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PPP(8)			  BSD System Manager's Manual			PPP(8)

NAME
     ppp — Point to Point Protocol (a.k.a. user-ppp)

SYNOPSIS
     ppp [-mode] [-nat] [-quiet] [-unitN] [system ...]

DESCRIPTION
     This is a user process PPP software package.  Normally, PPP is imple‐
     mented as a part of the kernel (e.g., as managed by pppd(8)) and it is
     thus somewhat hard to debug and/or modify its behaviour.  However, in
     this implementation PPP is done as a user process with the help of the
     tunnel device driver (tun).

     The -nat flag does the equivalent of a “nat enable yes”, enabling ppp's
     network address translation features.  This allows ppp to act as a NAT or
     masquerading engine for all machines on an internal LAN.  Refer to
     libalias(3) for details on the technical side of the NAT engine.  Refer
     to the NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION (PACKET ALIASING) section of this man‐
     ual page for details on how to configure NAT in ppp.

     The -quiet flag tells ppp to be silent at startup rather than displaying
     the mode and interface to standard output.

     The -unit flag tells ppp to only attempt to open /dev/tunN.  Normally,
     ppp will start with a value of 0 for N, and keep trying to open a tunnel
     device by incrementing the value of N by one each time until it succeeds.
     If it fails three times in a row because the device file is missing, it
     gives up.

     The following modes are understood by ppp:

	-auto
	     ppp opens the tun interface, configures it then goes into the
	     background.  The link is not brought up until outgoing data is
	     detected on the tun interface at which point ppp attempts to
	     bring up the link.	 Packets received (including the first one)
	     while ppp is trying to bring the link up will remain queued for a
	     default of 2 minutes.  See the “set choked” command below.

	     In -auto mode, at least one “system” must be given on the command
	     line (see below) and a “set ifaddr” must be done in the system
	     profile that specifies a peer IP address to use when configuring
	     the interface.  Something like “10.0.0.1/0” is usually appropri‐
	     ate.  See the “pmdemand” system in
	     /usr/share/examples/ppp/ppp.conf.sample for an example.

	-background
	     Here, ppp attempts to establish a connection with the peer imme‐
	     diately.  If it succeeds, ppp goes into the background and the
	     parent process returns an exit code of 0.	If it fails, ppp exits
	     with a non-zero result.

	-foreground
	     In foreground mode, ppp attempts to establish a connection with
	     the peer immediately, but never becomes a daemon.	The link is
	     created in background mode.  This is useful if you wish to con‐
	     trol ppp's invocation from another process.

	-direct
	     This is used for communicating over an already established con‐
	     nection, usually when receiving incoming connections accepted by
	     getty(8).	ppp ignores the “set device” line and uses descriptor
	     0 as the link.  ppp will also ignore any configured chat scripts
	     unless the “force-scripts” option has been enabled.

	     If callback is configured, ppp will use the “set device” informa‐
	     tion when dialing back.

	     When run in -direct mode, ppp will behave slightly differently if
	     descriptor 0 was created by pipe(2).  As pipes are not bi-direc‐
	     tional, ppp will redirect all writes to descriptor 1 (standard
	     output), leaving only reads acting on descriptor 0.  No special
	     action is taken if descriptor 0 was created by socketpair(2).

	-dedicated
	     This option is designed for machines connected with a dedicated
	     wire.  ppp will always keep the device open and will ignore any
	     configured chat scripts unless the “force-scripts” option has
	     been enabled.

	-ddial
	     This mode is equivalent to -auto mode except that ppp will bring
	     the link back up any time it is dropped for any reason.

	-interactive
	     This is a no-op, and gives the same behaviour as if none of the
	     above modes have been specified.  ppp loads any sections speci‐
	     fied on the command line then provides an interactive prompt.

     One or more configuration entries or systems (as specified in
     /etc/ppp/ppp.conf) may also be specified on the command line.  ppp will
     read the “default” system from /etc/ppp/ppp.conf at startup, followed by
     each of the systems specified on the command line.

Major Features
     Provides an interactive user interface.  Using its command mode, the user
     can easily enter commands to establish the connection with the remote
     end, check the status of connection and close the connection.  All func‐
     tions can also be optionally password protected for security.

     Supports both manual and automatic dialing.  Interactive mode has a
     “term” command which enables you to talk to the device directly.  When
     you are connected to the remote peer and it starts to talk PPP, ppp
     detects it and switches to packet mode automatically.  Once you have
     determined the proper sequence for connecting with the remote host, you
     can write a chat script to define the necessary dialing and login proce‐
     dure for later convenience.

     Supports on-demand dialup capability.  By using -auto mode, ppp will act
     as a daemon and wait for a packet to be sent over the PPP link.  When
     this happens, the daemon automatically dials and establishes the connec‐
     tion.  In almost the same manner -ddial mode (direct-dial mode) also
     automatically dials and establishes the connection.  However, it differs
     in that it will dial the remote site any time it detects the link is
     down, even if there are no packets to be sent.  This mode is useful for
     full-time connections where we worry less about line charges and more
     about being connected full time.  A third -dedicated mode is also avail‐
     able.  This mode is targeted at a dedicated link between two machines.
     ppp will never voluntarily quit from dedicated mode - you must send it
     the “quit all” command via its diagnostic socket.	A SIGHUP will force an
     LCP renegotiation, and a SIGTERM will force it to exit.

     Supports client callback.	ppp can use either the standard LCP callback
     protocol or the Microsoft CallBack Control Protocol (ftp://ftp.micro‐
     soft.com/developr/rfc/cbcp.txt).

     Supports NAT or packet aliasing.  Packet aliasing (a.k.a. IP masquerad‐
     ing) allows computers on a private, unregistered network to access the
     Internet.	The PPP host acts as a masquerading gateway.  IP addresses as
     well as TCP and UDP port numbers are NAT'd for outgoing packets and de-
     NAT'd for returning packets.

     Supports background PPP connections.  In background mode, if ppp success‐
     fully establishes the connection, it will become a daemon.	 Otherwise, it
     will exit with an error.  This allows the setup of scripts that wish to
     execute certain commands only if the connection is successfully estab‐
     lished.

     Supports server-side PPP connections.  In direct mode, ppp acts as server
     which accepts incoming PPP connections on stdin/stdout.

     Supports PAP and CHAP (rfc 1994, 2433 and 2759) authentication.  With PAP
     or CHAP, it is possible to skip the Unix style login(1) procedure, and
     use the PPP protocol for authentication instead.  If the peer requests
     Microsoft CHAP authentication and ppp is compiled with DES support, an
     appropriate MD4/DES response will be made.

     Supports RADIUS (rfc 2138 & 2548) authentication.	An extension to PAP
     and CHAP, Remote Access Dial In User Service allows authentication infor‐
     mation to be stored in a central or distributed database along with vari‐
     ous per-user framed connection characteristics.  If libradius(3) is
     available at compile time, ppp will use it to make RADIUS requests when
     configured to do so.

     Supports Proxy Arp.  ppp can be configured to make one or more proxy arp
     entries on behalf of the peer.  This allows routing from the peer to the
     LAN without configuring each machine on that LAN.

     Supports packet filtering.	 User can define four kinds of filters: the in
     filter for incoming packets, the out filter for outgoing packets, the
     dial filter to define a dialing trigger packet and the alive filter for
     keeping a connection alive with the trigger packet.

     Tunnel driver supports bpf.  The user can use tcpdump(1) to check the
     packet flow over the PPP link.

     Supports PPP over TCP and PPP over UDP.  If a device name is specified as
     host:port[/tcp|udp], ppp will open a TCP or UDP connection for transport‐
     ing data rather than using a conventional serial device.  UDP connections
     force ppp into synchronous mode.

     Supports PPP over Ethernet (rfc 2516).  If ppp is given a device specifi‐
     cation of the format PPPoE:iface[:provider] and if netgraph(4) is avail‐
     able, ppp will attempt talk PPP over Ethernet to provider using the iface
     network interface.

     On systems that do not support netgraph(4), an external program such as
     pppoed(8) may be used.

     Supports IETF draft Predictor-1 (rfc 1978) and DEFLATE (rfc 1979)
     compression.  ppp supports not only VJ-compression but also Predictor-1
     and DEFLATE compression.  Normally, a modem has built-in compression
     (e.g., v42.bis) and the system may receive higher data rates from it as a
     result of such compression.  While this is generally a good thing in most
     other situations, this higher speed data imposes a penalty on the system
     by increasing the number of serial interrupts the system has to process
     in talking to the modem and also increases latency.  Unlike VJ-compres‐
     sion, Predictor-1 and DEFLATE compression pre-compresses all network
     traffic flowing through the link, thus reducing overheads to a minimum.

     Supports Microsoft's IPCP extensions (rfc 1877).  Name Server Addresses
     and NetBIOS Name Server Addresses can be negotiated with clients using
     the Microsoft PPP stack (i.e., Win95, WinNT)

     Supports Multi-link PPP (rfc 1990)	 It is possible to configure ppp to
     open more than one physical connection to the peer, combining the band‐
     width of all links for better throughput.

     Supports MPPE (draft-ietf-pppext-mppe)  MPPE is Microsoft Point to Point
     Encryption scheme.	 It is possible to configure ppp to participate in Mi‐
     crosoft's Windows VPN.  For now, ppp can only get encryption keys from
     CHAP 81 authentication.  ppp must be compiled with DES for MPPE to oper‐
     ate.

     Supports IPV6CP (rfc 2023).  An IPv6 connection can be made in addition
     to or instead of the normal IPv4 connection.

PERMISSIONS
     ppp is installed as user root and group network, with permissions 04554.
     By default, ppp will not run if the invoking user id is not zero.	This
     may be overridden by using the “allow users” command in
     /etc/ppp/ppp.conf.	 When running as a normal user, ppp switches to user
     id 0 in order to alter the system routing table, set up system lock files
     and read the ppp configuration files.  All external commands (executed
     via the "shell" or "!bg" commands) are executed as the user id that
     invoked ppp.  Refer to the ‘ID0’ logging facility if you are interested
     in what exactly is done as user id zero.

GETTING STARTED
     When you first run ppp you may need to deal with some initial configura‐
     tion details.

     ·	 Make sure that your system has a group named “network” in the
	 /etc/group file and that the group contains the names of all users
	 expected to use ppp.  Refer to the group(5) manual page for details.
	 Each of these users must also be given access using the “allow users”
	 command in /etc/ppp/ppp.conf.

     ·	 Create a log file.  ppp uses syslog(3) to log information.  A common
	 log file name is /var/log/ppp.log.  To make output go to this file,
	 put the following lines in the /etc/syslog.conf file:

	       !ppp
	       *.*<TAB>/var/log/ppp.log

	 It is possible to have more than one PPP log file by creating a link
	 to the ppp executable:

	       # cd /usr/sbin
	       # ln ppp ppp0

	 and using

	       !ppp0
	       *.*<TAB>/var/log/ppp0.log

	 in /etc/syslog.conf.  Do not forget to send a HUP signal to
	 syslogd(8) after altering /etc/syslog.conf.

     ·	 Although not strictly relevant to ppp's operation, you should config‐
	 ure your resolver so that it works correctly.	This can be done by
	 configuring a local DNS (using named(8)) or by adding the correct
	 ‘nameserver’ lines to the file /etc/resolv.conf.  Refer to the
	 resolv.conf(5) manual page for details.

	 Alternatively, if the peer supports it, ppp can be configured to ask
	 the peer for the nameserver address(es) and to update
	 /etc/resolv.conf automatically.  Refer to the “enable dns” and
	 “resolv” commands below for details.

MANUAL DIALING
     In the following examples, we assume that your machine name is awfulhak.
     when you invoke ppp (see PERMISSIONS above) with no arguments, you are
     presented with a prompt:

	   ppp ON awfulhak>

     The ‘ON’ part of your prompt should always be in upper case.  If it is in
     lower case, it means that you must supply a password using the “passwd”
     command.  This only ever happens if you connect to a running version of
     ppp and have not authenticated yourself using the correct password.

     You can start by specifying the device name and speed:

	   ppp ON awfulhak> set device /dev/cuad0
	   ppp ON awfulhak> set speed 38400

     Normally, hardware flow control (CTS/RTS) is used.	 However, under cer‐
     tain circumstances (as may happen when you are connected directly to cer‐
     tain PPP-capable terminal servers), this may result in ppp hanging as
     soon as it tries to write data to your communications link as it is wait‐
     ing for the CTS (clear to send) signal - which will never come.  Thus, if
     you have a direct line and cannot seem to make a connection, try turning
     CTS/RTS off with “set ctsrts off”.	 If you need to do this, check the
     “set accmap” description below too - you will probably need to “set
     accmap 000a0000”.

     Usually, parity is set to “none”, and this is ppp's default.  Parity is a
     rather archaic error checking mechanism that is no longer used because
     modern modems do their own error checking, and most link-layer protocols
     (that is what ppp is) use much more reliable checking mechanisms.	Parity
     has a relatively huge overhead (a 12.5% increase in traffic) and as a
     result, it is always disabled (set to “none”) when PPP is opened.	How‐
     ever, some ISPs (Internet Service Providers) may use specific parity set‐
     tings at connection time (before PPP is opened).  Notably, Compuserve
     insist on even parity when logging in:

	   ppp ON awfulhak> set parity even

     You can now see what your current device settings look like:

	   ppp ON awfulhak> show physical
	   Name: deflink
	    State:	     closed
	    Device:	     N/A
	    Link Type:	     interactive
	    Connect Count:   0
	    Queued Packets:  0
	    Phone Number:    N/A

	   Defaults:
	    Device List:     /dev/cuad0
	    Characteristics: 38400bps, cs8, even parity, CTS/RTS on

	   Connect time: 0 secs
	   0 octets in, 0 octets out
	   Overall 0 bytes/sec
	   ppp ON awfulhak>

     The term command can now be used to talk directly to the device:

	   ppp ON awfulhak> term
	   at
	   OK
	   atdt123456
	   CONNECT
	   login: myispusername
	   Password: myisppassword
	   Protocol: ppp

     When the peer starts to talk in PPP, ppp detects this automatically and
     returns to command mode.

	   ppp ON awfulhak>		  # No link has been established
	   Ppp ON awfulhak>		  # We've connected & finished LCP
	   PPp ON awfulhak>		  # We've authenticated
	   PPP ON awfulhak>		  # We've agreed IP numbers

     If it does not, it is probable that the peer is waiting for your end to
     start negotiating.	 To force ppp to start sending PPP configuration pack‐
     ets to the peer, use the “~p” command to drop out of terminal mode and
     enter packet mode.

     If you never even receive a login prompt, it is quite likely that the
     peer wants to use PAP or CHAP authentication instead of using Unix-style
     login/password authentication.  To set things up properly, drop back to
     the prompt and set your authentication name and key, then reconnect:

	   ~.
	   ppp ON awfulhak> set authname myispusername
	   ppp ON awfulhak> set authkey myisppassword
	   ppp ON awfulhak> term
	   at
	   OK
	   atdt123456
	   CONNECT

     You may need to tell ppp to initiate negotiations with the peer here too:

	   ~p
	   ppp ON awfulhak>		  # No link has been established
	   Ppp ON awfulhak>		  # We've connected & finished LCP
	   PPp ON awfulhak>		  # We've authenticated
	   PPP ON awfulhak>		  # We've agreed IP numbers

     You are now connected!  Note that ‘PPP’ in the prompt has changed to cap‐
     ital letters to indicate that you have a peer connection.	If only some
     of the three Ps go uppercase, wait until either everything is uppercase
     or lowercase.  If they revert to lowercase, it means that ppp could not
     successfully negotiate with the peer.  A good first step for trou‐
     bleshooting at this point would be to

	   ppp ON awfulhak> set log local phase lcp ipcp

     and try again.  Refer to the “set log” command description below for fur‐
     ther details.  If things fail at this point, it is quite important that
     you turn logging on and try again.	 It is also important that you note
     any prompt changes and report them to anyone trying to help you.

     When the link is established, the show command can be used to see how
     things are going:

	   PPP ON awfulhak> show physical
	   * Modem related information is shown here *
	   PPP ON awfulhak> show ccp
	   * CCP (compression) related information is shown here *
	   PPP ON awfulhak> show lcp
	   * LCP (line control) related information is shown here *
	   PPP ON awfulhak> show ipcp
	   * IPCP (IP) related information is shown here *
	   PPP ON awfulhak> show ipv6cp
	   * IPV6CP (IPv6) related information is shown here *
	   PPP ON awfulhak> show link
	   * Link (high level) related information is shown here *
	   PPP ON awfulhak> show bundle
	   * Logical (high level) connection related information is shown here *

     At this point, your machine has a host route to the peer.	This means
     that you can only make a connection with the host on the other side of
     the link.	If you want to add a default route entry (telling your machine
     to send all packets without another routing entry to the other side of
     the PPP link), enter the following command:

	   PPP ON awfulhak> add default HISADDR

     The string ‘HISADDR’ represents the IP address of the connected peer.  If
     the “add” command fails due to an existing route, you can overwrite the
     existing route using:

	   PPP ON awfulhak> add! default HISADDR

     This command can also be executed before actually making the connection.
     If a new IP address is negotiated at connection time, ppp will update
     your default route accordingly.

