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     pmie - inference engine for performance metrics

     pmie [-bCdefVvWxz] [-A align] [-a archive] [-c filename] [-h host] [-l
     logfile] [-n pmnsfile] [-O offset] [-S starttime] [-T endtime] [-t
     interval] [-Z timezone] [filename ...]

     pmie accepts a collection of arithmetic, logical, and rule expressions to
     be evaluated at specified frequencies.  The base data for the expressions
     consists of performance metrics values delivered in real-time from any
     host running the Performance Metrics Collection Daemon (PMCD), or using
     historical data from Performance Co-Pilot (PCP) archive logs.

     As well as computing arithmetic and logical values, pmie can execute
     actions (popup alarms, write system log messages, and launch programs) in
     response to specified conditions.	Such actions are extremely useful in
     detecting, monitoring and correcting performance related problems.

     The expressions to be evaluated are read from configuration files
     specified by one or more filename arguments.  In the absence of any
     filename, expressions are read from standard input.

     A description of the command line options specific to pmie follows:

     -a	  archive is the base name of a PCP archive log written by
	  pmlogger(1).	Multiple instances of the -a flag may appear on the
	  command line to specify a set of archives.  In this case, it is
	  required that only one archive be present for any one host.  Also,
	  any explicit host names occurring in a pmie expression must match
	  the host name recorded in one of the archive labels.	In the case of
	  multiple archives, timestamps recorded in the archives are used to
	  ensure temporal consistency.

     -b	  Output will be line buffered and standard output is attached to
	  standard error.  This is most useful for background execution in
	  conjunction with the -l option.  The -b option is always used for
	  pmie instances launched from pmie_check(1).

     -C	  Parse the configuration file(s) and exit before performing any
	  evaluations.	Any errors in the configuration file are reported.

     -c	  An alternative to specifying filename at the end of the command

     -d	  Normally pmie would be launched as a non-interactive process to
	  monitor and manage the performance of one or more hosts.  Given the
	  -d flag however, execution is interactive and the user is presented
	  with a menu of options.  Interactive mode is useful mainly for
	  debugging new expressions.

     -e	  When used with -V, -v or -W, this option forces timestamps to be
	  reported with each expression.  The timestamps are in ctime(3)
	  format, enclosed in parenthesis and appear after the expression name
	  and before the expression value, e.g.
	       expr_1 (Tue Feb	6 19:55:10 2001): 12

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     -f	  If the -l option is specified and there is no -a option (ie. real-
	  time monitoring) then pmie is run as a daemon in the background (in
	  all other cases foreground is the default).  The -f option forces
	  pmie to be run in the foreground, independent of any other options.

     -h	  By default performance data is fetched from the local host (in
	  real-time mode) or the host for the first named archive on the
	  command line (in archive mode).  The host argument overrides this
	  default.  It does not override hosts explicitly named in the
	  expressions being evaluated.

     -l	  Standard error is sent to logfile.

     -n	  An alternative Performance Metrics Name Space (PMNS) is loaded from
	  the file pmnsfile.

     -t	  The interval argument follows the syntax described in PCPIntro(1),
	  and in the simplest form may be an unsigned integer (the implied
	  units in this case are seconds).  The value is used to determine the
	  sample interval for expressions that do not explicitly set their
	  sample interval using the pmie variable delta described below.  The
	  default is 10.0 seconds.

     -v	  Unless one of the verbose options -V, -v or -W appears on the
	  command line, expressions are evaluated silently, the only output is
	  as a result of any actions being executed.  In the verbose mode,
	  specified using the -v flag, the value of each expression is printed
	  as it is evaluated. The values are in canonical units; bytes in the
	  dimension of ``space'', seconds in the dimension of ``time'' and
	  events in the dimension of ``count''.	 See pmLookupDesc(3) for
	  details of the supported dimension and scaling mechanisms for
	  performance metrics.	The verbose mode is useful in monitoring the
	  value of given expressions, evaluating derived performance metrics,
	  passing these values on to other tools for further processing and in
	  debugging new expressions.

     -V	  This option has the same effect as the -v option, except that the
	  name of the host and instance (if applicable) are printed as well as
	  expression values.

     -W	  This option has the same effect as the -V option described above,
	  except that for boolean expressions, only those names and values
	  that make the expression true are printed.  These are the same names
	  and values accessible to rule actions as the %h, %i and %v bindings,
	  as described below.

     -x	  Execute in domain agent mode.	 This mode is used within the
	  Performance Co-Pilot product to derive values for summary metrics,
	  see pmdasummary(1).  Only restricted functionality is available in
	  this mode (expressions with actions may not be used).

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     -Z	  Change the reporting timezone to timezone in the format of the
	  environment variable TZ as described in environ(5).

