPUs

LIBRARY
     Performance Counters Library (libpmc, -lpmc)

SYNOPSIS
     #include <pmc.h>

DESCRIPTION
     AMD K8 PMCs are present in the AMD Athlon64 and AMD Opteron series of
     CPUs.  They are documented in the BIOS and Kernel Developer's Guide for
     the AMD Athlon(tm) 64 and AMD Opteron Processors, Publication No. 26094,
     Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., April 2004.

   PMC Features
     AMD K8 PMCs are 48 bits wide.  Each CPU contains 4 PMCs with the follow‐
     ing capabilities:

     Capability		  Support
     PMC_CAP_CASCADE	  No
     PMC_CAP_EDGE	  Yes
     PMC_CAP_INTERRUPT	  Yes
     PMC_CAP_INVERT	  Yes
     PMC_CAP_READ	  Yes
     PMC_CAP_PRECISE	  No
     PMC_CAP_SYSTEM	  Yes
     PMC_CAP_TAGGING	  No
     PMC_CAP_THRESHOLD	  Yes
     PMC_CAP_USER	  Yes
     PMC_CAP_WRITE	  Yes

   Event Qualifiers
     Event specifiers for AMD K8 PMCs can have the following optional quali‐
     fiers:

     count=value
	     Configure the counter to increment only if the number of config‐
	     ured events measured in a cycle is greater than or equal to
	     value.

     edge    Configure the counter to only count negated-to-asserted transi‐
	     tions of the conditions expressed by the other fields.  In other
	     words, the counter will increment only once whenever a given con‐
	     dition becomes true, irrespective of the number of clocks during
	     which the condition remains true.

     inv     Invert the sense of comparision when the “count” qualifier is
	     present, making the counter to increment when the number of
	     events per cycle is less than the value specified by the “count”
	     qualifier.

     mask=qualifier
	     Many event specifiers for AMD K8 PMCs need to be additionally
	     qualified using a mask qualifier.	These additional qualifiers
	     are event-specific and are documented along with their associated
	     event specifiers below.

     os	     Configure the PMC to count events happening at privilege level 0.

     usr     Configure the PMC to count events occurring at privilege levels
	     1, 2 or 3.

     If neither of the “os” or “usr” qualifiers were specified, the default is
     to enable both.

   AMD K8 Event Specifiers
     The event specifiers supported on AMD K8 PMCs are:

     k8-bu-cpu-clk-unhalted
	     (Event 76H) Count the number of clock cycles when the CPU is not
	     in the HLT or STPCLK states.

     k8-bu-fill-request-l2-miss [,mask=qualifier]
	     (Event 7EH) Count fill requests that missed in the L2 cache.
	     This event may be further qualified using qualifier, which is a
	     ‘+’ separated set of the following keywords:

	     dc-fill
		     Count data cache fill requests.
	     ic-fill
		     Count instruction cache fill requests.
	     tlb-reload
		     Count TLB reloads.

	     The default is to count all types of requests.

     k8-bu-fill-into-l2 [,mask=qualifier]
	     (Event 7FH) The number of lines written to and from the L2 cache.
	     The event may be further qualified by using qualifier, which is a
	     ‘+’ separated set of the following keywords:

	     dirty-l2-victim
		     Count lines written into L2 cache due to victim write‐
		     backs from the Icache or Dcache, TLB page table walks or
		     hardware data prefetches.
	     victim-from-l2
		     Count writebacks of dirty lines from L2 to the system.

     k8-bu-internal-l2-request [,mask=qualifier]
	     (Event 7DH) Count internally generated requests to the L2 cache.
	     This event may be further qualified using qualifier, which is a
	     ‘+’ separated set of the following keywords:

	     cancelled
		     Count cancelled requests.
	     dc-fill
		     Count data cache fill requests.
	     ic-fill
		     Count instruction cache fill requests.
	     tag-snoop
		     Count tag snoop requests.
	     tlb-reload
		     Count TLB reloads.

	     The default is to count all types of requests.

     k8-dc-access
	     (Event 40H) Count data cache accesses including microcode
	     scratchpad accesses.

     k8-dc-copyback [,mask=qualifier]
	     (Event 44H) Count data cache copyback operations.	This event may
	     be further qualified using qualifier, which is a ‘+’ separated
	     set of the following keywords:

	     exclusive
		     Count operations for lines in the “exclusive” state.
	     invalid
		     Count operations for lines in the “invalid” state.
	     modified
		     Count operations for lines in the “modified” state.
	     owner   Count operations for lines in the “owner” state.
	     shared  Count operations for lines in the “shared” state.