     You can now use your network applications (ping, telnet, ftp, etc.)  in
     other windows or terminals on your machine.  If you wish to reuse the
     current terminal, you can put ppp into the background using your standard
     shell suspend and background commands (usually “^Z” followed by “bg”).

     Refer to the PPP COMMAND LIST section for details on all available com‐
     mands.

AUTOMATIC DIALING
     To use automatic dialing, you must prepare some Dial and Login chat
     scripts.  See the example definitions in
     /usr/share/examples/ppp/ppp.conf.sample (the format of /etc/ppp/ppp.conf
     is pretty simple).	 Each line contains one comment, inclusion, label or
     command:

     ·	 A line starting with a (“#”) character is treated as a comment line.
	 Leading whitespace are ignored when identifying comment lines.

     ·	 An inclusion is a line beginning with the word ‘!include’.  It must
	 have one argument - the file to include.  You may wish to “!include
	 ~/.ppp.conf” for compatibility with older versions of ppp.

     ·	 A label name starts in the first column and is followed by a colon
	 (“:”).

     ·	 A command line must contain a space or tab in the first column.

     ·	 A string starting with the “$” character is substituted with the
	 value of the environment variable by the same name.  Likewise, a
	 string starting with the “~” character is substituted with the full
	 path to the home directory of the user account by the same name, and
	 the “~” character by itself is substituted with the full path to the
	 home directory of the current user.  If you want to include a literal
	 “$” or “~” character in a command or argument, enclose them in double
	 quotes, e.g.,

	       set password "pa$ss~word"

     The /etc/ppp/ppp.conf file should consist of at least a “default” sec‐
     tion.  This section is always executed.  It should also contain one or
     more sections, named according to their purpose, for example, “MyISP”
     would represent your ISP, and “ppp-in” would represent an incoming ppp
     configuration.  You can now specify the destination label name when you
     invoke ppp.  Commands associated with the “default” label are executed,
     followed by those associated with the destination label provided.	When
     ppp is started with no arguments, the “default” section is still exe‐
     cuted.  The load command can be used to manually load a section from the
     /etc/ppp/ppp.conf file:

	   ppp ON awfulhak> load MyISP

     Note, no action is taken by ppp after a section is loaded, whether it is
     the result of passing a label on the command line or using the “load”
     command.  Only the commands specified for that label in the configuration
     file are executed.	 However, when invoking ppp with the -background,
     -ddial, or -dedicated switches, the link mode tells ppp to establish a
     connection.  Refer to the “set mode” command below for further details.

     Once the connection is made, the ‘ppp’ portion of the prompt will change
     to ‘PPP’:

	   # ppp MyISP
	   ...
	   ppp ON awfulhak> dial
	   Ppp ON awfulhak>
	   PPp ON awfulhak>
	   PPP ON awfulhak>

     The Ppp prompt indicates that ppp has entered the authentication phase.
     The PPp prompt indicates that ppp has entered the network phase.  The PPP
     prompt indicates that ppp has successfully negotiated a network layer
     protocol and is in a usable state.

     If the /etc/ppp/ppp.linkup file is available, its contents are executed
     when the PPP connection is established.  See the provided “pmdemand”
     example in /usr/share/examples/ppp/ppp.conf.sample which runs a script in
     the background after the connection is established (refer to the “shell”
     and “bg” commands below for a description of possible substitution
     strings).	Similarly, when a connection is closed, the contents of the
     /etc/ppp/ppp.linkdown file are executed.  Both of these files have the
     same format as /etc/ppp/ppp.conf.

     In previous versions of ppp, it was necessary to re-add routes such as
     the default route in the ppp.linkup file.	ppp supports ‘sticky routes’,
     where all routes that contain the HISADDR, MYADDR, HISADDR6 or MYADDR6
     literals will automatically be updated when the values of these variables
     change.

BACKGROUND DIALING
     If you want to establish a connection using ppp non-interactively (such
     as from a crontab(5) entry or an at(1) job) you should use the
     -background option.  When -background is specified, ppp attempts to
     establish the connection immediately.  If multiple phone numbers are
     specified, each phone number will be tried once.  If the attempt fails,
     ppp exits immediately with a non-zero exit code.  If it succeeds, then
     ppp becomes a daemon, and returns an exit status of zero to its caller.
     The daemon exits automatically if the connection is dropped by the remote
     system, or it receives a TERM signal.

DIAL ON DEMAND
     Demand dialing is enabled with the -auto or -ddial options.  You must
     also specify the destination label in /etc/ppp/ppp.conf to use.  It must
     contain the “set ifaddr” command to define the remote peers IP address.
     (refer to /usr/share/examples/ppp/ppp.conf.sample)

	   # ppp -auto pmdemand

     When -auto or -ddial is specified, ppp runs as a daemon but you can still
     configure or examine its configuration by using the “set server” command
     in /etc/ppp/ppp.conf, (for example, “set server +3000 mypasswd”) and con‐
     necting to the diagnostic port as follows:

	   # pppctl 3000   (assuming tun0)
	   Password:
	   PPP ON awfulhak> show who
	   tcp (127.0.0.1:1028) *

     The “show who” command lists users that are currently connected to ppp
     itself.  If the diagnostic socket is closed or changed to a different
     socket, all connections are immediately dropped.

     In -auto mode, when an outgoing packet is detected, ppp will perform the
     dialing action (chat script) and try to connect with the peer.  In -ddial
     mode, the dialing action is performed any time the line is found to be
     down.  If the connect fails, the default behaviour is to wait 30 seconds
     and then attempt to connect when another outgoing packet is detected.
     This behaviour can be changed using the “set redial” command:

     set redial secs[+inc[-max]][.next] [attempts]

     secs      is the number of seconds to wait before attempting to connect
	       again.  If the argument is the literal string ‘random’, the
	       delay period is a random value between 1 and 30 seconds inclu‐
	       sive.
     inc       is the number of seconds that secs should be incremented each
	       time a new dial attempt is made.	 The timeout reverts to secs
	       only after a successful connection is established.  The default
	       value for inc is zero.
     max       is the maximum number of times ppp should increment secs.  The
	       default value for max is 10.
     next      is the number of seconds to wait before attempting to dial the
	       next number in a list of numbers (see the “set phone” command).
	       The default is 3 seconds.  Again, if the argument is the lit‐
	       eral string ‘random’, the delay period is a random value
	       between 1 and 30 seconds.
     attempts  is the maximum number of times to try to connect for each out‐
	       going packet that triggers a dial.  The previous value is
	       unchanged if this parameter is omitted.	If a value of zero is
	       specified for attempts, ppp will keep trying until a connection
	       is made.

     So, for example:

	   set redial 10.3 4

     will attempt to connect 4 times for each outgoing packet that causes a
     dial attempt with a 3 second delay between each number and a 10 second
     delay after all numbers have been tried.  If multiple phone numbers are
     specified, the total number of attempts is still 4 (it does not attempt
     each number 4 times).

     Alternatively,

	   set redial 10+10-5.3 20

     tells ppp to attempt to connect 20 times.	After the first attempt, ppp
     pauses for 10 seconds.  After the next attempt it pauses for 20 seconds
     and so on until after the sixth attempt it pauses for 1 minute.  The next
     14 pauses will also have a duration of one minute.	 If ppp connects, dis‐
     connects and fails to connect again, the timeout starts again at 10 sec‐
     onds.

     Modifying the dial delay is very useful when running ppp in -auto mode on
     both ends of the link.  If each end has the same timeout, both ends wind
     up calling each other at the same time if the link drops and both ends
     have packets queued.  At some locations, the serial link may not be reli‐
     able, and carrier may be lost at inappropriate times.  It is possible to
     have ppp redial should carrier be unexpectedly lost during a session.

	   set reconnect timeout ntries

     This command tells ppp to re-establish the connection ntries times on
     loss of carrier with a pause of timeout seconds before each try.  For
     example,

	   set reconnect 3 5

     tells ppp that on an unexpected loss of carrier, it should wait 3 seconds
     before attempting to reconnect.  This may happen up to 5 times before ppp
     gives up.	The default value of ntries is zero (no reconnect).  Care
     should be taken with this option.	If the local timeout is slightly
     longer than the remote timeout, the reconnect feature will always be
     triggered (up to the given number of times) after the remote side times
     out and hangs up.	NOTE: In this context, losing too many LQRs consti‐
     tutes a loss of carrier and will trigger a reconnect.  If the -background
     flag is specified, all phone numbers are dialed at most once until a con‐
     nection is made.  The next number redial period specified with the “set
     redial” command is honoured, as is the reconnect tries value.  If your
     redial value is less than the number of phone numbers specified, not all
     the specified numbers will be tried.  To terminate the program, type

	   PPP ON awfulhak> close
	   ppp ON awfulhak> quit all

     A simple “quit” command will terminate the pppctl(8) or telnet(1) connec‐
     tion but not the ppp program itself.  You must use “quit all” to termi‐
     nate ppp as well.

RECEIVING INCOMING PPP CONNECTIONS (Method 1)
     To handle an incoming PPP connection request, follow these steps:

     1.	  Make sure the modem and (optionally) /etc/rc.serial is configured
	  correctly.
	  ·   Use Hardware Handshake (CTS/RTS) for flow control.
	  ·   Modem should be set to NO echo back (ATE0) and NO results string
	      (ATQ1).

     2.	  Edit /etc/ttys to enable a getty(8) on the port where the modem is
	  attached.  For example:

		ttyd1 "/usr/libexec/getty std.38400" dialup on secure

	  Do not forget to send a HUP signal to the init(8) process to start
	  the getty(8):

		# kill -HUP 1

	  It is usually also necessary to train your modem to the same DTR
	  speed as the getty:

		# ppp
		ppp ON awfulhak> set device /dev/cuad1
		ppp ON awfulhak> set speed 38400
		ppp ON awfulhak> term
		deflink: Entering terminal mode on /dev/cuad1
		Type `~?' for help
		at
		OK
		at
		OK
		atz
		OK
		at
		OK
		~.
		ppp ON awfulhak> quit

     3.	  Create a /usr/local/bin/ppplogin file with the following contents:

		#! /bin/sh
		exec /usr/sbin/ppp -direct incoming

	  Direct mode (-direct) lets ppp work with stdin and stdout.  You can
	  also use pppctl(8) to connect to a configured diagnostic port, in
	  the same manner as with client-side ppp.

	  Here, the incoming section must be set up in /etc/ppp/ppp.conf.

	  Make sure that the incoming section contains the “allow users” com‐
	  mand as appropriate.

     4.	  Prepare an account for the incoming user.

	  ppp:xxxx:66:66:PPP Login User:/home/ppp:/usr/local/bin/ppplogin

	  Refer to the manual entries for adduser(8) and vipw(8) for details.

     5.	  Support for IPCP Domain Name Server and NetBIOS Name Server negotia‐
	  tion can be enabled using the “accept dns” and “set nbns” commands.
	  Refer to their descriptions below.

RECEIVING INCOMING PPP CONNECTIONS (Method 2)
     This method differs in that we use ppp to authenticate the connection
     rather than login(1):

     1.	  Configure your default section in /etc/gettytab with automatic ppp
	  recognition by specifying the “pp” capability:

	  default:\
		  :pp=/usr/local/bin/ppplogin:\
		  .....

     2.	  Configure your serial device(s), enable a getty(8) and create
	  /usr/local/bin/ppplogin as in the first three steps for method 1
	  above.

     3.	  Add either “enable chap” or “enable pap” (or both) to
	  /etc/ppp/ppp.conf under the ‘incoming’ label (or whatever label
	  ppplogin uses).

     4.	  Create an entry in /etc/ppp/ppp.secret for each incoming user:

	  Pfred<TAB>xxxx
	  Pgeorge<TAB>yyyy

     Now, as soon as getty(8) detects a ppp connection (by recognising the
     HDLC frame headers), it runs “/usr/local/bin/ppplogin”.

     It is VITAL that either PAP or CHAP are enabled as above.	If they are
     not, you are allowing anybody to establish a ppp session with your
     machine without a password, opening yourself up to all sorts of potential
     attacks.

AUTHENTICATING INCOMING CONNECTIONS
     Normally, the receiver of a connection requires that the peer authenti‐
     cates itself.  This may be done using login(1), but alternatively, you
     can use PAP or CHAP.  CHAP is the more secure of the two, but some
     clients may not support it.  Once you decide which you wish to use, add
     the command ‘enable chap’ or ‘enable pap’ to the relevant section of
     ppp.conf.

     You must then configure the /etc/ppp/ppp.secret file.  This file contains
     one line per possible client, each line containing up to five fields:

     name key [hisaddr [label [callback-number]]]

     The name and key specify the client username and password.	 If key is “*”
     and PAP is being used, ppp will look up the password database (passwd(5))
     when authenticating.  If the client does not offer a suitable response
     based on any name/key combination in ppp.secret, authentication fails.

     If authentication is successful, hisaddr (if specified) is used when
     negotiating IP numbers.  See the “set ifaddr” command for details.

     If authentication is successful and label is specified, the current sys‐
     tem label is changed to match the given label.  This will change the sub‐
     sequent parsing of the ppp.linkup and ppp.linkdown files.

     If authentication is successful and callback-number is specified and “set
     callback” has been used in ppp.conf, the client will be called back on
     the given number.	If CBCP is being used, callback-number may also con‐
     tain a list of numbers or a “*”, as if passed to the “set cbcp” command.
     The value will be used in ppp's subsequent CBCP phase.

PPP OVER TCP and UDP (a.k.a Tunnelling)
     Instead of running ppp over a serial link, it is possible to use a TCP
     connection instead by specifying the host, port and protocol as the
     device:

	   set device ui-gate:6669/tcp

     Instead of opening a serial device, ppp will open a TCP connection to the
     given machine on the given socket.	 It should be noted however that ppp
     does not use the telnet protocol and will be unable to negotiate with a
     telnet server.  You should set up a port for receiving this PPP connec‐
     tion on the receiving machine (ui-gate).  This is done by first updating
     /etc/services to name the service:

	   ppp-in 6669/tcp # Incoming PPP connections over TCP

     and updating /etc/inetd.conf to tell inetd(8) how to deal with incoming
     connections on that port:

	   ppp-in stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/ppp ppp -direct ppp-in

     Do not forget to send a HUP signal to inetd(8) after you have updated
     /etc/inetd.conf.  Here, we use a label named “ppp-in”.  The entry in
     /etc/ppp/ppp.conf on ui-gate (the receiver) should contain the following:

	   ppp-in:
	    set timeout 0
	    set ifaddr 10.0.4.1 10.0.4.2

     and the entry in /etc/ppp/ppp.linkup should contain:

	   ppp-in:
	    add 10.0.1.0/24 HISADDR

     It is necessary to put the “add” command in ppp.linkup to ensure that the
     route is only added after ppp has negotiated and assigned addresses to
     its interface.

     You may also want to enable PAP or CHAP for security.  To enable PAP, add
     the following line:

	    enable PAP

     You will also need to create the following entry in /etc/ppp/ppp.secret:

	   MyAuthName MyAuthPasswd

     If MyAuthPasswd is a “*”, the password is looked up in the passwd(5)
     database.

     The entry in /etc/ppp/ppp.conf on awfulhak (the initiator) should contain
     the following:

	   ui-gate:
	    set escape 0xff
	    set device ui-gate:ppp-in/tcp
	    set dial
	    set timeout 30
	    set log Phase Chat Connect hdlc LCP IPCP IPV6CP CCP tun
	    set ifaddr 10.0.4.2 10.0.4.1

     with the route setup in /etc/ppp/ppp.linkup:

	   ui-gate:
	    add 10.0.2.0/24 HISADDR

     Again, if you are enabling PAP, you will also need this in the
     /etc/ppp/ppp.conf profile:

	    set authname MyAuthName
	    set authkey MyAuthKey

     We are assigning the address of 10.0.4.1 to ui-gate, and the address
     10.0.4.2 to awfulhak.  To open the connection, just type

	   awfulhak # ppp -background ui-gate

     The result will be an additional "route" on awfulhak to the 10.0.2.0/24
     network via the TCP connection, and an additional "route" on ui-gate to
     the 10.0.1.0/24 network.  The networks are effectively bridged - the
     underlying TCP connection may be across a public network (such as the
     Internet), and the PPP traffic is conceptually encapsulated (although not
     packet by packet) inside the TCP stream between the two gateways.

     The major disadvantage of this mechanism is that there are two "guaran‐
     teed delivery" mechanisms in place - the underlying TCP stream and what‐
     ever protocol is used over the PPP link - probably TCP again.  If packets
     are lost, both levels will get in each others way trying to negotiate
     sending of the missing packet.