     -z	  Change the reporting timezone to the timezone of the host that is
	  the source of the performance metrics, as identified via either the
	  -h option or the first named archive (as described above for the -a

     The -S, -T, -O, and -A options may be used to define a time window to
     restrict the samples retrieved, set an initial origin within the time
     window, or specify a ``natural'' alignment of the sample times; refer to
     PCPIntro(1) for a complete description of these options.

     Output from pmie is directed to standard output and standard error as

	  Expression values printed in the verbose -v mode and the output of
	  print actions.

	  Error and warning messages for any syntactic or semantic problems
	  during expression parsing, and any semantic or performance metrics
	  availability problems during expression evaluation.

     The following example expressions demonstrate some of the capabilities of
     the inference engine.

     The directory $PCP_DEMOS_DIR/pmie contains a number of other annotated
     examples of pmie expressions.

     The variable delta controls expression evaluation frequency.  Specify
     that subsequent expressions be evaluated once a second, until further

	  delta = 1 sec;

     If total syscall rate exceeds 5000 per second per CPU, then display an
     alarm notifier:

	  kernel.all.syscall / hinv.ncpu > 5000 count/sec
	  -> alarm "high syscall rate";

     If the high syscall rate is sustained for 10 consecutive samples, then
     launch top(1) in an xwsh(1G) window to monitor processes, but do this at
     most once every 5 minutes:

	  all_sample (
	      kernel.all.syscall @0..9 > 5000 count/sec * hinv.ncpu
	  ) -> shell 5 min "xwsh -e 'top'";

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     The following rules are evaluated once every 20 seconds:

	  delta = 20 sec;

     If any disk is performing more than 60 I/Os per second, then print a
     message identifying the busy disk to standard output and launch dkvis(1):

	  some_inst ( > 60 count/sec
	  ) -> print "disk %i busy " &
	       shell 5 min "dkvis";

     Refine the preceding rule to apply only between the hours of 9am and 5pm,
     and to require 3 of 4 consecutive samples to exceed the threshold before
     executing the action:

	  $hour >= 9 && $hour <= 17 &&
	  some_inst (
	    75 %_sample ( @0..3 > 60 count/sec
	  ) -> print "disk %i busy ";

     The following rules are evaluated once every 10 minutes:

	  delta = 10 min;

     If either the / or the /usr filesystem is more than 95% full, display an
     alarm popup, but not if it has already been displayed during the last 4
     hours: #'/dev/root' /
	      filesys.capacity #'/dev/root' < 0.05
	  -> alarm 4 hour "root filesystem (almost) full"; #'/dev/usr' /
	      filesys.capacity #'/dev/usr' < 0.05
	  -> alarm 4 hour "/usr filesystem (almost) full";

     The following rule requires a machine that supports the PCP environment
     metrics.  If the machine environment temperature rises more than 2
     degrees over a 10 minute interval, write an entry in the system log:

	  environ.temp @0 - environ.temp @1 > 2
	  -> alarm "temperature rising fast" &
	     syslog "machine room temperature rise alarm";

     And last, something interesting if you have performance problems with
     your Oracle database:

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	  db = "oracle.ptg1";
	  host = "";
	  lru = "#'cache buffers lru chain'";
	  gets = "$db.latch.gets $host $lru";
	  total = "$db.latch.gets $host $lru +
		   $db.latch.misses $host $lru +
		   $db.latch.immisses $host $lru";

	  $total > 100 && $gets / $total < 0.2
	  -> alarm "high lru latch contention";

     The pmie specification language is powerful and large.

     To expedite rapid development of pmie rules, the pmieconf(1) tool
     provides a facility for generating a pmie configuration file from a set
     of generalized pmie rules. The supplied set of rules covers a wide range
     of performance scenarios.

     The pmrules(1) tool provides a GUI-based facility for generating pmie
     rules from parametrized templates.	 The supplied templates cover a wide
     range of performance scenarios.

     The development efforts of the PCP engineering team are focused on
     pmieconf rather than pmrules, and thus pmieconf is the recommended tool
     for quickly deploying useful pmie rules.

     The Performance Co-Pilot User's and Administrator's Guide provides a
     detailed tutorial-style chapter covering pmie.

     The PCP Tutorial from the subsystem includes a pmie
     tutorial.	Access the URLs file:$PCP_DOC_DIR/Tutorial/pmie.html and
     file:$PCP_DOC_DIR/Tutorial/lab-pmie.html from your web browser.

     This description is terse and informal.  For a more comprehensive
     description see the Performance Co-Pilot User's and Administrator's

     A pmie specification is a sequence of semicolon terminated expressions.

     Basic operators are modeled on the arithmetic, relational and Boolean
     operators of the C programming language.  Precedence rules are as
     expected, although the use of parentheses is encouraged to enhance
     readability and remove ambiguity.