	     The default is to count operations for lines in all the above
	     states.

     k8-dc-dcache-accesses-by-locks [,mask=qualifier]
	     (Event 4CH) Count data cache accesses by lock instructions.  This
	     event is only available on processors of revision C or later vin‐
	     tage.  This event may be further qualified using qualifier, which
	     is a ‘+’ separated set of the following keywords:

	     accesses
		     Count data cache accesses by lock instructions.
	     misses  Count data cache misses by lock instructions.

	     The default is to count all accesses.

     k8-dc-dispatched-prefetch-instructions [,mask=qualifier]
	     (Event 4BH) Count the number of dispatched prefetch instructions.
	     This event may be further qualified using qualifier, which is a
	     ‘+’ separated set of the following keywords:

	     load    Count load operations.
	     nta     Count non-temporal operations.
	     store   Count store operations.

	     The default is to count all operations.

     k8-dc-l1-dtlb-miss-and-l2-dtlb-hit
	     (Event 45H) Count L1 DTLB misses that are L2 DTLB hits.

     k8-dc-l1-dtlb-miss-and-l2-dtlb-miss
	     (Event 46H) Count L1 DTLB misses that are also misses in the L2
	     DTLB.

     k8-dc-microarchitectural-early-cancel-of-an-access
	     (Event 49H) Count microarchitectural early cancels of data cache
	     accesses.

     k8-dc-microarchitectural-late-cancel-of-an-access
	     (Event 48H) Count microarchitectural late cancels of data cache
	     accesses.

     k8-dc-misaligned-data-reference
	     (Event 47H) Count misaligned data references.

     k8-dc-miss
	     (Event 41H) Count data cache misses.

     k8-dc-one-bit-ecc-error [,mask=qualifier]
	     (Event 4AH) Count one bit ECC errors found by the scrubber.  This
	     event may be further qualified using qualifier, which is a ‘+’
	     separated set of the following keywords:

	     scrubber
		     Count scrubber detected errors.
	     piggyback
		     Count piggyback scrubber errors.

	     The default is to count both kinds of errors.

     k8-dc-refill-from-l2 [,mask=qualifier]
	     (Event 42H) Count data cache refills from L2 cache.  This event
	     may be further qualified using qualifier, which is a ‘+’ sepa‐
	     rated set of the following keywords:

	     exclusive
		     Count operations for lines in the “exclusive” state.
	     invalid
		     Count operations for lines in the “invalid” state.
	     modified
		     Count operations for lines in the “modified” state.
	     owner   Count operations for lines in the “owner” state.
	     shared  Count operations for lines in the “shared” state.

	     The default is to count operations for lines in all the above
	     states.

     k8-dc-refill-from-system [,mask=qualifier]
	     (Event 43H) Count data cache refills from system memory.  This
	     event may be further qualified using qualifier, which is a ‘+’
	     separated set of the following keywords:

	     exclusive
		     Count operations for lines in the “exclusive” state.
	     invalid
		     Count operations for lines in the “invalid” state.
	     modified
		     Count operations for lines in the “modified” state.
	     owner   Count operations for lines in the “owner” state.
	     shared  Count operations for lines in the “shared” state.

	     The default is to count operations for lines in all the above
	     states.

     k8-fp-cycles-with-no-fpu-ops-retired
	     (Event 01H) Count cycles when no FPU ops were retired.  This
	     event is supported in revision B and later CPUs.

     k8-fp-dispatched-fpu-fast-flag-ops
	     (Event 02H) Count dispatched FPU ops that use the fast flag
	     interface.	 This event is supported in revision B and later CPUs.

     k8-fp-dispatched-fpu-ops [,mask=qualifier]
	     (Event 00H) Count the number of dispatched FPU ops.  This event
	     is supported in revision B and later CPUs.	 This event may be
	     further qualified using qualifier, which is a ‘+’ separated set
	     of the following keywords:

	     add-pipe-excluding-junk-ops
		     Count add pipe ops excluding junk ops.
	     add-pipe-junk-ops
		     Count junk ops in the add pipe.
	     multiply-pipe-excluding-junk-ops
		     Count multiply pipe ops excluding junk ops.
	     multiply-pipe-junk-ops
		     Count junk ops in the multiply pipe.
	     store-pipe-excluding-junk-ops
		     Count store pipe ops excluding junk ops
	     store-pipe-junk-ops
		     Count junk ops in the store pipe.