     To avoid this overhead, it is also possible to do all this using UDP
     instead of TCP as the transport by simply changing the protocol from
     "tcp" to "udp".  When using UDP as a transport, ppp will operate in syn‐
     chronous mode.  This is another gain as the incoming data does not have
     to be rearranged into packets.

     Care should be taken when adding a default route through a tunneled setup
     like this.	 It is quite common for the default route (added in
     /etc/ppp/ppp.linkup) to end up routing the link's TCP connection through
     the tunnel, effectively garrotting the connection.	 To avoid this, make
     sure you add a static route for the benefit of the link:

	   ui-gate:
	    set escape 0xff
	    set device ui-gate:ppp-in/tcp
	    add ui-gate x.x.x.x
	    .....

     where “x.x.x.x” is the IP number that your route to “ui-gate” would nor‐
     mally use.

     When routing your connection accross a public network such as the Inter‐
     net, it is preferable to encrypt the data.	 This can be done with the
     help of the MPPE protocol, although currently this means that you will
     not be able to also compress the traffic as MPPE is implemented as a com‐
     pression layer (thank Microsoft for this).	 To enable MPPE encryption,
     add the following lines to /etc/ppp/ppp.conf on the server:

	     enable MSCHAPv2
	     disable deflate pred1
	     deny deflate pred1

     ensuring that you have put the requisite entry in /etc/ppp/ppp.secret
     (MSCHAPv2 is challenge based, so passwd(5) cannot be used)

     MSCHAPv2 and MPPE are accepted by default, so the client end should work
     without any additional changes (although ensure you have “set authname”
     and “set authkey” in your profile).

NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION (PACKET ALIASING)
     The -nat command line option enables network address translation (a.k.a.
     packet aliasing).	This allows the ppp host to act as a masquerading
     gateway for other computers over a local area network.  Outgoing IP pack‐
     ets are NAT'd so that they appear to come from the ppp host, and incoming
     packets are de-NAT'd so that they are routed to the correct machine on
     the local area network.  NAT allows computers on private, unregistered
     subnets to have Internet access, although they are invisible from the
     outside world.  In general, correct ppp operation should first be veri‐
     fied with network address translation disabled.  Then, the -nat option
     should be switched on, and network applications (web browser, telnet(1),
     ftp(1), ping(8), traceroute(8)) should be checked on the ppp host.
     Finally, the same or similar applications should be checked on other com‐
     puters in the LAN.	 If network applications work correctly on the ppp
     host, but not on other machines in the LAN, then the masquerading soft‐
     ware is working properly, but the host is either not forwarding or possi‐
     bly receiving IP packets.	Check that IP forwarding is enabled in
     /etc/rc.conf and that other machines have designated the ppp host as the
     gateway for the LAN.

PACKET FILTERING
     This implementation supports packet filtering.  There are four kinds of
     filters: the in filter, the out filter, the dial filter and the alive
     filter.  Here are the basics:

     ·	 A filter definition has the following syntax:

	 set filter name rule-no action [!] [[host] src_addr[/width]
	 [dst_addr[/width]]] [proto [src cmp port] [dst cmp port] [estab]
	 [syn] [finrst] [timeout secs]]

	 1.   Name should be one of ‘in’, ‘out’, ‘dial’ or ‘alive’.

	 2.   Rule-no is a numeric value between ‘0’ and ‘39’ specifying the
	      rule number.  Rules are specified in numeric order according to
	      rule-no, but only if rule ‘0’ is defined.

	 3.   Action may be specified as ‘permit’ or ‘deny’, in which case, if
	      a given packet matches the rule, the associated action is taken
	      immediately.  Action can also be specified as ‘clear’ to clear
	      the action associated with that particular rule, or as a new
	      rule number greater than the current rule.  In this case, if a
	      given packet matches the current rule, the packet will next be
	      matched against the new rule number (rather than the next rule
	      number).

	      The action may optionally be followed with an exclamation mark
	      (“!”), telling ppp to reverse the sense of the following match.

	 4.   [src_addr[/width]] and [dst_addr[/width]] are the source and
	      destination IP number specifications.  If [/width] is specified,
	      it gives the number of relevant netmask bits, allowing the spec‐
	      ification of an address range.

	      Either src_addr or dst_addr may be given the values MYADDR,
	      HISADDR, MYADDR6 or HISADDR6 (refer to the description of the
	      “bg” command for a description of these values).	When these
	      values are used, the filters will be updated any time the values
	      change.  This is similar to the behaviour of the “add” command
	      below.

	 5.   Proto may be any protocol from protocols(5).

	 6.   Cmp is one of ‘lt’, ‘eq’ or ‘gt’, meaning less-than, equal and
	      greater-than respectively.  Port can be specified as a numeric
	      port or by service name from /etc/services.

	 7.   The ‘estab’, ‘syn’, and ‘finrst’ flags are only allowed when
	      proto is set to ‘tcp’, and represent the TH_ACK, TH_SYN and
	      TH_FIN or TH_RST TCP flags respectively.

	 8.   The timeout value adjusts the current idle timeout to at least
	      secs seconds.  If a timeout is given in the alive filter as well
	      as in the in/out filter, the in/out value is used.  If no time‐
	      out is given, the default timeout (set using set timeout and
	      defaulting to 180 seconds) is used.

     ·	 Each filter can hold up to 40 rules, starting from rule 0.  The
	 entire rule set is not effective until rule 0 is defined, i.e., the
	 default is to allow everything through.

     ·	 If no rule in a defined set of rules matches a packet, that packet
	 will be discarded (blocked).  If there are no rules in a given fil‐
	 ter, the packet will be permitted.

     ·	 It is possible to filter based on the payload of UDP frames where
	 those frames contain a PROTO_IP PPP frame header.  See the
	 filter-decapsulation option below for further details.

     ·	 Use “set filter name -1” to flush all rules.

     See /usr/share/examples/ppp/ppp.conf.sample.

SETTING THE IDLE TIMER
     To check/set the idle timer, use the “show bundle” and “set timeout” com‐
     mands:

	   ppp ON awfulhak> set timeout 600

     The timeout period is measured in seconds, the default value for which is
     180 seconds (or 3 min).  To disable the idle timer function, use the com‐
     mand

	   ppp ON awfulhak> set timeout 0

     In -ddial and -dedicated modes, the idle timeout is ignored.  In -auto
     mode, when the idle timeout causes the PPP session to be closed, the ppp
     program itself remains running.  Another trigger packet will cause it to
     attempt to re-establish the link.

PREDICTOR-1 and DEFLATE COMPRESSION
     ppp supports both Predictor type 1 and deflate compression.  By default,
     ppp will attempt to use (or be willing to accept) both compression proto‐
     cols when the peer agrees (or requests them).  The deflate protocol is
     preferred by ppp.	Refer to the “disable” and “deny” commands if you wish
     to disable this functionality.

     It is possible to use a different compression algorithm in each direction
     by using only one of “disable deflate” and “deny deflate” (assuming that
     the peer supports both algorithms).

     By default, when negotiating DEFLATE, ppp will use a window size of 15.
     Refer to the “set deflate” command if you wish to change this behaviour.

     A special algorithm called DEFLATE24 is also available, and is disabled
     and denied by default.  This is exactly the same as DEFLATE except that
     it uses CCP ID 24 to negotiate.  This allows ppp to successfully negoti‐
     ate DEFLATE with pppd version 2.3.*.

CONTROLLING IP ADDRESS
     For IPv4, ppp uses IPCP to negotiate IP addresses.	 Each side of the con‐
     nection specifies the IP address that it is willing to use, and if the
     requested IP address is acceptable then ppp returns an ACK to the
     requester.	 Otherwise, ppp returns NAK to suggest that the peer use a
     different IP address.  When both sides of the connection agree to accept
     the received request (and send an ACK), IPCP is set to the open state and
     a network level connection is established.	 To control this IPCP behav‐
     iour, this implementation has the “set ifaddr” command for defining the
     local and remote IP address:

	   set ifaddr [src_addr[/nn] [dst_addr[/nn] [netmask [trigger_addr]]]]

     where, ‘src_addr’ is the IP address that the local side is willing to
     use, ‘dst_addr’ is the IP address which the remote side should use and
     ‘netmask’ is the netmask that should be used.  ‘Src_addr’ defaults to the
     current hostname(1), ‘dst_addr’ defaults to 0.0.0.0, and ‘netmask’
     defaults to whatever mask is appropriate for ‘src_addr’.  It is only pos‐
     sible to make ‘netmask’ smaller than the default.	The usual value is
     255.255.255.255, as most kernels ignore the netmask of a POINTOPOINT
     interface.

     Some incorrect PPP implementations require that the peer negotiates a
     specific IP address instead of ‘src_addr’.	 If this is the case,
     ‘trigger_addr’ may be used to specify this IP number.  This will not
     affect the routing table unless the other side agrees with this proposed
     number.

	   set ifaddr 192.244.177.38 192.244.177.2 255.255.255.255 0.0.0.0

     The above specification means:

     ·	 I will first suggest that my IP address should be 0.0.0.0, but I will
	 only accept an address of 192.244.177.38.
     ·	 I strongly insist that the peer uses 192.244.177.2 as his own address
	 and will not permit the use of any IP address but 192.244.177.2.
	 When the peer requests another IP address, I will always suggest that
	 it uses 192.244.177.2.
     ·	 The routing table entry will have a netmask of 0xffffffff.

     This is all fine when each side has a pre-determined IP address, however
     it is often the case that one side is acting as a server which controls
     all IP addresses and the other side should go along with it.  In order to
     allow more flexible behaviour, the “set ifaddr” command allows the user
     to specify IP addresses more loosely:

	   set ifaddr 192.244.177.38/24 192.244.177.2/20

     A number followed by a slash (“/”) represents the number of bits signifi‐
     cant in the IP address.  The above example means:

     ·	 I would like to use 192.244.177.38 as my address if it is possible,
	 but I will also accept any IP address between 192.244.177.0 and
	 192.244.177.255.
     ·	 I would like to make him use 192.244.177.2 as his own address, but I
	 will also permit him to use any IP address between 192.244.176.0 and
	 192.244.191.255.
     ·	 As you may have already noticed, 192.244.177.2 is equivalent to say‐
	 ing 192.244.177.2/32.
     ·	 As an exception, 0 is equivalent to 0.0.0.0/0, meaning that I have no
	 preferred IP address and will obey the remote peers selection.	 When
	 using zero, no routing table entries will be made until a connection
	 is established.
     ·	 192.244.177.2/0 means that I will accept/permit any IP address but I
	 will suggest that 192.244.177.2 be used first.

     When negotiating IPv6 addresses, no control is given to the user.	IPV6CP
     negotiation is fully automatic.

CONNECTING WITH YOUR INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER
     The following steps should be taken when connecting to your ISP:

     1.	  Describe your providers phone number(s) in the dial script using the
	  “set phone” command.	This command allows you to set multiple phone
	  numbers for dialing and redialing separated by either a pipe (“|”)
	  or a colon (“:”):

		set phone telno[|backupnumber]...[:nextnumber]...

	  Numbers after the first in a pipe-separated list are only used if
	  the previous number was used in a failed dial or login script.  Num‐
	  bers separated by a colon are used sequentially, irrespective of
	  what happened as a result of using the previous number.  For exam‐
	  ple:

		set phone "1234567|2345678:3456789|4567890"

	  Here, the 1234567 number is attempted.  If the dial or login script
	  fails, the 2345678 number is used next time, but *only* if the dial
	  or login script fails.  On the dial after this, the 3456789 number
	  is used.  The 4567890 number is only used if the dial or login
	  script using the 3456789 fails.  If the login script of the 2345678
	  number fails, the next number is still the 3456789 number.  As many
	  pipes and colons can be used as are necessary (although a given site
	  would usually prefer to use either the pipe or the colon, but not
	  both).  The next number redial timeout is used between all numbers.
	  When the end of the list is reached, the normal redial period is
	  used before starting at the beginning again.	The selected phone
	  number is substituted for the \\T string in the “set dial” command
	  (see below).

     2.	  Set up your redial requirements using “set redial”.  For example, if
	  you have a bad telephone line or your provider is usually engaged
	  (not so common these days), you may want to specify the following:

		set redial 10 4

	  This says that up to 4 phone calls should be attempted with a pause
	  of 10 seconds before dialing the first number again.

     3.	  Describe your login procedure using the “set dial” and “set login”
	  commands.  The “set dial” command is used to talk to your modem and
	  establish a link with your ISP, for example:

		set dial "ABORT BUSY ABORT NO\\sCARRIER TIMEOUT 4 \"\" \
		  ATZ OK-ATZ-OK ATDT\\T TIMEOUT 60 CONNECT"

	  This modem "chat" string means:

	  ·   Abort if the string "BUSY" or "NO CARRIER" are received.

	  ·   Set the timeout to 4 seconds.

	  ·   Expect nothing.

	  ·   Send ATZ.

	  ·   Expect OK.  If that is not received within the 4 second timeout,
	      send ATZ and expect OK.

	  ·   Send ATDTxxxxxxx where xxxxxxx is the next number in the phone
	      list from above.

	  ·   Set the timeout to 60.

	  ·   Wait for the CONNECT string.

	  Once the connection is established, the login script is executed.
	  This script is written in the same style as the dial script, but
	  care should be taken to avoid having your password logged:

		set authkey MySecret
		set login "TIMEOUT 15 login:-\\r-login: awfulhak \
		  word: \\P ocol: PPP HELLO"

	  This login "chat" string means:

	  ·   Set the timeout to 15 seconds.

	  ·   Expect "login:".	If it is not received, send a carriage return
	      and expect "login:" again.

	  ·   Send "awfulhak"

	  ·   Expect "word:" (the tail end of a "Password:" prompt).

	  ·   Send whatever our current authkey value is set to.

	  ·   Expect "ocol:" (the tail end of a "Protocol:" prompt).

	  ·   Send "PPP".

	  ·   Expect "HELLO".

	  The “set authkey” command is logged specially.  When command or chat
	  logging is enabled, the actual password is not logged; ‘********’ is
	  logged instead.

	  Login scripts vary greatly between ISPs.  If you are setting one up
	  for the first time, ENABLE CHAT LOGGING so that you can see if your
	  script is behaving as you expect.

     4.	  Use “set device” and “set speed” to specify your serial line and
	  speed, for example:

		set device /dev/cuad0
		set speed 115200

	  Cuad0 is the first serial port on FreeBSD.  If you are running ppp
	  on OpenBSD, cua00 is the first.  A speed of 115200 should be speci‐
	  fied if you have a modem capable of bit rates of 28800 or more.  In
	  general, the serial speed should be about four times the modem
	  speed.

     5.	  Use the “set ifaddr” command to define the IP address.

	  ·   If you know what IP address your provider uses, then use it as
	      the remote address (dst_addr), otherwise choose something like
	      10.0.0.2/0 (see below).

	  ·   If your provider has assigned a particular IP address to you,
	      then use it as your address (src_addr).

	  ·   If your provider assigns your address dynamically, choose a
	      suitably unobtrusive and unspecific IP number as your address.
	      10.0.0.1/0 would be appropriate.	The bit after the / specifies
	      how many bits of the address you consider to be important, so if
	      you wanted to insist on something in the class C network
	      1.2.3.0, you could specify 1.2.3.1/24.

	  ·   If you find that your ISP accepts the first IP number that you
	      suggest, specify third and forth arguments of “0.0.0.0”.	This
	      will force your ISP to assign a number.  (The third argument
	      will be ignored as it is less restrictive than the default mask
	      for your ‘src_addr’).

	  An example for a connection where you do not know your IP number or
	  your ISPs IP number would be:

		set ifaddr 10.0.0.1/0 10.0.0.2/0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0

     6.	  In most cases, your ISP will also be your default router.  If this
	  is the case, add the line

		add default HISADDR

	  to /etc/ppp/ppp.conf (or to /etc/ppp/ppp.linkup for setups that do
	  not use -auto mode).

	  This tells ppp to add a default route to whatever the peer address
	  is (10.0.0.2 in this example).  This route is ‘sticky’, meaning that
	  should the value of HISADDR change, the route will be updated
	  accordingly.

     7.	  If your provider requests that you use PAP/CHAP authentication meth‐
	  ods, add the next lines to your /etc/ppp/ppp.conf file:

		set authname MyName
		set authkey MyPassword

	  Both are accepted by default, so ppp will provide whatever your ISP
	  requires.

	  It should be noted that a login script is rarely (if ever) required
	  when PAP or CHAP are in use.

     8.	  Ask your ISP to authenticate your nameserver address(es) with the
	  line

		enable dns

	  Do NOT do this if you are running a local DNS unless you also either
	  use “resolv readonly” or have “resolv restore” in
	  /etc/ppp/ppp.linkdown, as ppp will simply circumvent its use by
	  entering some nameserver lines in /etc/resolv.conf.

     Please refer to /usr/share/examples/ppp/ppp.conf.sample and
     /usr/share/examples/ppp/ppp.linkup.sample for some real examples.	The
     pmdemand label should be appropriate for most ISPs.