     Operands are performance metric names (see pmns(4)) and the normal
     literal constants.

     Operands involving performance metrics may produce sets of values, as a
     result of enumeration in the dimensions of hosts, instances and time.
     Special qualifiers may appear after a performance metric name to define

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PMIE(1)								       PMIE(1)

     the enumeration in each dimension.	 For example,

	 kernel.percpu.cpu.user :foo :bar #cpu0 @0..2

     defines 6 values corresponding to the time spent executing in user mode
     on CPU 0 on the hosts ``foo'' and ``bar'' over the last 3 consecutive
     samples.  The default interpretation in the absence of : (host), #
     (instance) and @ (time) qualifiers is all instances at the most recent
     sample time for the default source of PCP performance metrics.

     Host and instance names that do not follow the rules for variables in
     programming languages, ie. alphabetic optionally followed by
     alphanumerics, should be enclosed in single quotes.

     Expression evaluation follows the law of ``least surprises''.  Where
     performance metrics have the semantics of a counter, pmie will
     automatically convert to a rate based upon consecutive samples and the
     time interval between these samples.  All expressions are evaluated in
     double precision, and where appropriate, automatically scaled into
     canonical units of ``bytes'', ``seconds'' and ``counts''.

     A rule is a special form of expression that specifies a condition or
     logical expression, a special operator (->) and actions to be performed
     when the condition is found to be true.

     The following table summarizes the basic pmie operators:

	      Operators			    Explanation
	   + - * /	     Arithmetic
	   < <= == >= > !=   Relational (value comparison)
	   ! && ||	     Boolean
	   ->		     Rule
	   rising	     Boolean, false to true transition
	   falling	     Boolean, true to false transition
	   rate		     Explicit rate conversion (rarely required)



     Aggregate operators may be used to aggregate or summarize along one
     dimension of a set-valued expression.  The following aggregate operators
     map from a logical expression to a logical expression of lower dimension.

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		Operators	       Type		Explanation
						  True if at least one set
						  member is true in the
						  associated dimension

						  True if all set members
						  are true in the
						  associated dimension

						  True if at least N
						  percent of set members
						  are true in the
						  associated dimension





     The following instantial operators may be used filter or limit a a set-
     valued logical expression, based on regular expression matching of
     instance names.  The logical expression must be a set involving the
     dimension of instances, and the regular expression is of the form used by
     egrep(1) or the Extended Regular Expressions of regcomp(3G).

	       Operators		   Explanation
			     For each value of the logical expression
			     that is ``true'', the result is ``true''
			     if the associated instance name matches
			     the regular expression.  Otherwise the
			     result is ``false''.

			     For each value of the logical expression
			     that is ``true'', the result is ``true''
			     if the associated instance name does not
			     match the regular expression.  Otherwise
			     the result is ``false''.




     For example, the expression below will be ``true'' for disks attached to
     controllers 2 or 3 performing more than 20 operations per second:
	  match_inst "^dks[23]d" > 20;

     The following aggregate operators map from an arithmetic expression to an
     arithmetic expression of lower dimension.

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		 Operators	       Type	       Explanation
						 Minimum value across all
						 set members in the
						 associated dimension

						 Maximum value across all
						 set members in the
						 associated dimension

						 Sum of values across all
						 set members in the
						 associated dimension

						 Average value across all
						 set members in the
						 associated dimension





     The aggregate operators count_inst, count_host and count_sample map from
     a logical expression to an arithmetic expression of lower dimension by
     counting the number of set members for which the expression is true in
     the associated dimension.

     For action rules, the following actions are defined:
		Operators		 Explanation
		print	    Display on standard output
		shell	    Execute with sh(1)
		alarm	    Raise a visible alarm with xconfirm(1)
		syslog	    Append to /var/adm/SYSLOG



     Multiple actions may be separated by the & and | operators to specify
     respectively sequential execution (both actions are executed) and
     alternate execution (the second action will only be executed if the
     execution of the first action returns a non-zero error status.

     Arguments to actions are an optional suppression time, and then one or
     more expressions (a string is an expression in this context).  Strings
     appearing as arguments to an action may include the following special
     selectors that will be replaced at the time the action is executed.

     %h	 Host(s) that make the left-most top-level expression in the condition

     %i	 Instance(s) that make the left-most top-level expression in the
	 condition true.

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     %v	 Values(s) from the left-most top-level expression in the condition
	 subject to the host and instance assignments that make the condition

     Note that expansion of the special selectors is done by repeating the
     whole argument once for each unique binding to any of the qualifying
     special selectors.	 For example if a rule were true for the host mumble
     with instances grunt and snort, and for host fumble the instance puff
     makes the rule true, then the action
	  -> shell myscript "Warning: %h-%i busy ";
     will execute myscript with the argument string "Warning: mumble-grunt
     busy Warning: mumble-snort busy Warning: fumble-puff busy".