	     The default is to count all types of ops.

     k8-fr-decoder-empty
	     (Event D0H) Count cycles when there was nothing to dispatch
	     (i.e., the decoder was empty).

     k8-fr-dispatch-stall-for-segment-load
	     (Event D4H) Count dispatch stalls for segment loads.

     k8-fr-dispatch-stall-for-serialization
	     (Event D3H) Count dispatch stalls for serialization.

     k8-fr-dispatch-stall-from-branch-abort-to-retire
	     (Event D2H) Count dispatch stalls from branch abort to retiral.

     k8-fr-dispatch-stall-when-fpu-is-full
	     (Event D7H) Count dispatch stalls when the FPU is full.

     k8-fr-dispatch-stall-when-ls-is-full
	     (Event D8H) Count dispatch stalls when the load/store unit is
	     full.

     k8-fr-dispatch-stall-when-reorder-buffer-is-full
	     (Event D5H) Count dispatch stalls when the reorder buffer is
	     full.

     k8-fr-dispatch-stall-when-reservation-stations-are-full
	     (Event D6H) Count dispatch stalls when reservation stations are
	     full.

     k8-fr-dispatch-stall-when-waiting-far-xfer-or-resync-branch-pending
	     (Event DAH) Count dispatch stalls when a far control transfer or
	     a resync branch is pending.

     k8-fr-dispatch-stall-when-waiting-for-all-to-be-quiet
	     (Event D9H) Count dispatch stalls when waiting for all to be
	     quiet.

     k8-fr-dispatch-stalls
	     (Event D1H) Count all dispatch stalls.

     k8-fr-fpu-exceptions [,mask=qualifier]
	     (Event DBH) Count FPU exceptions.	This event is supported in
	     revision B and later CPUs.	 This event may be further qualified
	     using qualifier, which is a ‘+’ separated set of the following
	     keywords:

	     sse-and-x87-microtraps
		     Count SSE and x87 microtraps.
	     sse-reclass-microfaults
		     Count SSE reclass microfaults
	     sse-retype-microfaults
		     Count SSE retype microfaults
	     x87-reclass-microfaults
		     Count x87 reclass microfaults.

	     The default is to count all types of exceptions.

     k8-fr-interrupts-masked-cycles
	     (Event CDH) Count cycles when interrupts were masked (by CPU
	     RFLAGS field IF was zero).

     k8-fr-interrupts-masked-while-pending-cycles
	     (Event CEH) Count cycles while interrupts were masked while pend‐
	     ing (i.e., cycles when INTR was asserted while CPU RFLAGS field
	     IF was zero).

     k8-fr-number-of-breakpoints-for-dr0
	     (Event DCH) Count the number of breakpoints for DR0.

     k8-fr-number-of-breakpoints-for-dr1
	     (Event DDH) Count the number of breakpoints for DR1.

     k8-fr-number-of-breakpoints-for-dr2
	     (Event DEH) Count the number of breakpoints for DR2.

     k8-fr-number-of-breakpoints-for-dr3
	     (Event DFH) Count the number of breakpoints for DR3.

     k8-fr-retired-branches
	     (Event C2H) Count retired branches including exceptions and
	     interrupts.

     k8-fr-retired-branches-mispredicted
	     (Event C3H) Count mispredicted retired branches.

     k8-fr-retired-far-control-transfers
	     (Event C6H) Count retired far control transfers (which are always
	     mispredicted).

     k8-fr-retired-fastpath-double-op-instructions [,mask=qualifier]
	     (Event CCH) Count retired fastpath double op instructions.	 This
	     event is supported in revision B and later CPUs.  This event may
	     be further qualified using qualifier, which is a ‘+’ separated
	     set of the following keywords:

	     low-op-pos-0
		     Count instructions with the low op in position 0.
	     low-op-pos-1
		     Count instructions with the low op in position 1.
	     low-op-pos-2
		     Count instructions with the low op in position 2.