LOGGING FACILITY
     ppp is able to generate the following log info either via syslog(3) or
     directly to the screen:

	All	   Enable all logging facilities.  This generates a lot of
		   log.	 The most common use of 'all' is as a basis, where you
		   remove some facilities after enabling 'all' ('debug' and
		   'timer' are usually best disabled.)
	Async	   Dump async level packet in hex.
	CBCP	   Generate CBCP (CallBack Control Protocol) logs.
	CCP	   Generate a CCP packet trace.
	Chat	   Generate ‘dial’, ‘login’, ‘logout’ and ‘hangup’ chat script
		   trace logs.
	Command	   Log commands executed either from the command line or any
		   of the configuration files.
	Connect	   Log Chat lines containing the string "CONNECT".
	Debug	   Log debug information.
	DNS	   Log DNS QUERY packets.
	Filter	   Log packets permitted by the dial filter and denied by any
		   filter.
	HDLC	   Dump HDLC packet in hex.
	ID0	   Log all function calls specifically made as user id 0.
	IPCP	   Generate an IPCP packet trace.
	LCP	   Generate an LCP packet trace.
	LQM	   Generate LQR reports.
	Phase	   Phase transition log output.
	Physical   Dump physical level packet in hex.
	Radius	   Dump RADIUS information.  RADIUS information resulting from
		   the link coming up or down is logged at “Phase” level
		   unless “Radius” logging is enabled.	This log level is most
		   useful for monitoring RADIUS alive information.
	Sync	   Dump sync level packet in hex.
	TCP/IP	   Dump all TCP/IP packets.
	Timer	   Log timer manipulation.
	TUN	   Include the tun device on each log line.
	Warning	   Output to the terminal device.  If there is currently no
		   terminal, output is sent to the log file using syslogs
		   LOG_WARNING.
	Error	   Output to both the terminal device and the log file using
		   syslogs LOG_ERROR.
	Alert	   Output to the log file using LOG_ALERT.

     The “set log” command allows you to set the logging output level.	Multi‐
     ple levels can be specified on a single command line.  The default is
     equivalent to “set log Phase”.

     It is also possible to log directly to the screen.	 The syntax is the
     same except that the word “local” should immediately follow “set log”.
     The default is “set log local” (i.e., only the un-maskable warning, error
     and alert output).

     If The first argument to “set log [local]” begins with a ‘+’ or a ‘-’
     character, the current log levels are not cleared, for example:

	   PPP ON awfulhak> set log phase
	   PPP ON awfulhak> show log
	   Log:	  Phase Warning Error Alert
	   Local: Warning Error Alert
	   PPP ON awfulhak> set log +tcp/ip -warning
	   PPP ON awfulhak> set log local +command
	   PPP ON awfulhak> show log
	   Log:	  Phase TCP/IP Warning Error Alert
	   Local: Command Warning Error Alert

     Log messages of level Warning, Error and Alert are not controllable using
     “set log [local]”.

     The Warning level is special in that it will not be logged if it can be
     displayed locally.

SIGNAL HANDLING
     ppp deals with the following signals:

     INT   Receipt of this signal causes the termination of the current con‐
	   nection (if any).  This will cause ppp to exit unless it is in
	   -auto or -ddial mode.

     HUP, TERM & QUIT
	   These signals tell ppp to exit.

     USR1  This signal, tells ppp to re-open any existing server socket, drop‐
	   ping all existing diagnostic connections.  Sockets that could not
	   previously be opened will be retried.

     USR2  This signal, tells ppp to close any existing server socket, drop‐
	   ping all existing diagnostic connections.  SIGUSR1 can still be
	   used to re-open the socket.

MULTI-LINK PPP
     If you wish to use more than one physical link to connect to a PPP peer,
     that peer must also understand the MULTI-LINK PPP protocol.  Refer to RFC
     1990 for specification details.

     The peer is identified using a combination of his “endpoint
     discriminator” and his “authentication id”.  Either or both of these may
     be specified.  It is recommended that at least one is specified, other‐
     wise there is no way of ensuring that all links are actually connected to
     the same peer program, and some confusing lock-ups may result.  Locally,
     these identification variables are specified using the “set enddisc” and
     “set authname” commands.  The ‘authname’ (and ‘authkey’) must be agreed
     in advance with the peer.

     Multi-link capabilities are enabled using the “set mrru” command (set
     maximum reconstructed receive unit).  Once multi-link is enabled, ppp
     will attempt to negotiate a multi-link connection with the peer.

     By default, only one ‘link’ is available (called ‘deflink’).  To create
     more links, the “clone” command is used.  This command will clone exist‐
     ing links, where all characteristics are the same except:

     1.	  The new link has its own name as specified on the “clone” command
	  line.

     2.	  The new link is an ‘interactive’ link.  Its mode may subsequently be
	  changed using the “set mode” command.

     3.	  The new link is in a ‘closed’ state.

     A summary of all available links can be seen using the “show links” com‐
     mand.

     Once a new link has been created, command usage varies.  All link spe‐
     cific commands must be prefixed with the “link name” command, specifying
     on which link the command is to be applied.  When only a single link is
     available, ppp is smart enough not to require the “link name” prefix.

     Some commands can still be used without specifying a link - resulting in
     an operation at the ‘bundle’ level.  For example, once two or more links
     are available, the command “show ccp” will show CCP configuration and
     statistics at the multi-link level, and “link deflink show ccp” will show
     the same information at the “deflink” link level.

     Armed with this information, the following configuration might be used:

	   mp:
	    set timeout 0
	    set log phase chat
	    set device /dev/cuad0 /dev/cuad1 /dev/cuad2
	    set phone "123456789"
	    set dial "ABORT BUSY ABORT NO\sCARRIER TIMEOUT 5 \"\" ATZ \
		      OK-AT-OK \\dATDT\\T TIMEOUT 45 CONNECT"
	    set login
	    set ifaddr 10.0.0.1/0 10.0.0.2/0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
	    set authname ppp
	    set authkey ppppassword

	    set mrru 1500
	    clone 1,2,3		   # Create 3 new links - duplicates of the default
	    link deflink remove	   # Delete the default link (called ``deflink'')

     Note how all cloning is done at the end of the configuration.  Usually,
     the link will be configured first, then cloned.  If you wish all links to
     be up all the time, you can add the following line to the end of your
     configuration.

	     link 1,2,3 set mode ddial

     If you want the links to dial on demand, this command could be used:

	     link * set mode auto

     Links may be tied to specific names by removing the “set device” line
     above, and specifying the following after the “clone” command:

	    link 1 set device /dev/cuad0
	    link 2 set device /dev/cuad1
	    link 3 set device /dev/cuad2

     Use the “help” command to see which commands require context (using the
     “link” command), which have optional context and which should not have
     any context.

     When ppp has negotiated MULTI-LINK mode with the peer, it creates a local
     domain socket in the /var/run directory.  This socket is used to pass
     link information (including the actual link file descriptor) between dif‐
     ferent ppp invocations.  This facilitates ppp's ability to be run from a
     getty(8) or directly from /etc/gettydefs (using the ‘pp=’ capability),
     without needing to have initial control of the serial line.  Once ppp
     negotiates multi-link mode, it will pass its open link to any already
     running process.  If there is no already running process, ppp will act as
     the master, creating the socket and listening for new connections.

PPP COMMAND LIST
     This section lists the available commands and their effect.  They are
     usable either from an interactive ppp session, from a configuration file
     or from a pppctl(8) or telnet(1) session.

     accept|deny|enable|disable option....
	 These directives tell ppp how to negotiate the initial connection
	 with the peer.	 Each “option” has a default of either accept or deny
	 and enable or disable.	 “Accept” means that the option will be ACK'd
	 if the peer asks for it.  “Deny” means that the option will be NAK'd
	 if the peer asks for it.  “Enable” means that the option will be
	 requested by us.  “Disable” means that the option will not be
	 requested by us.

	 “Option” may be one of the following:

	 acfcomp
	     Default: Enabled and Accepted.  ACFComp stands for Address and
	     Control Field Compression.	 Non LCP packets will usually have an
	     address field of 0xff (the All-Stations address) and a control
	     field of 0x03 (the Unnumbered Information command).  If this
	     option is negotiated, these two bytes are simply not sent, thus
	     minimising traffic.

	     See rfc1662 for details.

	 chap[05]
	     Default: Disabled and Accepted.  CHAP stands for Challenge Hand‐
	     shake Authentication Protocol.  Only one of CHAP and PAP (below)
	     may be negotiated.	 With CHAP, the authenticator sends a "chal‐
	     lenge" message to its peer.  The peer uses a one-way hash func‐
	     tion to encrypt the challenge and sends the result back.  The
	     authenticator does the same, and compares the results.  The
	     advantage of this mechanism is that no passwords are sent across
	     the connection.  A challenge is made when the connection is first
	     made.  Subsequent challenges may occur.  If you want to have your
	     peer authenticate itself, you must “enable chap”.	in
	     /etc/ppp/ppp.conf, and have an entry in /etc/ppp/ppp.secret for
	     the peer.

	     When using CHAP as the client, you need only specify “AuthName”
	     and “AuthKey” in /etc/ppp/ppp.conf.  CHAP is accepted by default.
	     Some PPP implementations use "MS-CHAP" rather than MD5 when
	     encrypting the challenge.	MS-CHAP is a combination of MD4 and
	     DES.  If ppp was built on a machine with DES libraries available,
	     it will respond to MS-CHAP authentication requests, but will
	     never request them.

	 deflate
	     Default: Enabled and Accepted.  This option decides if deflate
	     compression will be used by the Compression Control Protocol
	     (CCP).  This is the same algorithm as used by the gzip(1) pro‐
	     gram.  Note: There is a problem negotiating deflate capabilities
	     with pppd(8) - a PPP implementation available under many operat‐
	     ing systems.  pppd (version 2.3.1) incorrectly attempts to nego‐
	     tiate deflate compression using type 24 as the CCP configuration
	     type rather than type 26 as specified in rfc1979.	Type 24 is
	     actually specified as “PPP Magna-link Variable Resource
	     Compression” in rfc1975!  ppp is capable of negotiating with
	     pppd, but only if “deflate24” is enabled and accepted.

	 deflate24
	     Default: Disabled and Denied.  This is a variance of the deflate
	     option, allowing negotiation with the pppd(8) program.  Refer to
	     the deflate section above for details.  It is disabled by default
	     as it violates rfc1975.

	 dns
	     Default: Disabled and Denied.  This option allows DNS negotia‐
	     tion.

	     If “enabled,” ppp will request that the peer confirms the entries
	     in /etc/resolv.conf.  If the peer NAKs our request (suggesting
	     new IP numbers), /etc/resolv.conf is updated and another request
	     is sent to confirm the new entries.

	     If “accepted,” ppp will answer any DNS queries requested by the
	     peer rather than rejecting them.  The answer is taken from
	     /etc/resolv.conf unless the “set dns” command is used as an over‐
	     ride.

	 enddisc
	     Default: Enabled and Accepted.  This option allows control over
	     whether we negotiate an endpoint discriminator.  We only send our
	     discriminator if “set enddisc” is used and enddisc is enabled.
	     We reject the peers discriminator if enddisc is denied.

	 LANMan|chap80lm
	     Default: Disabled and Accepted.  The use of this authentication
	     protocol is discouraged as it partially violates the authentica‐
	     tion protocol by implementing two different mechanisms (LANMan &
	     NT) under the guise of a single CHAP type (0x80).	“LANMan” uses
	     a simple DES encryption mechanism and is the least secure of the
	     CHAP alternatives (although is still more secure than PAP).

	     Refer to the “MSChap” description below for more details.

	 lqr
	     Default: Disabled and Accepted.  This option decides if Link
	     Quality Requests will be sent or accepted.	 LQR is a protocol
	     that allows ppp to determine that the link is down without rely‐
	     ing on the modems carrier detect.	When LQR is enabled, ppp sends
	     the QUALPROTO option (see “set lqrperiod” below) as part of the
	     LCP request.  If the peer agrees, both sides will exchange LQR
	     packets at the agreed frequency, allowing detailed link quality
	     monitoring by enabling LQM logging.  If the peer does not agree,
	     and if the “echo” option is enabled, ppp will send LCP ECHO
	     requests instead.	These packets pass no information of interest,
	     but they MUST be replied to by the peer.

	     Whether using LQR or LCP ECHO, ppp will abruptly drop the connec‐
	     tion if 5 unacknowledged packets have been sent rather than send‐
	     ing a 6th.	 A message is logged at the PHASE level, and any
	     appropriate “reconnect” values are honoured as if the peer were
	     responsible for dropping the connection.

	     Refer to the “enable echo” command description for differences in
	     behaviour prior to ppp version 3.4.2.

	 mppe
	     Default: Enabled and Accepted.  This is Microsoft Point to Point
	     Encryption scheme.	 MPPE key size can be 40-, 56- and 128-bits.
	     Refer to “set mppe” command.

	 MSChapV2|chap81
	     Default: Disabled and Accepted.  It is very similar to standard
	     CHAP (type 0x05) except that it issues challenges of a fixed 16
	     bytes in length and uses a combination of MD4, SHA-1 and DES to
	     encrypt the challenge rather than using the standard MD5 mecha‐
	     nism.

	 MSChap|chap80nt
	     Default: Disabled and Accepted.  The use of this authentication
	     protocol is discouraged as it partially violates the authentica‐
	     tion protocol by implementing two different mechanisms (LANMan &
	     NT) under the guise of a single CHAP type (0x80).	It is very
	     similar to standard CHAP (type 0x05) except that it issues chal‐
	     lenges of a fixed 8 bytes in length and uses a combination of MD4
	     and DES to encrypt the challenge rather than using the standard
	     MD5 mechanism.  CHAP type 0x80 for LANMan is also supported - see
	     “enable LANMan” for details.

	     Because both “LANMan” and “NT” use CHAP type 0x80, when acting as
	     authenticator with both “enabled”, ppp will rechallenge the peer
	     up to three times if it responds using the wrong one of the two
	     protocols.	 This gives the peer a chance to attempt using both
	     protocols.

	     Conversely, when ppp acts as the authenticatee with both proto‐
	     cols “accepted”, the protocols are used alternately in response
	     to challenges.

	     Note: If only LANMan is enabled, pppd(8) (version 2.3.5) misbe‐
	     haves when acting as authenticatee.  It provides both the NT and
	     the LANMan answers, but also suggests that only the NT answer
	     should be used.

	 pap
	     Default: Disabled and Accepted.  PAP stands for Password Authen‐
	     tication Protocol.	 Only one of PAP and CHAP (above) may be nego‐
	     tiated.  With PAP, the ID and Password are sent repeatedly to the
	     peer until authentication is acknowledged or the connection is
	     terminated.  This is a rather poor security mechanism.  It is
	     only performed when the connection is first established.  If you
	     want to have your peer authenticate itself, you must “enable
	     pap”.  in /etc/ppp/ppp.conf, and have an entry in
	     /etc/ppp/ppp.secret for the peer (although see the “passwdauth”
	     and “set radius” options below).

	     When using PAP as the client, you need only specify “AuthName”
	     and “AuthKey” in /etc/ppp/ppp.conf.  PAP is accepted by default.

	 pred1
	     Default: Enabled and Accepted.  This option decides if Predictor
	     1 compression will be used by the Compression Control Protocol
	     (CCP).

	 protocomp
	     Default: Enabled and Accepted.  This option is used to negotiate
	     PFC (Protocol Field Compression), a mechanism where the protocol
	     field number is reduced to one octet rather than two.

	 shortseq
	     Default: Enabled and Accepted.  This option determines if ppp
	     will request and accept requests for short (12 bit) sequence num‐
	     bers when negotiating multi-link mode.  This is only applicable
	     if our MRRU is set (thus enabling multi-link).

	 vjcomp
	     Default: Enabled and Accepted.  This option determines if Van
	     Jacobson header compression will be used.

	 The following options are not actually negotiated with the peer.
	 Therefore, accepting or denying them makes no sense.

	 echo
	     Default: Disabled.	 When this option is enabled, ppp will send
	     LCP ECHO requests to the peer at the frequency defined by
	     “echoperiod”.  Note, LQR requests will supersede LCP ECHO
	     requests if enabled and negotiated.  See “set lqrperiod” below
	     for details.

	     Prior to ppp version 3.4.2, “echo” was considered enabled if lqr
	     was enabled and negotiated, otherwise it was considered disabled.
	     For the same behaviour, it is now necessary to “enable lqr echo”
	     rather than just “enable lqr”.

	 filter-decapsulation
	     Default: Disabled.	 When this option is enabled, ppp will examine
	     UDP frames to see if they actually contain a PPP frame as their
	     payload.  If this is the case, all filters will operate on the
	     payload rather than the actual packet.

	     This is useful if you want to send PPPoUDP traffic over a PPP
	     link, but want that link to do smart things with the real data
	     rather than the UDP wrapper.