     By comparison, if the action
	  -> shell myscript "'Warning! busy:" " %i@%h" "'";
     were executed under the same circumstances, then myscript would be
     executed with the argument string '"Warning! busy: grunt@mumble
     snort@mumble puff@fumble"'.

     The semantics of the expansion of the special selectors leads to a common
     usage, where one argument is a constant (contains no special selectors)
     the second argument contains the desired special selectors with minimal
     separator characters, and an optional third argument provides a constant
     postscript (e.g. to terminate any argument quoting from the first
     argument).	 If necessary post-processing (eg. in myscript) can provide
     the necessary enumeration over each unique expansion of the string
     containing just the special selectors.

     For complex conditions, the bindings to these selectors is not obvious.
     It is strongly recommended that pmie be used in the debugging mode
     (specify the -W command line option in particular) during rule

     Scale factors may be appended to arithmetic expressions and force linear
     scaling of the value to canonical units.  Simple scale factors are
     constructed from the keywords:  nanosecond, nanosec, nsec, microsecond,
     microsec, usec, millisecond, millisec, msec, second, sec, minute, min,
     hour, byte, Kbyte, Mbyte, Gbyte, Tbyte, count, Kcount, Mcount, Gcount and
     Tcount, and the operator /, for example ``Kbytes / hour''.

     Macros are defined using expressions of the form:

	  name = constexpr;

     Where name follows the normal rules for variables in programming
     languages, ie. alphabetic optionally followed by alphanumerics.
     constexpr must be a constant expression, either a string (enclosed in
     double quotes) or an arithmetic expression optionally followed by a scale

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     Macros are expanded when their name, prefixed by a dollar ($) appears in
     an expression, and macros may be nested within a constexpr string.

     The following reserved macro names are understood.

     minute    Current minute of the hour.

     hour      Current hour of the day, in the range 0 to 23.

     day       Current day of the month, in the range 1 to 31.

     month     Current month of the year, in the range 0 (January) to 11

     year      Current year.

	       Current day of the week, in the range 0 (Sunday) to 6

     delta     Sample interval in effect for this expression.

     Dates and times are presented in the reporting time zone (see description
     of -Z and -z command line options above).

     It is often useful for pmie processes to be started and stopped when the
     local host is booted or shutdown, or when they have been detected as no
     longer running (when they have unexpectedly exited for some reason).
     Refer to pmie_check(1) for details on automating this process.

	       annotated example rules
	       default PMNS specification files
	       pmie maintains  files in this directory to identify the running
	       pmie instances and to export runtime information about each
	       instance - this data forms the basis of the pmcd.pmie
	       performance metrics
	       the default set of pmie instances to start at boot time - refer
	       to pmie_check(1) for details
	       the predefined alarm action scripts (email, log, popup and
	       syslog), the example action script (sample)and the concurrent
	       action control file (control.master, see also pmrules(1)).

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	       common shell procedures for the predefined alarm action scripts
	       chkconfig(1M) control flag, to control launching of pmie from
	       /etc/init.d/pmie - see also pmie_check(1)

     The lexical scanner and parser will attempt to recover after an error in
     the input expressions.  Parsing resumes after skipping input up to the
     next semi-colon (;), however during this skipping process the scanner is
     ignorant of comments and strings, so an embedded semi-colon may cause
     parsing to resume at an unexpected place.	This behavior is largely
     benign, as until the initial syntax error is corrected, pmie will not
     attempt any expression evaluation.

     Environment variables with the prefix PCP_ are used to parameterize the
     file and directory names used by PCP.  On each installation, the file
     /etc/pcp.conf contains the local values for these variables.  The
     $PCP_CONF variable may be used to specify an alternative configuration
     file, as described in pcp.conf(4).

     PCPIntro(1), pmcd(1), pmdumplog(1), pmieconf(1), pmie_check(1),
     pminfo(1), pmlogger(1), pmval(1), PMAPI(3), pcp.conf(4) and pcp.env(4).

     Relevant information is also available from the on-line PCP Tutorial.
     Provided the subsystem from the PCP images has been
     installed, access the URLs file:$PCP_DOC_DIR/Tutorial/pmie.html and
     file:$PCP_DOC_DIR/Tutorial/lab-pmie.html from your web browser.

     For a more complete description of the pmie language, refer to the
     Performance Co-Pilot Users and Administrators Guide.  This is distributed
     in insight(1) format as part of the pcp.books subsystem, or in HTML
     format from:\

     The example rules in $PCP_DEMOS_DIR/pmie are part of the pcp.sw.demo
     subsystem and are not installed by default, they must be explicitly
     installed using inst(1) or swmgr(1).

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