	     The default is to count all types of instructions.

     k8-fr-retired-fpu-instructions [,mask=qualifier]
	     (Event CBH) Count retired FPU instructions.  This event is sup‐
	     ported in revision B and later CPUs.  This event may be further
	     qualified using qualifier, which is a ‘+’ separated set of the
	     following keywords:

	     mmx-3dnow
		     Count MMX and 3DNow! instructions.
	     packed-sse-sse2
		     Count packed SSE and SSE2 instructions.
	     scalar-sse-sse2
		     Count scalar SSE and SSE2 instructions
	     x87     Count x87 instructions.

	     The default is to count all types of instructions.

     k8-fr-retired-near-returns
	     (Event C8H) Count retired near returns.

     k8-fr-retired-near-returns-mispredicted
	     (Event C9H) Count mispredicted near returns.

     k8-fr-retired-resyncs
	     (Event C7H) Count retired resyncs (non-control transfer
	     branches).

     k8-fr-retired-taken-branches
	     (Event C4H) Count retired taken branches.

     k8-fr-retired-taken-branches-mispredicted
	     (Event C5H) Count retired taken branches that were mispredicted.

     k8-fr-retired-taken-branches-mispredicted-by-addr-miscompare
	     (Event CAH) Count retired taken branches that were mispredicted
	     only due to an address miscompare.

     k8-fr-retired-taken-hardware-interrupts
	     (Event CFH) Count retired taken hardware interrupts.

     k8-fr-retired-uops
	     (Event C1H) Count retired uops.

     k8-fr-retired-x86-instructions
	     (Event C0H) Count retired x86 instructions including exceptions
	     and interrupts.

     k8-ic-fetch
	     (Event 80H) Count instruction cache fetches.

     k8-ic-instruction-fetch-stall
	     (Event 87H) Count cycles in stalls due to instruction fetch.

     k8-ic-l1-itlb-miss-and-l2-itlb-hit
	     (Event 84H) Count L1 ITLB misses that are L2 ITLB hits.

     k8-ic-l1-itlb-miss-and-l2-itlb-miss
	     (Event 85H) Count ITLB misses that miss in both L1 and L2 ITLBs.

     k8-ic-microarchitectural-resync-by-snoop
	     (Event 86H) Count microarchitectural resyncs caused by snoops.

     k8-ic-miss
	     (Event 81H) Count instruction cache misses.

     k8-ic-refill-from-l2
	     (Event 82H) Count instruction cache refills from L2 cache.

     k8-ic-refill-from-system
	     (Event 83H) Count instruction cache refills from system memory.

     k8-ic-return-stack-hits
	     (Event 88H) Count hits to the return stack.

     k8-ic-return-stack-overflow
	     (Event 89H) Count overflows of the return stack.

     k8-ls-buffer2-full
	     (Event 23H) Count load/store buffer2 full events.

     k8-ls-locked-operation [,mask=qualifier]
	     (Event 24H) Count locked operations.  For revision C and later
	     CPUs, the following qualifiers are supported:

	     cycles-in-request
		     Count the number of cycles in the lock request/grant
		     stage.
	     cycles-to-complete
		     Count the number of cycles a lock takes to complete once
		     it is non-speculative and is the older load/store opera‐
		     tion.
	     locked-instructions
		     Count the number of lock instructions executed.

	     The default is to count the number of lock instructions executed.

     k8-ls-microarchitectural-late-cancel
	     (Event 25H) Count microarchitectural late cancels of operations
	     in the load/store unit.

     k8-ls-microarchitectural-resync-by-self-modifying-code
	     (Event 21H) Count microarchitectural resyncs caused by self-modi‐
	     fying code.

     k8-ls-microarchitectural-resync-by-snoop
	     (Event 22H) Count microarchitectural resyncs caused by snoops.

     k8-ls-retired-cflush-instructions
	     (Event 26H) Count retired CFLUSH instructions.

     k8-ls-retired-cpuid-instructions
	     (Event 27H) Count retired CPUID instructions.

     k8-ls-segment-register-load [,mask=qualifier]
	     (Event 20H) Count segment register loads.	This event may be fur‐
	     ther qualified using qualifier, which is a ‘+’ separated set of
	     the following keywords:
	     cs	     Count CS register loads.
	     ds	     Count DS register loads.
	     es	     Count ES register loads.
	     fs	     Count FS register loads.
	     gs	     Count GS register loads.
	     ss	     Count SS register loads.