	     The UDP frame payload must not be compressed in any way, other‐
	     wise ppp will not be able to interpret it.	 It is therefore rec‐
	     ommended that you disable vj pred1 deflate and deny vj pred1
	     deflate in the configuration for the ppp invocation with the udp
	     link.

	 force-scripts
	     Default: Disabled.	 Forces execution of the configured chat
	     scripts in direct and dedicated modes.

	 idcheck
	     Default: Enabled.	When ppp exchanges low-level LCP, CCP and IPCP
	     configuration traffic, the Identifier field of any replies is
	     expected to be the same as that of the request.  By default, ppp
	     drops any reply packets that do not contain the expected identi‐
	     fier field, reporting the fact at the respective log level.  If
	     idcheck is disabled, ppp will ignore the identifier field.

	 iface-alias
	     Default: Enabled if -nat is specified.  This option simply tells
	     ppp to add new interface addresses to the interface rather than
	     replacing them.  The option can only be enabled if network
	     address translation is enabled (“nat enable yes”).

	     With this option enabled, ppp will pass traffic for old interface
	     addresses through the NAT engine (see libalias(3)), resulting in
	     the ability (in -auto mode) to properly connect the process that
	     caused the PPP link to come up in the first place.

	     Disabling NAT with “nat enable no” will also disable
	     ‘iface-alias’.

	 ipcp
	     Default: Enabled.	This option allows ppp to attempt to negotiate
	     IP control protocol capabilities and if successful to exchange IP
	     datagrams with the peer.

	 ipv6cp
	     Default: Enabled.	This option allows ppp to attempt to negotiate
	     IPv6 control protocol capabilities and if successful to exchange
	     IPv6 datagrams with the peer.

	 keep-session
	     Default: Disabled.	 When ppp runs as a Multi-link server, a dif‐
	     ferent ppp instance initially receives each connection.  After
	     determining that the link belongs to an already existing bundle
	     (controlled by another ppp invocation), ppp will transfer the
	     link to that process.

	     If the link is a tty device or if this option is enabled, ppp
	     will not exit, but will change its process name to “session
	     owner” and wait for the controlling ppp to finish with the link
	     and deliver a signal back to the idle process.  This prevents the
	     confusion that results from ppp's parent considering the link
	     resource available again.

	     For tty devices that have entries in /etc/ttys, this is necessary
	     to prevent another getty(8) from being started, and for program
	     links such as sshd(8), it prevents sshd(8) from exiting due to
	     the death of its child.  As ppp cannot determine its parents
	     requirements (except for the tty case), this option must be
	     enabled manually depending on the circumstances.

	 loopback
	     Default: Enabled.	When loopback is enabled, ppp will automati‐
	     cally loop back packets being sent out with a destination address
	     equal to that of the PPP interface.  If disabled, ppp will send
	     the packet, probably resulting in an ICMP redirect from the other
	     end.  It is convenient to have this option enabled when the
	     interface is also the default route as it avoids the necessity of
	     a loopback route.

	 NAS-IP-Address
	     Default: Enabled.	This option controls whether ppp sends the
	     “NAS-IP-Address” attribute to the RADIUS server when RADIUS is in
	     use (see “set radius”).

	     Note, at least one of “NAS-IP-Address” and “NAS-Identifier” must
	     be enabled.

	     Versions of ppp prior to version 3.4.1 did not send the
	     “NAS-IP-Address” attribute as it was reported to break the Radia‐
	     tor RADIUS server.	 As the latest rfc (2865) no longer hints that
	     only one of “NAS-IP-Address” and “NAS-Identifier” should be sent
	     (as rfc 2138 did), ppp now sends both and leaves it up to the
	     administrator that chooses to use bad RADIUS implementations to
	     “disable NAS-IP-Address”.

	 NAS-Identifier
	     Default: Enabled.	This option controls whether ppp sends the
	     “NAS-Identifier” attribute to the RADIUS server when RADIUS is in
	     use (see “set radius”).

	     Note, at least one of “NAS-IP-Address” and “NAS-Identifier” must
	     be enabled.

	 passwdauth
	     Default: Disabled.	 Enabling this option will tell the PAP
	     authentication code to use the password database (see passwd(5))
	     to authenticate the caller if they cannot be found in the
	     /etc/ppp/ppp.secret file.	/etc/ppp/ppp.secret is always checked
	     first.  If you wish to use passwords from passwd(5), but also to
	     specify an IP number or label for a given client, use “*” as the
	     client password in /etc/ppp/ppp.secret.

	 proxy
	     Default: Disabled.	 Enabling this option will tell ppp to proxy
	     ARP for the peer.	This means that ppp will make an entry in the
	     ARP table using HISADDR and the MAC address of the local network
	     in which HISADDR appears.	This allows other machines connecteed
	     to the LAN to talk to the peer as if the peer itself was con‐
	     nected to the LAN.	 The proxy entry cannot be made unless HISADDR
	     is an address from a LAN.

	 proxyall
	     Default: Disabled.	 Enabling this will tell ppp to add proxy arp
	     entries for every IP address in all class C or smaller subnets
	     routed via the tun interface.

	     Proxy arp entries are only made for sticky routes that are added
	     using the “add” command.  No proxy arp entries are made for the
	     interface address itself (as created by the “set ifaddr” com‐
	     mand).

	 sroutes
	     Default: Enabled.	When the “add” command is used with the
	     HISADDR, MYADDR, HISADDR6 or MYADDR6 values, entries are stored
	     in the ‘sticky route’ list.  Each time these variables change,
	     this list is re-applied to the routing table.

	     Disabling this option will prevent the re-application of sticky
	     routes, although the ‘stick route’ list will still be maintained.

	 [tcp]mssfixup
	     Default: Enabled.	This option tells ppp to adjust TCP SYN pack‐
	     ets so that the maximum receive segment size is not greater than
	     the amount allowed by the interface MTU.

	 throughput
	     Default: Enabled.	This option tells ppp to gather throughput
	     statistics.  Input and output is sampled over a rolling 5 second
	     window, and current, best and total figures are retained.	This
	     data is output when the relevant PPP layer shuts down, and is
	     also available using the “show” command.  Throughput statistics
	     are available at the “IPCP” and “physical” levels.

	 utmp
	     Default: Enabled.	Normally, when a user is authenticated using
	     PAP or CHAP, and when ppp is running in -direct mode, an entry is
	     made in the utmp and wtmp files for that user.  Disabling this
	     option will tell ppp not to make any utmp or wtmp entries.	 This
	     is usually only necessary if you require the user to both login
	     and authenticate themselves.

     add[!] dest[/nn] [mask] [gateway]
	 Dest is the destination IP address.  The netmask is specified either
	 as a number of bits with /nn or as an IP number using mask.  0 0 or
	 simply 0 with no mask refers to the default route.  It is also possi‐
	 ble to use the literal name ‘default’ instead of 0.  Gateway is the
	 next hop gateway to get to the given dest machine/network.  Refer to
	 the route(8) command for further details.

	 It is possible to use the symbolic names ‘MYADDR’, ‘HISADDR’,
	 ‘MYADDR6’ or ‘HISADDR6’ as the destination, and ‘HISADDR’ or
	 ‘HISADDR6’ as the gateway.  ‘MYADDR’ is replaced with the interface
	 IP address, ‘HISADDR’ is replaced with the interface IP destination
	 (peer) address, ‘MYADDR6’ is replaced with the interface IPv6
	 address, and ‘HISADDR6’ is replaced with the interface IPv6 destina‐
	 tion address,

	 If the add! command is used (note the trailing “!”), then if the
	 route already exists, it will be updated as with the ‘route change’
	 command (see route(8) for further details).

	 Routes that contain the “HISADDR”, “MYADDR”, “HISADDR6”, “MYADDR6”,
	 “DNS0”, or “DNS1” constants are considered ‘sticky’.  They are stored
	 in a list (use “show ncp” to see the list), and each time the value
	 of one of these variables changes, the appropriate routing table
	 entries are updated.  This facility may be disabled using “disable
	 sroutes”.

     allow command [args]
	 This command controls access to ppp and its configuration files.  It
	 is possible to allow user-level access, depending on the configura‐
	 tion file label and on the mode that ppp is being run in.  For exam‐
	 ple, you may wish to configure ppp so that only user ‘fred’ may
	 access label ‘fredlabel’ in -background mode.

	 User id 0 is immune to these commands.

	 allow user[s] logname...
	     By default, only user id 0 is allowed access to ppp.  If this
	     command is used, all of the listed users are allowed access to
	     the section in which the “allow users” command is found.  The
	     ‘default’ section is always checked first (even though it is only
	     ever automatically loaded at startup).  “allow users” commands
	     are cumulative in a given section, but users allowed in any given
	     section override users allowed in the default section, so it is
	     possible to allow users access to everything except a given label
	     by specifying default users in the ‘default’ section, and then
	     specifying a new user list for that label.

	     If user ‘*’ is specified, access is allowed to all users.

	 allow mode[s] mode...
	     By default, access using any ppp mode is possible.	 If this com‐
	     mand is used, it restricts the access modes allowed to load the
	     label under which this command is specified.  Again, as with the
	     “allow users” command, each “allow modes” command overrides any
	     previous settings, and the ‘default’ section is always checked
	     first.

	     Possible modes are: ‘interactive’, ‘auto’, ‘direct’, ‘dedicated’,
	     ‘ddial’, ‘background’ and ‘*’.

	     When running in multi-link mode, a section can be loaded if it
	     allows any of the currently existing line modes.

     nat command [args]
	 This command allows the control of the network address translation
	 (also known as masquerading or IP aliasing) facilities that are built
	 into ppp.  NAT is done on the external interface only, and is
	 unlikely to make sense if used with the -direct flag.

	 If nat is enabled on your system (it may be omitted at compile time),
	 the following commands are possible:

	 nat enable yes|no
	     This command either switches network address translation on or
	     turns it off.  The -nat command line flag is synonymous with “nat
	     enable yes”.

	 nat addr [addr_local addr_alias]
	     This command allows data for addr_alias to be redirected to
	     addr_local.  It is useful if you own a small number of real IP
	     numbers that you wish to map to specific machines behind your
	     gateway.

	 nat deny_incoming yes|no
	     If set to yes, this command will refuse all incoming packets
	     where an aliasing link does not already exist.  Refer to the
	     CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND section of libalias(3) for a description of
	     what an “aliasing link” is.

	     It should be noted under what circumstances an aliasing link is
	     created by libalias(3).  It may be necessary to further protect
	     your network from outside connections using the “set filter” or
	     “nat target” commands.

	 nat help|?
	     This command gives a summary of available nat commands.

	 nat log yes|no
	     This option causes various NAT statistics and information to be
	     logged to the file /var/log/alias.log.

	 nat port proto targetIP:targetPort[-targetPort] aliasPort[-aliasPort]
	     [remoteIP:remotePort[-remotePort]]
	     This command causes incoming proto connections to aliasPort to be
	     redirected to targetPort on targetIP.  proto is either “tcp” or
	     “udp”.

	     A range of port numbers may be specified as shown above.  The
	     ranges must be of the same size.

	     If remoteIP is specified, only data coming from that IP number is
	     redirected.  remotePort must either be “0” (indicating any source
	     port) or a range of ports the same size as the other ranges.

	     This option is useful if you wish to run things like Internet
	     phone on machines behind your gateway, but is limited in that
	     connections to only one interior machine per source machine and
	     target port are possible.

	 nat proto proto localIP [publicIP [remoteIP]]
	     This command tells ppp to redirect packets of protocol type proto
	     (see protocols(5)) to the internal address localIP.

	     If publicIP is specified, only packets destined for that address
	     are matched, otherwise the default alias address is used.

	     If remoteIP is specified, only packets matching that source
	     address are matched,

	     This command is useful for redirecting tunnel endpoints to an
	     internal machine, for example:

		   nat proto ipencap 10.0.0.1

	 nat proxy cmd arg...
	     This command tells ppp to proxy certain connections, redirecting
	     them to a given server.  Refer to the description of
	     PacketAliasProxyRule() in libalias(3) for details of the avail‐
	     able commands.

	 nat punch_fw [base count]
	     This command tells ppp to punch holes in the firewall for FTP or
	     IRC DCC connections.  This is done dynamically by installing
	     termporary firewall rules which allow a particular connection
	     (and only that connection) to go through the firewall.  The rules
	     are removed once the corresponding connection terminates.

	     A maximum of count rules starting from rule number base will be
	     used for punching firewall holes.	The range will be cleared when
	     the “nat punch_fw” command is run.

	     If no arguments are given, firewall punching is disabled.

	 nat skinny_port [port]
	     This command tells ppp which TCP port is used by the Skinny Sta‐
	     tion protocol.  Skinny is used by Cisco IP phones to communicate
	     with Cisco Call Managers to setup voice over IP calls.  The typi‐
	     cal port used by Skinny is 2000.

	     If no argument is given, skinny aliasing is disabled.

	 nat same_ports yes|no
	     When enabled, this command will tell the network address transla‐
	     tion engine to attempt to avoid changing the port number on out‐
	     going packets.  This is useful if you want to support protocols
	     such as RPC and LPD which require connections to come from a well
	     known port.

	 nat target [address]
	     Set the given target address or clear it if no address is given.
	     The target address is used by libalias to specify how to NAT
	     incoming packets by default.  If a target address is not set or
	     if “default” is given, packets are not altered and are allowed to
	     route to the internal network.

	     The target address may be set to “MYADDR”, in which case libalias
	     will redirect all packets to the interface address.

	 nat use_sockets yes|no
	     When enabled, this option tells the network address translation
	     engine to create a socket so that it can guarantee a correct
	     incoming ftp data or IRC connection.

	 nat unregistered_only yes|no
	     Only alter outgoing packets with an unregistered source address.
	     According to RFC 1918, unregistered source addresses are
	     10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12 and 192.168.0.0/16.

	 These commands are also discussed in the file README.nat which comes
	 with the source distribution.

     [!]bg command
	 The given command is executed in the background with the following
	 words replaced:

	 AUTHNAME	  This is replaced with the local authname value.  See
			  the “set authname” command below.

	 COMPILATIONDATE  In previous software revisions, this was replaced
			  with the date on which ppp was compiled.  This is no
			  longer supported as it breaks the ability to recom‐
			  pile the same code to produce an exact duplicate of
			  a previous compilation.

	 DNS0 & DNS1	  These are replaced with the primary and secondary
			  nameserver IP numbers.  If nameservers are negoti‐
			  ated by IPCP, the values of these macros will
			  change.

	 ENDDISC	  This is replaced with the local endpoint discrimina‐
			  tor value.  See the “set enddisc” command below.

	 HISADDR	  This is replaced with the peers IP number.

	 HISADDR6	  This is replaced with the peers IPv6 number.

	 INTERFACE	  This is replaced with the name of the interface that
			  is in use.

	 IPOCTETSIN	  This is replaced with the number of IP bytes
			  received since the connection was established.

	 IPOCTETSOUT	  This is replaced with the number of IP bytes sent
			  since the connection was established.

	 IPPACKETSIN	  This is replaced with the number of IP packets
			  received since the connection was established.

	 IPPACKETSOUT	  This is replaced with the number of IP packets sent
			  since the connection was established.

	 IPV6OCTETSIN	  This is replaced with the number of IPv6 bytes
			  received since the connection was established.

	 IPV6OCTETSOUT	  This is replaced with the number of IPv6 bytes sent
			  since the connection was established.

	 IPV6PACKETSIN	  This is replaced with the number of IPv6 packets
			  received since the connection was established.

	 IPV6PACKETSOUT	  This is replaced with the number of IPv6 packets
			  sent since the connection was established.

	 LABEL		  This is replaced with the last label name used.  A
			  label may be specified on the ppp command line, via
			  the “load” or “dial” commands and in the ppp.secret
			  file.

	 MYADDR		  This is replaced with the IP number assigned to the
			  local interface.

	 MYADDR6	  This is replaced with the IPv6 number assigned to
			  the local interface.

	 OCTETSIN	  This is replaced with the number of bytes received
			  since the connection was established.

	 OCTETSOUT	  This is replaced with the number of bytes sent since
			  the connection was established.

	 PACKETSIN	  This is replaced with the number of packets received
			  since the connection was established.

	 PACKETSOUT	  This is replaced with the number of packets sent
			  since the connection was established.

	 PEER_ENDDISC	  This is replaced with the value of the peers end‐
			  point discriminator.

	 PROCESSID	  This is replaced with the current process id.

	 SOCKNAME	  This is replaced with the name of the diagnostic
			  socket.

	 UPTIME		  This is replaced with the bundle uptime in HH:MM:SS
			  format.

	 USER		  This is replaced with the username that has been
			  authenticated with PAP or CHAP.  Normally, this
			  variable is assigned only in -direct mode.  This
			  value is available irrespective of whether utmp log‐
			  ging is enabled.

	 VERSION	  This is replaced with the current version number of
			  ppp.

	 These substitutions are also done by the “set proctitle”, “ident” and
	 “log” commands.

	 If you wish to pause ppp while the command executes, use the “shell”
	 command instead.

     clear physical|ipcp|ipv6 [current|overall|peak...]
	 Clear the specified throughput values at either the “physical”,
	 “ipcp” or “ipv6cp” level.  If “physical” is specified, context must
	 be given (see the “link” command below).  If no second argument is
	 given, all values are cleared.

     clone name[,name]...
	 Clone the specified link, creating one or more new links according to
	 the name argument(s).	This command must be used from the “link” com‐
	 mand below unless you have only got a single link (in which case that
	 link becomes the default).  Links may be removed using the “remove”
	 command below.

	 The default link name is “deflink”.

     close [lcp|ccp[!]]
	 If no arguments are given, the relevant protocol layers will be
	 brought down and the link will be closed.  If “lcp” is specified, the
	 LCP layer is brought down, but ppp will not bring the link offline.
	 It is subsequently possible to use “term” (see below) to talk to the
	 peer machine if, for example, something like “slirp” is being used.
	 If “ccp” is specified, only the relevant compression layer is closed.
	 If the “!” is used, the compression layer will remain in the closed
	 state, otherwise it will re-enter the STOPPED state, waiting for the
	 peer to initiate further CCP negotiation.  In any event, this command
	 does not disconnect the user from ppp or exit ppp.  See the “quit”
	 command below.

     delete[!] dest
	 This command deletes the route with the given dest IP address.	 If
	 dest is specified as ‘ALL’, all non-direct entries in the routing ta‐
	 ble for the current interface, and all ‘sticky route’ entries are
	 deleted.  If dest is specified as ‘default’, the default route is
	 deleted.

	 If the delete! command is used (note the trailing “!”), ppp will not
	 complain if the route does not already exist.

     dial|call [label]...
	 This command is the equivalent of “load label” followed by “open”,
	 and is provided for backwards compatibility.

     down [lcp|ccp]
	 Bring the relevant layer down ungracefully, as if the underlying
	 layer had become unavailable.	It is not considered polite to use
	 this command on a Finite State Machine that is in the OPEN state.  If
	 no arguments are supplied, the entire link is closed (or if no con‐
	 text is given, all links are terminated).  If ‘lcp’ is specified, the
	 LCP layer is terminated but the device is not brought offline and the
	 link is not closed.  If ‘ccp’ is specified, only the relevant com‐
	 pression layer(s) are terminated.

     help|? [command]
	 Show a list of available commands.  If command is specified, show the
	 usage string for that command.

     ident [text...]
	 Identify the link to the peer using text.  If text is empty, link
	 identification is disabled.  It is possible to use any of the words
	 described for the bg command above.  Refer to the sendident command
	 for details of when ppp identifies itself to the peer.

     iface command [args]
	 This command is used to control the interface used by ppp.  Command
	 may be one of the following:

	 iface add[!] addr[/bits] [peer]

	 iface add[!] addr mask peer
	     Add the given addr mask peer combination to the interface.
	     Instead of specifying mask, /bits can be used (with no space
	     between it and addr).  If the given address already exists, the
	     command fails unless the “!” is used - in which case the previous
	     interface address entry is overwritten with the new one, allowing
	     a change of netmask or peer address.

	     If only addr is specified, bits defaults to “32” and peer
	     defaults to “255.255.255.255”.  This address (the broadcast
	     address) is the only duplicate peer address that ppp allows.

	 iface clear [INET | INET6]
	     If this command is used while ppp is in the OPENED state or while
	     in -auto mode, all addresses except for the NCP negotiated
	     address are deleted from the interface.  If ppp is not in the
	     OPENED state and is not in -auto mode, all interface addresses
	     are deleted.

	     If the INET or INET6 arguments are used, only addresses for that
	     address family are cleared.

	 iface delete[!]|rm[!] addr
	     This command deletes the given addr from the interface.  If the
	     “!” is used, no error is given if the address is not currently
	     assigned to the interface (and no deletion takes place).

	 iface show
	     Shows the current state and current addresses for the interface.
	     It is much the same as running “ifconfig INTERFACE”.

	 iface help [sub-command]
	     This command, when invoked without sub-command, will show a list
	     of possible “iface” sub-commands and a brief synopsis for each.
	     When invoked with sub-command, only the synopsis for the given
	     sub-command is shown.

     [data]link name[,name]... command [args]
	 This command may prefix any other command if the user wishes to spec‐
	 ify which link the command should affect.  This is only applicable
	 after multiple links have been created in Multi-link mode using the
	 “clone” command.

	 Name specifies the name of an existing link.  If name is a comma sep‐
	 arated list, command is executed on each link.	 If name is “*”,
	 command is executed on all links.

     load [label]...
	 Load the given label(s) from the ppp.conf file.  If label is not
	 given, the default label is used.

	 Unless the label section uses the “set mode”, “open” or “dial” com‐
	 mands, ppp will not attempt to make an immediate connection.

     log word...
	 Send the given word(s) to the log file with the prefix “LOG:”.	 Word
	 substitutions are done as explained under the “!bg” command above.

     open [lcp|ccp|ipcp]
	 This is the opposite of the “close” command.  All closed links are
	 immediately brought up apart from second and subsequent demand-dial
	 links - these will come up based on the “set autoload” command that
	 has been used.

	 If the “lcp” argument is used while the LCP layer is already open,
	 LCP will be renegotiated.  This allows various LCP options to be
	 changed, after which “open lcp” can be used to put them into effect.
	 After renegotiating LCP, any agreed authentication will also take
	 place.

	 If the “ccp” argument is used, the relevant compression layer is
	 opened.  Again, if it is already open, it will be renegotiated.

	 If the “ipcp” argument is used, the link will be brought up as nor‐
	 mal, but if IPCP is already open, it will be renegotiated and the
	 network interface will be reconfigured.

	 It is probably not good practice to re-open the PPP state machines
	 like this as it is possible that the peer will not behave correctly.
	 It is however useful as a way of forcing the CCP or VJ dictionaries
	 to be reset.

     passwd pass
	 Specify the password required for access to the full ppp command set.
	 This password is required when connecting to the diagnostic port (see
	 the “set server” command).  Pass is specified on the “set server”
	 command line.	The value of pass is not logged when command logging
	 is active, instead, the literal string ‘********’ is logged.

     quit|bye [all]
	 If “quit” is executed from the controlling connection or from a com‐
	 mand file, ppp will exit after closing all connections.  Otherwise,
	 if the user is connected to a diagnostic socket, the connection is
	 simply dropped.

	 If the all argument is given, ppp will exit despite the source of the
	 command after closing all existing connections.

     remove|rm
	 This command removes the given link.  It is only really useful in
	 multi-link mode.  A link must be in the CLOSED state before it is
	 removed.

     rename|mv name
	 This command renames the given link to name.  It will fail if name is
	 already used by another link.

	 The default link name is ‘deflink’.  Renaming it to ‘modem’, ‘cuad0’
	 or ‘USR’ may make the log file more readable.

     resolv command
	 This command controls ppp's manipulation of the resolv.conf(5) file.
	 When ppp starts up, it loads the contents of this file into memory
	 and retains this image for future use.	 command is one of the follow‐
	 ing:

	 readonly  Treat /etc/resolv.conf as read only.	 If “dns” is enabled,
		   ppp will still attempt to negotiate nameservers with the
		   peer, making the results available via the DNS0 and DNS1
		   macros.  This is the opposite of the “resolv writable” com‐
		   mand.

	 reload	   Reload /etc/resolv.conf into memory.	 This may be necessary
		   if for example a DHCP client overwrote /etc/resolv.conf.

	 restore   Replace /etc/resolv.conf with the version originally read
		   at startup or with the last “resolv reload” command.	 This
		   is sometimes a useful command to put in the
		   /etc/ppp/ppp.linkdown file.

	 rewrite   Rewrite the /etc/resolv.conf file.  This command will work
		   even if the “resolv readonly” command has been used.	 It
		   may be useful as a command in the /etc/ppp/ppp.linkup file
		   if you wish to defer updating /etc/resolv.conf until after
		   other commands have finished.

	 writable  Allow ppp to update /etc/resolv.conf if “dns” is enabled
		   and ppp successfully negotiates a DNS.  This is the oppo‐
		   site of the “resolv readonly” command.

     save
	 This option is not (yet) implemented.

     sendident
	 This command tells ppp to identify itself to the peer.	 The link must
	 be in LCP state or higher.  If no identity has been set (via the
	 ident command), sendident will fail.

	 When an identity has been set, ppp will automatically identify itself
	 when it sends or receives a configure reject, when negotiation fails
	 or when LCP reaches the opened state.

	 Received identification packets are logged to the LCP log (see set
	 log for details) and are never responded to.

     set[up] var value
	 This option allows the setting of any of the following variables:

	 set accmap hex-value
	     ACCMap stands for Asynchronous Control Character Map.  This is
	     always negotiated with the peer, and defaults to a value of
	     00000000 in hex.  This protocol is required to defeat hardware
	     that depends on passing certain characters from end to end (such
	     as XON/XOFF etc).

	     For the XON/XOFF scenario, use “set accmap 000a0000”.

	 set [auth]key value
	     This sets the authentication key (or password) used in client
	     mode PAP or CHAP negotiation to the given value.  It also speci‐
	     fies the password to be used in the dial or login scripts in
	     place of the ‘\P’ sequence, preventing the actual password from
	     being logged.  If command or chat logging is in effect, value is
	     logged as ‘********’ for security reasons.

	     If the first character of value is an exclamation mark (“!”), ppp
	     treats the remainder of the string as a program that must be exe‐
	     cuted to determine the “authname” and “authkey” values.

	     If the “!” is doubled up (to “!!”), it is treated as a single
	     literal “!”, otherwise, ignoring the “!”, value is parsed as a
	     program to execute in the same was as the “!bg” command above,
	     substituting special names in the same manner.  Once executed,
	     ppp will feed the program three lines of input, each terminated
	     by a newline character:

	     ·	 The host name as sent in the CHAP challenge.

	     ·	 The challenge string as sent in the CHAP challenge.

	     ·	 The locally defined “authname”.

	     Two lines of output are expected:

	     ·	 The “authname” to be sent with the CHAP response.

	     ·	 The “authkey”, which is encrypted with the challenge and
		 request id, the answer being sent in the CHAP response
		 packet.

	     When configuring ppp in this manner, it is expected that the host
	     challenge is a series of ASCII digits or characters.  An encryp‐
	     tion device or Secure ID card is usually required to calculate
	     the secret appropriate for the given challenge.

	 set authname id
	     This sets the authentication id used in client mode PAP or CHAP
	     negotiation.

	     If used in -direct mode with CHAP enabled, id is used in the ini‐
	     tial authentication challenge and should normally be set to the
	     local machine name.

	 set autoload min-percent max-percent period
	     These settings apply only in multi-link mode and default to zero,
	     zero and five respectively.  When more than one demand-dial (also
	     known as -auto) mode link is available, only the first link is
	     made active when ppp first reads data from the tun device.	 The
	     next demand-dial link will be opened only when the current bundle
	     throughput is at least max-percent percent of the total bundle
	     bandwidth for period seconds.  When the current bundle throughput
	     decreases to min-percent percent or less of the total bundle
	     bandwidth for period seconds, a demand-dial link will be brought
	     down as long as it is not the last active link.

	     Bundle throughput is measured as the maximum of inbound and out‐
	     bound traffic.

	     The default values cause demand-dial links to simply come up one
	     at a time.

	     Certain devices cannot determine their physical bandwidth, so it
	     is sometimes necessary to use the “set bandwidth” command
	     (described below) to make “set autoload” work correctly.

	 set bandwidth value
	     This command sets the connection bandwidth in bits per second.
	     value must be greater than zero.  It is currently only used by
	     the “set autoload” command above.

	 set callback option...
	     If no arguments are given, callback is disabled, otherwise, ppp
	     will request (or in -direct mode, will accept) one of the given
	     options.  In client mode, if an option is NAK'd ppp will request
	     a different option, until no options remain at which point ppp
	     will terminate negotiations (unless “none” is one of the speci‐
	     fied option).  In server mode, ppp will accept any of the given
	     protocols - but the client must request one of them.  If you wish
	     callback to be optional, you must include none as an option.

	     The options are as follows (in this order of preference):

	     auth    The callee is expected to decide the callback number
		     based on authentication.  If ppp is the callee, the num‐
		     ber should be specified as the fifth field of the peers
		     entry in /etc/ppp/ppp.secret.

	     cbcp    Microsoft's callback control protocol is used.  See “set
		     cbcp” below.

		     If you wish to negotiate cbcp in client mode but also
		     wish to allow the server to request no callback at CBCP
		     negotiation time, you must specify both cbcp and none as
		     callback options.

	     E.164 *|number[,number]...
		     The caller specifies the number.  If ppp is the callee,
		     number should be either a comma separated list of allow‐
		     able numbers or a “*”, meaning any number is permitted.
		     If ppp is the caller, only a single number should be
		     specified.

		     Note, this option is very unsafe when used with a “*” as
		     a malicious caller can tell ppp to call any (possibly
		     international) number without first authenticating them‐
		     selves.

	     none    If the peer does not wish to do callback at all, ppp will
		     accept the fact and continue without callback rather than
		     terminating the connection.  This is required (in addi‐
		     tion to one or more other callback options) if you wish
		     callback to be optional.

	 set cbcp [*|number[,number...] [delay [retry]]]
	     If no arguments are given, CBCP (Microsoft's CallBack Control
	     Protocol) is disabled - ie, configuring CBCP in the “set
	     callback” command will result in ppp requesting no callback in
	     the CBCP phase.  Otherwise, ppp attempts to use the given phone
	     number(s).

	     In server mode (-direct), ppp will insist that the client uses
	     one of these numbers, unless “*” is used in which case the client
	     is expected to specify the number.

	     In client mode, ppp will attempt to use one of the given numbers
	     (whichever it finds to be agreeable with the peer), or if “*” is
	     specified, ppp will expect the peer to specify the number.

	 set cd [off|seconds[!]]
	     Normally, ppp checks for the existence of carrier depending on
	     the type of device that has been opened:

		Terminal Devices
		     Carrier is checked one second after the login script is
		     complete.	If it is not set, ppp assumes that this is
		     because the device does not support carrier (which is
		     true for most “laplink” NULL-modem cables), logs the fact
		     and stops checking for carrier.

		     As ptys do not support the TIOCMGET ioctl, the tty device
		     will switch all carrier detection off when it detects
		     that the device is a pty.

		PPPoE (netgraph) Devices
		     Carrier is checked once per second for 5 seconds.	If it
		     is not set after the fifth second, the connection attempt
		     is considered to have failed and the device is closed.
		     Carrier is always required for PPPoE devices.

	     All other device types do not support carrier.  Setting a carrier
	     value will result in a warning when the device is opened.

	     Some modems take more than one second after connecting to assert
	     the carrier signal.  If this delay is not increased, this will
	     result in ppp's inability to detect when the link is dropped, as
	     ppp assumes that the device is not asserting carrier.

	     The “set cd” command overrides the default carrier behaviour.
	     seconds specifies the maximum number of seconds that ppp should
	     wait after the dial script has finished before deciding if car‐
	     rier is available or not.

	     If “off” is specified, ppp will not check for carrier on the
	     device, otherwise ppp will not proceed to the login script until
	     either carrier is detected or until seconds has elapsed, at which
	     point ppp assumes that the device will not set carrier.

	     If no arguments are given, carrier settings will go back to their
	     default values.

	     If seconds is followed immediately by an exclamation mark (“!”),
	     ppp will require carrier.	If carrier is not detected after
	     seconds seconds, the link will be disconnected.

	 set choked [timeout]
	     This sets the number of seconds that ppp will keep a choked out‐
	     put queue before dropping all pending output packets.  If timeout
	     is less than or equal to zero or if timeout is not specified, it
	     is set to the default value of 120 seconds.

	     A choked output queue occurs when ppp has read a certain number
	     of packets from the local network for transmission, but cannot
	     send the data due to link failure (the peer is busy etc.).	 ppp
	     will not read packets indefinitely.  Instead, it reads up to 30
	     packets (or 30 + nlinks * 2 packets in multi-link mode), then
	     stops reading the network interface until either timeout seconds
	     have passed or at least one packet has been sent.

	     If timeout seconds pass, all pending output packets are dropped.

	 set ctsrts|crtscts on|off
	     This sets hardware flow control.  Hardware flow control is on by
	     default.

	 set deflate out-winsize [in-winsize]
	     This sets the DEFLATE algorithms default outgoing and incoming
	     window sizes.  Both out-winsize and in-winsize must be values
	     between 8 and 15.	If in-winsize is specified, ppp will insist
	     that this window size is used and will not accept any other val‐
	     ues from the peer.

	 set dns [primary [secondary]]
	     This command specifies DNS overrides for the “accept dns” com‐
	     mand.  Refer to the “accept” command description above for
	     details.  This command does not affect the IP numbers requested
	     using “enable dns”.

	 set device|line value...
	     This sets the device(s) to which ppp will talk to the given
	     “value”.