	     The default is to count all types of loads.

     k8-nb-ht-bus0-bandwidth [,mask=qualifier]

     k8-nb-ht-bus1-bandwidth [,mask=qualifier]

     k8-nb-ht-bus2-bandwidth [,mask=qualifier]
	     (Events F6H, F7H and F8H respectively) Count events on the Hyper‐
	     Transport(tm) buses.  These events may be further qualified using
	     qualifier, which is a ‘+’ separated set of the following key‐
	     words:

	     buffer-release
		     Count buffer release messages sent.
	     command
		     Count command messages sent.
	     data    Count data messages sent.
	     nop     Count nop messages sent.

	     The default is to count all types of messages.

     k8-nb-memory-controller-bypass-saturation [,mask=qualifier]
	     (Event E4H) Count memory controller bypass counter saturation
	     events.  This event may be further qualified using qualifier,
	     which is a ‘+’ separated set of the following keywords:

	     dram-controller-interface-bypass
		     Count DRAM controller interface bypass.
	     dram-controller-queue-bypass
		     Count DRAM controller queue bypass.
	     memory-controller-hi-pri-bypass
		     Count memory controller high priority bypasses.
	     memory-controller-lo-pri-bypass
		     Count memory controller low priority bypasses.

     k8-nb-memory-controller-dram-slots-missed
	     (Event E2H) Count memory controller DRAM command slots missed (in
	     MemClks).

     k8-nb-memory-controller-page-access-event [,mask=qualifier]
	     (Event E0H) Count memory controller page access events.  This
	     event may be further qualified using qualifier, which is a ‘+’
	     separated set of the following keywords:

	     page-conflict
		     Count page conflicts.
	     page-hit
		     Count page hits.
	     page-miss
		     Count page misses.

	     The default is to count all types of events.

     k8-nb-memory-controller-page-table-overflow
	     (Event E1H) Count memory control page table overflow events.

     k8-nb-memory-controller-turnaround [,mask=qualifier]
	     (Event E3H) Count memory control turnaround events.  This event
	     may be further qualified using qualifier, which is a ‘+’ sepa‐
	     rated set of the following keywords:

	     dimm-turnaround
		     Count DIMM turnarounds.
	     read-to-write-turnaround
		     Count read to write turnarounds.
	     write-to-read-turnaround
		     Count write to read turnarounds.

	     The default is to count all types of events.

     k8-nb-probe-result [,mask=qualifier]
	     (Event ECH) Count probe events.  This event may be further quali‐
	     fied using qualifier, which is a ‘+’ separated set of the follow‐
	     ing keywords:

	     probe-hit
		     Count all probe hits.
	     probe-hit-dirty-no-memory-cancel
		     Count probe hits without memory cancels.
	     probe-hit-dirty-with-memory-cancel
		     Count probe hits with memory cancels.
	     probe-miss
		     Count probe misses.

     k8-nb-sized-commands [,mask=qualifier]
	     (Event EBH) Count sized commands issued.  This event may be fur‐
	     ther qualified using qualifier, which is a ‘+’ separated set of
	     the following keywords:

	     nonpostwrszbyte
	     nonpostwrszdword
	     postwrszbyte
	     postwrszdword
	     rdszbyte
	     rdszdword
	     rdmodwr

	     The default is to count all types of commands.

   Event Name Aliases
     The following table shows the mapping between the PMC-independent aliases
     supported by Performance Counters Library (libpmc, -lpmc) and the under‐
     lying hardware events used.

     Alias		   Event
     branches		   k8-fr-retired-taken-branches
     branch-mispredicts	   k8-fr-retired-taken-branches-mispredicted
     dc-misses		   k8-dc-miss
     ic-misses		   k8-ic-miss
     instructions	   k8-fr-retired-x86-instructions
     interrupts		   k8-fr-taken-hardware-interrupts
     unhalted-cycles	   k8-bu-cpu-clk-unhalted

SEE ALSO
     pmc(3), pmc.atom(3), pmc.core(3), pmc.core2(3), pmc.iaf(3), pmc.k7(3),
     pmc.p4(3), pmc.p5(3), pmc.p6(3), pmc.tsc(3), pmclog(3), hwpmc(4)

HISTORY
     The pmc library first appeared in FreeBSD 6.0.

AUTHORS
     The Performance Counters Library (libpmc, -lpmc) library was written by
     Joseph Koshy ⟨jkoshy@FreeBSD.org⟩.

BSD				October 4, 2008				   BSD
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