	     All serial device names are expected to begin with /dev/.	Serial
	     devices are usually called cuaXX.

	     If “value” does not begin with /dev/, it must either begin with
	     an exclamation mark (“!”), be of the format
	     PPPoE:iface[:provider] (on netgraph(4) enabled systems), or be of
	     the format host:port[/tcp|udp].

	     If it begins with an exclamation mark, the rest of the device
	     name is treated as a program name, and that program is executed
	     when the device is opened.	 Standard input, output and error are
	     fed back to ppp and are read and written as if they were a regu‐
	     lar device.

	     If a PPPoE:iface[:provider] specification is given, ppp will
	     attempt to create a PPP over Ethernet connection using the given
	     iface interface by using netgraph(4).  If netgraph(4) is not
	     available, ppp will attempt to load it using kldload(2).  If this
	     fails, an external program must be used such as the pppoed(8)
	     program available under OpenBSD.  The given provider is passed as
	     the service name in the PPPoE Discovery Initiation (PADI) packet.
	     If no provider is given, an empty value will be used.

	     When a PPPoE connection is established, ppp will place the name
	     of the Access Concentrator in the environment variable ACNAME.

	     Refer to netgraph(4) and ng_pppoe(4) for further details.

	     If a host:port[/tcp|udp] specification is given, ppp will attempt
	     to connect to the given host on the given port.  If a “/tcp” or
	     “/udp” suffix is not provided, the default is “/tcp”.  Refer to
	     the section on PPP OVER TCP and UDP above for further details.

	     If multiple “values” are specified, ppp will attempt to open each
	     one in turn until it succeeds or runs out of devices.

	 set dial chat-script
	     This specifies the chat script that will be used to dial the
	     other side.  See also the “set login” command below.  Refer to
	     chat(8) and to the example configuration files for details of the
	     chat script format.  It is possible to specify some special
	     ‘values’ in your chat script as follows:

	     \c	 When used as the last character in a ‘send’ string, this
		 indicates that a newline should not be appended.

	     \d	 When the chat script encounters this sequence, it delays two
		 seconds.

	     \p	 When the chat script encounters this sequence, it delays for
		 one quarter of a second.

	     \n	 This is replaced with a newline character.

	     \r	 This is replaced with a carriage return character.

	     \s	 This is replaced with a space character.

	     \t	 This is replaced with a tab character.

	     \T	 This is replaced by the current phone number (see “set phone”
		 below).

	     \P	 This is replaced by the current authkey value (see “set
		 authkey” above).

	     \U	 This is replaced by the current authname value (see “set
		 authname” above).

	     Note that two parsers will examine these escape sequences, so in
	     order to have the ‘chat parser’ see the escape character, it is
	     necessary to escape it from the ‘command parser’.	This means
	     that in practice you should use two escapes, for example:

		   set dial "... ATDT\\T CONNECT"

	     It is also possible to execute external commands from the chat
	     script.  To do this, the first character of the expect or send
	     string is an exclamation mark (“!”).  If a literal exclamation
	     mark is required, double it up to “!!” and it will be treated as
	     a single literal “!”.  When the command is executed, standard
	     input and standard output are directed to the open device (see
	     the “set device” command), and standard error is read by ppp and
	     substituted as the expect or send string.	If ppp is running in
	     interactive mode, file descriptor 3 is attached to /dev/tty.

	     For example (wrapped for readability):

		   set login "TIMEOUT 5 \"\" \"\" login:--login: ppp \
		   word: ppp \"!sh \\-c \\\"echo \\-n label: >&2\\\"\" \
		   \"!/bin/echo in\" HELLO"

	     would result in the following chat sequence (output using the
	     ‘set log local chat’ command before dialing):

		   Dial attempt 1 of 1
		   dial OK!
		   Chat: Expecting:
		   Chat: Sending:
		   Chat: Expecting: login:--login:
		   Chat: Wait for (5): login:
		   Chat: Sending: ppp
		   Chat: Expecting: word:
		   Chat: Wait for (5): word:
		   Chat: Sending: ppp
		   Chat: Expecting: !sh \-c "echo \-n label: >&2"
		   Chat: Exec: sh -c "echo -n label: >&2"
		   Chat: Wait for (5): !sh \-c "echo \-n label: >&2" --> label:
		   Chat: Exec: /bin/echo in
		   Chat: Sending:
		   Chat: Expecting: HELLO
		   Chat: Wait for (5): HELLO
		   login OK!

	     Note (again) the use of the escape character, allowing many lev‐
	     els of nesting.  Here, there are four parsers at work.  The first
	     parses the original line, reading it as three arguments.  The
	     second parses the third argument, reading it as 11 arguments.  At
	     this point, it is important that the “-” signs are escaped, oth‐
	     erwise this parser will see them as constituting an expect-send-
	     expect sequence.  When the “!” character is seen, the execution
	     parser reads the first command as three arguments, and then sh(1)
	     itself expands the argument after the -c.	As we wish to send the
	     output back to the modem, in the first example we redirect our
	     output to file descriptor 2 (stderr) so that ppp itself sends and
	     logs it, and in the second example, we just output to stdout,
	     which is attached directly to the modem.

	     This, of course means that it is possible to execute an entirely
	     external “chat” command rather than using the internal one.  See
	     chat(8) for a good alternative.

	     The external command that is executed is subjected to the same
	     special word expansions as the “!bg” command.

	 set enddisc [label|IP|MAC|magic|psn value]
	     This command sets our local endpoint discriminator.  If set prior
	     to LCP negotiation, and if no “disable enddisc” command has been
	     used, ppp will send the information to the peer using the LCP
	     endpoint discriminator option.  The following discriminators may
	     be set:

	     label   The current label is used.

	     IP	     Our local IP number is used.  As LCP is negotiated prior
		     to IPCP, it is possible that the IPCP layer will subse‐
		     quently change this value.	 If it does, the endpoint dis‐
		     criminator stays at the old value unless manually reset.

	     MAC     This is similar to the IP option above, except that the
		     MAC address associated with the local IP number is used.
		     If the local IP number is not resident on any Ethernet
		     interface, the command will fail.

		     As the local IP number defaults to whatever the machine
		     host name is, “set enddisc mac” is usually done prior to
		     any “set ifaddr” commands.

	     magic   A 20 digit random number is used.	Care should be taken
		     when using magic numbers as restarting ppp or creating a
		     link using a different ppp invocation will also use a
		     different magic number and will therefore not be recog‐
		     nised by the peer as belonging to the same bundle.	 This
		     makes it unsuitable for -direct connections.

	     psn value
		     The given value is used.  Value should be set to an abso‐
		     lute public switched network number with the country code
		     first.

	     If no arguments are given, the endpoint discriminator is reset.

	 set escape value...
	     This option is similar to the “set accmap” option above.  It
	     allows the user to specify a set of characters that will be
	     ‘escaped’ as they travel across the link.

	 set filter dial|alive|in|out rule-no permit|deny|clear|rule-no [!]
	     [[host] src_addr[/width] [dst_addr[/width]]] [proto [src lt|eq|gt
	     port] [dst lt|eq|gt port] [estab] [syn] [finrst] [timeout secs]]
	     ppp supports four filter sets.  The alive filter specifies pack‐
	     ets that keep the connection alive - resetting the idle timer.
	     The dial filter specifies packets that cause ppp to dial when in
	     -auto mode.  The in filter specifies packets that are allowed to
	     travel into the machine and the out filter specifies packets that
	     are allowed out of the machine.

	     Filtering is done prior to any IP alterations that might be done
	     by the NAT engine on outgoing packets and after any IP alter‐
	     ations that might be done by the NAT engine on incoming packets.
	     By default all empty filter sets allow all packets to pass.
	     Rules are processed in order according to rule-no (unless skipped
	     by specifying a rule number as the action).  Up to 40 rules may
	     be given for each set.  If a packet does not match any of the
	     rules in a given set, it is discarded.  In the case of in and out
	     filters, this means that the packet is dropped.  In the case of
	     alive filters it means that the packet will not reset the idle
	     timer (even if the in/out filter has a “timeout” value) and in
	     the case of dial filters it means that the packet will not trig‐
	     ger a dial.  A packet failing to trigger a dial will be dropped
	     rather than queued.  Refer to the section on PACKET FILTERING
	     above for further details.

	 set hangup chat-script
	     This specifies the chat script that will be used to reset the
	     device before it is closed.  It should not normally be necessary,
	     but can be used for devices that fail to reset themselves prop‐
	     erly on close.

	 set help|? [command]
	     This command gives a summary of available set commands, or if
	     command is specified, the command usage is shown.

	 set ifaddr [myaddr[/nn] [hisaddr[/nn] [netmask [triggeraddr]]]]
	     This command specifies the IP addresses that will be used during
	     IPCP negotiation.	Addresses are specified using the format

		   a.b.c.d/nn

	     Where “a.b.c.d” is the preferred IP, but nn specifies how many
	     bits of the address we will insist on.  If /nn is omitted, it
	     defaults to “/32” unless the IP address is 0.0.0.0 in which case
	     it defaults to “/0”.

	     If you wish to assign a dynamic IP number to the peer, hisaddr
	     may also be specified as a range of IP numbers in the format

		   IP[-IP][,IP[-IP]]...

	     for example:

		   set ifaddr 10.0.0.1 10.0.1.2-10.0.1.10,10.0.1.20

	     will only negotiate “10.0.0.1” as the local IP number, but may
	     assign any of the given 10 IP numbers to the peer.	 If the peer
	     requests one of these numbers, and that number is not already in
	     use, ppp will grant the peers request.  This is useful if the
	     peer wants to re-establish a link using the same IP number as was
	     previously allocated (thus maintaining any existing tcp or udp
	     connections).

	     If the peer requests an IP number that is either outside of this
	     range or is already in use, ppp will suggest a random unused IP
	     number from the range.

	     If triggeraddr is specified, it is used in place of myaddr in the
	     initial IPCP negotiation.	However, only an address in the myaddr
	     range will be accepted.  This is useful when negotiating with
	     some PPP implementations that will not assign an IP number unless
	     their peer requests “0.0.0.0”.

	     It should be noted that in -auto mode, ppp will configure the
	     interface immediately upon reading the “set ifaddr” line in the
	     config file.  In any other mode, these values are just used for
	     IPCP negotiations, and the interface is not configured until the
	     IPCP layer is up.

	     Note that the HISADDR argument may be overridden by the third
	     field in the ppp.secret file once the client has authenticated
	     itself (if PAP or CHAP are “enabled”).  Refer to the
	     AUTHENTICATING INCOMING CONNECTIONS section for details.

	     In all cases, if the interface is already configured, ppp will
	     try to maintain the interface IP numbers so that any existing
	     bound sockets will remain valid.

	 set ifqueue packets
	     Set the maximum number of packets that ppp will read from the
	     tunnel interface while data cannot be sent to any of the avail‐
	     able links.  This queue limit is necessary to flow control outgo‐
	     ing data as the tunnel interface is likely to be far faster than
	     the combined links available to ppp.

	     If packets is set to a value less than the number of links, ppp
	     will read up to that value regardless.  This prevents any possi‐
	     ble latency problems.

	     The default value for packets is “30”.

	 set ccpretry|ccpretries [timeout [reqtries [trmtries]]]

	 set chapretry|chapretries [timeout [reqtries]]

	 set ipcpretry|ipcpretries [timeout [reqtries [trmtries]]]

	 set ipv6cpretry|ipv6cpretries [timeout [reqtries [trmtries]]]

	 set lcpretry|lcpretries [timeout [reqtries [trmtries]]]

	 set papretry|papretries [timeout [reqtries]]
	     These commands set the number of seconds that ppp will wait
	     before resending Finite State Machine (FSM) Request packets.  The
	     default timeout for all FSMs is 3 seconds (which should suffice
	     in most cases).

	     If reqtries is specified, it tells ppp how many configuration
	     request attempts it should make while receiving no reply from the
	     peer before giving up.  The default is 5 attempts for CCP, LCP
	     and IPCP and 3 attempts for PAP and CHAP.

	     If trmtries is specified, it tells ppp how many terminate
	     requests should be sent before giving up waiting for the peers
	     response.	The default is 3 attempts.  Authentication protocols
	     are not terminated and it is therefore invalid to specify
	     trmtries for PAP or CHAP.

	     In order to avoid negotiations with the peer that will never con‐
	     verge, ppp will only send at most 3 times the configured number
	     of reqtries in any given negotiation session before giving up and
	     closing that layer.

	 set log [local] [+|-]value...
	     This command allows the adjustment of the current log level.
	     Refer to the Logging Facility section for further details.

	 set login chat-script
	     This chat-script compliments the dial-script.  If both are speci‐
	     fied, the login script will be executed after the dial script.
	     Escape sequences available in the dial script are also available
	     here.

	 set logout chat-script
	     This specifies the chat script that will be used to logout before
	     the hangup script is called.  It should not normally be neces‐
	     sary.

	 set lqrperiod|echoperiod frequency
	     This command sets the frequency in seconds at which LQR or LCP
	     ECHO packets are sent.  The default is 30 seconds.	 You must also
	     use the “enable lqr” and/or “enable echo” commands if you wish to
	     send LQR or LCP ECHO requests to the peer.

	 set mode interactive|auto|ddial|background
	     This command allows you to change the ‘mode’ of the specified
	     link.  This is normally only useful in multi-link mode, but may
	     also be used in uni-link mode.

	     It is not possible to change a link that is ‘direct’ or
	     ‘dedicated’.

	     Note: If you issue the command “set mode auto”, and have network
	     address translation enabled, it may be useful to “enable
	     iface-alias” afterwards.  This will allow ppp to do the necessary
	     address translations to enable the process that triggers the con‐
	     nection to connect once the link is up despite the peer assigning
	     us a new (dynamic) IP address.

	 set mppe [40|56|128|* [stateless|stateful|*]]
	     This option selects the encryption parameters used when negotia‐
	     tion MPPE.	 MPPE can be disabled entirely with the “disable mppe”
	     command.  If no arguments are given, ppp will attempt to negoti‐
	     ate a stateful link with a 128 bit key, but will agree to what‐
	     ever the peer requests (including no encryption at all).

	     If any arguments are given, ppp will insist on using MPPE and
	     will close the link if it is rejected by the peer (Note; this be‐
	     haviour can be overridden by a configured RADIUS server).

	     The first argument specifies the number of bits that ppp should
	     insist on during negotiations and the second specifies whether
	     ppp should insist on stateful or stateless mode.  In stateless
	     mode, the encryption dictionary is re-initialised with every
	     packet according to an encryption key that is changed with every
	     packet.  In stateful mode, the encryption dictionary is re-ini‐
	     tialised every 256 packets or after the loss of any data and the
	     key is changed every 256 packets.	Stateless mode is less effi‐
	     cient but is better for unreliable transport layers.

	 set mrru [value]
	     Setting this option enables Multi-link PPP negotiations, also
	     known as Multi-link Protocol or MP.  There is no default MRRU
	     (Maximum Reconstructed Receive Unit) value.  If no argument is
	     given, multi-link mode is disabled.

	 set mru [max[imum]] [value]
	     The default MRU (Maximum Receive Unit) is 1500.  If it is
	     increased, the other side *may* increase its MTU.	In theory
	     there is no point in decreasing the MRU to below the default as
	     the PPP protocol says implementations *must* be able to accept
	     packets of at least 1500 octets.

	     If the “maximum” keyword is used, ppp will refuse to negotiate a
	     higher value.  The maximum MRU can be set to 2048 at most.	 Set‐
	     ting a maximum of less than 1500 violates the PPP rfc, but may
	     sometimes be necessary.  For example, PPPoE imposes a maximum of
	     1492 due to hardware limitations.

	     If no argument is given, 1500 is assumed.	A value must be given
	     when “maximum” is specified.

	 set mtu [max[imum]] [value]
	     The default MTU is 1500.  At negotiation time, ppp will accept
	     whatever MRU the peer requests (assuming it is not less than 296
	     bytes or greater than the assigned maximum).  If the MTU is set,
	     ppp will not accept MRU values less than value.  When negotia‐
	     tions are complete, the MTU is used when writing to the inter‐
	     face, even if the peer requested a higher value MRU.  This can be
	     useful for limiting your packet size (giving better bandwidth
	     sharing at the expense of more header data).

	     If the “maximum” keyword is used, ppp will refuse to negotiate a
	     higher value.  The maximum MTU can be set to 2048 at most.	 Note,
	     it is necessary to use the “maximum” keyword to limit the MTU
	     when using PPPoE.

	     If no value is given, 1500, or whatever the peer asks for is
	     used.  A value must be given when “maximum” is specified.

	 set nbns [x.x.x.x [y.y.y.y]]
	     This option allows the setting of the Microsoft NetBIOS name
	     server values to be returned at the peers request.	 If no values
	     are given, ppp will reject any such requests.

	 set openmode active|passive [delay]
	     By default, openmode is always active with a one second delay.
	     That is, ppp will always initiate LCP/IPCP/CCP negotiation one
	     second after the line comes up.  If you want to wait for the peer
	     to initiate negotiations, you can use the value passive.  If you
	     want to initiate negotiations immediately or after more than one
	     second, the appropriate delay may be specified here in seconds.

	 set parity odd|even|none|mark
	     This allows the line parity to be set.  The default value is
	     none.

	 set phone telno[|backupnumber]...[:nextnumber]...
	     This allows the specification of the phone number to be used in
	     place of the \\T string in the dial and login chat scripts.  Mul‐
	     tiple phone numbers may be given separated either by a pipe (“|”)
	     or a colon (“:”).

	     Numbers after the pipe are only dialed if the dial or login
	     script for the previous number failed.

	     Numbers after the colon are tried sequentially, irrespective of
	     the reason the line was dropped.

	     If multiple numbers are given, ppp will dial them according to
	     these rules until a connection is made, retrying the maximum num‐
	     ber of times specified by “set redial” below.  In -background
	     mode, each number is attempted at most once.

	 set pppoe [standard|3Com]
	     This option configures the underlying ng_pppoe(4) node to either
	     standard RFC2516 PPPoE or proprietary 3Com mode.  If not set the
	     system default will be used.

	 set [proc]title [value]
	     The current process title as displayed by ps(1) is changed
	     according to value.  If value is not specified, the original
	     process title is restored.	 All the word replacements done by the
	     shell commands (see the “bg” command above) are done here too.

	     Note, if USER is required in the process title, the “set
	     proctitle” command must appear in ppp.linkup, as it is not known
	     when the commands in ppp.conf are executed.

	 set radius [config-file]
	     This command enables RADIUS support (if it is compiled in).
	     config-file refers to the radius client configuration file as
	     described in radius.conf(5).  If PAP, CHAP, MSCHAP or MSCHAPv2
	     are “enabled”, ppp behaves as a Network Access Server and uses
	     the configured RADIUS server to authenticate rather than authen‐
	     ticating from the ppp.secret file or from the passwd database.

	     If none of PAP, CHAP, MSCHAP or MSCHAPv2 are enabled, “set
	     radius” will do nothing.

	     ppp uses the following attributes from the RADIUS reply:

		RAD_FRAMED_IP_ADDRESS
		     The peer IP address is set to the given value.

		RAD_FRAMED_IP_NETMASK
		     The tun interface netmask is set to the given value.

		RAD_FRAMED_MTU
		     If the given MTU is less than the peers MRU as agreed
		     during LCP negotiation, *and* it is less that any config‐
		     ured MTU (see the “set mru” command), the tun interface
		     MTU is set to the given value.

		RAD_FRAMED_COMPRESSION
		     If the received compression type is “1”, ppp will request
		     VJ compression during IPCP negotiations despite any
		     “disable vj” configuration command.

		RAD_FILTER_ID
		     If this attribute is supplied, ppp will attempt to use it
		     as an additional label to load from the ppp.linkup and
		     ppp.linkdown files.  The load will be attempted before
		     (and in addition to) the normal label search.  If the
		     label does not exist, no action is taken and ppp proceeds
		     to the normal load using the current label.

		RAD_FRAMED_ROUTE
		     The received string is expected to be in the format
		     dest[/bits] gw [metrics].	Any specified metrics are
		     ignored.  MYADDR and HISADDR are understood as valid val‐
		     ues for dest and gw, “default” can be used for dest to
		     sepcify the default route, and “0.0.0.0” is understood to
		     be the same as “default” for dest and HISADDR for gw.

		     For example, a returned value of “1.2.3.4/24 0.0.0.0 1 2
		     -1 3 400” would result in a routing table entry to the
		     1.2.3.0/24 network via HISADDR and a returned value of
		     “0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0” or “default HISADDR” would result in a
		     default route to HISADDR.

		     All RADIUS routes are applied after any sticky routes are
		     applied, making RADIUS routes override configured routes.
		     This also applies for RADIUS routes that do not include
		     the MYADDR or HISADDR keywords.

		RAD_FRAMED_IPV6_PREFIX
		     If this attribute is supplied, the value is substituted
		     for IPV6PREFIX in a command.  You may pass it to an upper
		     layer protocol such as DHCPv6 for delegating an IPv6 pre‐
		     fix to a peer.

		RAD_FRAMED_IPV6_ROUTE
		     The received string is expected to be in the format
		     dest[/bits] gw [metrics].	Any specified metrics are
		     ignored.  MYADDR6 and HISADDR6 are understood as valid
		     values for dest and gw, “default” can be used for dest to
		     sepcify the default route, and “::” is understood to be
		     the same as “default” for dest and HISADDR6 for gw.

		     For example, a returned value of “3ffe:505:abcd::/48 ::”
		     would result in a routing table entry to the
		     3ffe:505:abcd::/48 network via HISADDR6 and a returned
		     value of “:: ::” or “default HISADDR6” would result in a
		     default route to HISADDR6.

		     All RADIUS IPv6 routes are applied after any sticky
		     routes are applied, making RADIUS IPv6 routes override
		     configured routes.	 This also applies for RADIUS IPv6
		     routes that do not include the MYADDR6 or HISADDR6 key‐
		     words.

		RAD_SESSION_TIMEOUT
		     If supplied, the client connection is closed after the
		     given number of seconds.

		RAD_REPLY_MESSAGE
		     If supplied, this message is passed back to the peer as
		     the authentication SUCCESS text.

		RAD_MICROSOFT_MS_CHAP_ERROR
		     If this RAD_VENDOR_MICROSOFT vendor specific attribute is
		     supplied, it is passed back to the peer as the authenti‐
		     cation FAILURE text.

		RAD_MICROSOFT_MS_CHAP2_SUCCESS
		     If this RAD_VENDOR_MICROSOFT vendor specific attribute is
		     supplied and if MS-CHAPv2 authentication is being used,
		     it is passed back to the peer as the authentication SUC‐
		     CESS text.

		RAD_MICROSOFT_MS_MPPE_ENCRYPTION_POLICY
		     If this RAD_VENDOR_MICROSOFT vendor specific attribute is
		     supplied and has a value of 2 (Required), ppp will insist
		     that MPPE encryption is used (even if no “set mppe” con‐
		     figuration command has been given with arguments).	 If it
		     is supplied with a value of 1 (Allowed), encryption is
		     made optional (despite any “set mppe” configuration com‐
		     mands with arguments).

		RAD_MICROSOFT_MS_MPPE_ENCRYPTION_TYPES
		     If this RAD_VENDOR_MICROSOFT vendor specific attribute is
		     supplied, bits 1 and 2 are examined.  If either or both
		     are set, 40 bit and/or 128 bit (respectively) encryption
		     options are set, overriding any given first argument to
		     the “set mppe” command.  Note, it is not currently possi‐
		     ble for the RADIUS server to specify 56 bit encryption.

		RAD_MICROSOFT_MS_MPPE_RECV_KEY
		     If this RAD_VENDOR_MICROSOFT vendor specific attribute is
		     supplied, it is value is used as the master key for
		     decryption of incoming data.  When clients are authenti‐
		     cated using MSCHAPv2, the RADIUS server MUST provide this
		     attribute if inbound MPPE is to function.

		RAD_MICROSOFT_MS_MPPE_SEND_KEY
		     If this RAD_VENDOR_MICROSOFT vendor specific attribute is
		     supplied, it is value is used as the master key for
		     encryption of outgoing data.  When clients are authenti‐
		     cated using MSCHAPv2, the RADIUS server MUST provide this
		     attribute if outbound MPPE is to function.

	     Values received from the RADIUS server may be viewed using “show
	     bundle”.

	 set rad_alive timeout
	     When RADIUS is configured, setting “rad_alive” to a non-zero
	     timeout value will tell ppp to sent RADIUS accounting information
	     to the RADIUS server every timeout seconds.

	 set rad_port_id option
	     When RADIUS is configured, setting the “rad_port_id” value allows
	     to specify what should be sent to the RADIUS server as NAS-Port-
	     Id.  The options are as follows:

	     pid     PID of the corresponding tunnel.

	     tunnum  tun(4) interface number.

	     ifnum   index of the interface as returned by if_nametoindex(3).

	     default
		     keeps the default behavior.

	 set reconnect timeout ntries
	     Should the line drop unexpectedly (due to loss of CD or LQR fail‐
	     ure), a connection will be re-established after the given
	     timeout.  The line will be re-connected at most ntries times.
	     Ntries defaults to zero.  A value of random for timeout will
	     result in a variable pause, somewhere between 1 and 30 seconds.

	 set recvpipe [value]
	     This sets the routing table RECVPIPE value.  The optimum value is
	     just over twice the MTU value.  If value is unspecified or zero,
	     the default kernel controlled value is used.

	 set redial secs[+inc[-max]][.next] [attempts]
	     ppp can be instructed to attempt to redial attempts times.	 If
	     more than one phone number is specified (see “set phone” above),
	     a pause of next is taken before dialing each number.  A pause of
	     secs is taken before starting at the first number again.  A lit‐
	     eral value of “random” may be used here in place of secs and
	     next, causing a random delay of between 1 and 30 seconds.

	     If inc is specified, its value is added onto secs each time ppp
	     tries a new number.  secs will only be incremented at most max
	     times.  max defaults to 10.

	     Note, the secs delay will be effective, even after attempts has
	     been exceeded, so an immediate manual dial may appear to have
	     done nothing.  If an immediate dial is required, a “!” should
	     immediately follow the “open” keyword.  See the “open” descrip‐
	     tion above for further details.

	 set sendpipe [value]
	     This sets the routing table SENDPIPE value.  The optimum value is
	     just over twice the MTU value.  If value is unspecified or zero,
	     the default kernel controlled value is used.

	 set server|socket TcpPort|LocalName|none|open|closed [password
	     [mask]]
	     This command tells ppp to listen on the given socket or
	     ‘diagnostic port’ for incoming command connections.

	     The word “none” instructs ppp to close any existing socket and
	     clear the socket configuration.  The word “open” instructs ppp to
	     attempt to re-open the port.  The word “closed” instructs ppp to
	     close the open port.

	     If you wish to specify a local domain socket, LocalName must be
	     specified as an absolute file name, otherwise it is assumed to be
	     the name or number of a TCP port.	You may specify the octal
	     umask to be used with a local domain socket.  Refer to umask(2)
	     for umask details.	 Refer to services(5) for details of how to
	     translate TCP port names.

	     You must also specify the password that must be entered by the
	     client (using the “passwd” variable above) when connecting to
	     this socket.  If the password is specified as an empty string, no
	     password is required for connecting clients.

	     When specifying a local domain socket, the first “%d” sequence
	     found in the socket name will be replaced with the current inter‐
	     face unit number.	This is useful when you wish to use the same
	     profile for more than one connection.

	     In a similar manner TCP sockets may be prefixed with the “+”
	     character, in which case the current interface unit number is
	     added to the port number.

	     When using ppp with a server socket, the pppctl(8) command is the
	     preferred mechanism of communications.  Currently, telnet(1) can
	     also be used, but link encryption may be implemented in the
	     future, so telnet(1) should be avoided.

	     Note; SIGUSR1 and SIGUSR2 interact with the diagnostic socket.

	 set speed value
	     This sets the speed of the serial device.	If speed is specified
	     as “sync”, ppp treats the device as a synchronous device.

	     Certain device types will know whether they should be specified
	     as synchronous or asynchronous.  These devices will override
	     incorrect settings and log a warning to this effect.

	 set stopped [LCPseconds [CCPseconds]]
	     If this option is set, ppp will time out after the given FSM
	     (Finite State Machine) has been in the stopped state for the
	     given number of “seconds”.	 This option may be useful if the peer
	     sends a terminate request, but never actually closes the connec‐
	     tion despite our sending a terminate acknowledgement.  This is
	     also useful if you wish to “set openmode passive” and time out if
	     the peer does not send a Configure Request within the given time.
	     Use “set log +lcp +ccp” to make ppp log the appropriate state
	     transitions.

	     The default value is zero, where ppp does not time out in the
	     stopped state.

	     This value should not be set to less than the openmode delay (see
	     “set openmode” above).

	 set timeout idleseconds [mintimeout]
	     This command allows the setting of the idle timer.	 Refer to the
	     section titled SETTING THE IDLE TIMER for further details.

	     If mintimeout is specified, ppp will never idle out before the
	     link has been up for at least that number of seconds.

	 set urgent [tcp|udp|none] [[+|-]port] ...
	     This command controls the ports that ppp prioritizes when trans‐
	     mitting data.  The default priority TCP ports are ports 21 (ftp
	     control), 22 (ssh), 23 (telnet), 513 (login), 514 (shell), 543
	     (klogin) and 544 (kshell).	 There are no priority UDP ports by
	     default.  See services(5) for details.

	     If neither “tcp” or “udp” are specified, “tcp” is assumed.

	     If no ports are given, the priority port lists are cleared
	     (although if “tcp” or “udp” is specified, only that list is
	     cleared).	If the first port argument is prefixed with a plus
	     (“+”) or a minus (“-”), the current list is adjusted, otherwise
	     the list is reassigned.  ports prefixed with a plus or not pre‐
	     fixed at all are added to the list and ports prefixed with a
	     minus are removed from the list.

	     If “none” is specified, all priority port lists are disabled and
	     even IPTOS_LOWDELAY packets are not prioritised.

	 set vj slotcomp on|off
	     This command tells ppp whether it should attempt to negotiate VJ
	     slot compression.	By default, slot compression is turned on.

	 set vj slots nslots
	     This command sets the initial number of slots that ppp will try
	     to negotiate with the peer when VJ compression is enabled (see
	     the ‘enable’ command above).  It defaults to a value of 16.
	     Nslots must be between 4 and 16 inclusive.

     shell|! [command]
	 If command is not specified a shell is invoked according to the SHELL
	 environment variable.	Otherwise, the given command is executed.
	 Word replacement is done in the same way as for the “!bg” command as
	 described above.

	 Use of the ! character requires a following space as with any of the
	 other commands.  You should note that this command is executed in the
	 foreground; ppp will not continue running until this process has
	 exited.  Use the bg command if you wish processing to happen in the
	 background.

     show var
	 This command allows the user to examine the following:

	 show bundle
	     Show the current bundle settings.

	 show ccp
	     Show the current CCP compression statistics.

	 show compress
	     Show the current VJ compression statistics.

	 show escape
	     Show the current escape characters.

	 show filter [name]
	     List the current rules for the given filter.  If name is not
	     specified, all filters are shown.

	 show hdlc
	     Show the current HDLC statistics.

	 show help|?
	     Give a summary of available show commands.

	 show iface
	     Show the current interface information (the same as “iface
	     show”).

	 show ipcp
	     Show the current IPCP statistics.

	 show layers
	     Show the protocol layers currently in use.

	 show lcp
	     Show the current LCP statistics.

	 show [data]link
	     Show high level link information.

	 show links
	     Show a list of available logical links.

	 show log
	     Show the current log values.

	 show mem
	     Show current memory statistics.

	 show ncp
	     Show the current NCP statistics.

	 show physical
	     Show low level link information.

	 show mp
	     Show Multi-link information.

	 show proto
	     Show current protocol totals.

	 show route
	     Show the current routing tables.

	 show stopped
	     Show the current stopped timeouts.

	 show timer
	     Show the active alarm timers.

	 show version
	     Show the current version number of ppp.

     term
	 Go into terminal mode.	 Characters typed at the keyboard are sent to
	 the device.  Characters read from the device are displayed on the
	 screen.  When a remote PPP peer is detected, ppp automatically
	 enables Packet Mode and goes back into command mode.

MORE DETAILS
     ·	 Read the example configuration files.	They are a good source of
	 information.

     ·	 Use “help”, “nat ?”, “enable ?”, “set ?” and “show ?” to get online
	 information about what is available.

     ·	 The following URLs contain useful information:
	 ·   http://www.FreeBSD.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq/ppp.html
	 ·   http://www.FreeBSD.org/doc/handbook/userppp.html

FILES
     ppp refers to four files: ppp.conf, ppp.linkup, ppp.linkdown and
     ppp.secret.  These files are placed in the /etc/ppp directory.

     /etc/ppp/ppp.conf
	 System default configuration file.

     /etc/ppp/ppp.secret
	 An authorisation file for each system.

     /etc/ppp/ppp.linkup
	 A file to check when ppp establishes a network level connection.

     /etc/ppp/ppp.linkdown
	 A file to check when ppp closes a network level connection.

     /var/log/ppp.log
	 Logging and debugging information file.  Note, this name is specified
	 in /etc/syslog.conf.  See syslog.conf(5) for further details.

     /var/spool/lock/LCK..*
	 tty port locking file.	 Refer to uucplock(3) for further details.

     /var/run/tunN.pid
	 The process id (pid) of the ppp program connected to the tunN device,
	 where ‘N’ is the number of the device.

     /var/run/ttyXX.if
	 The tun interface used by this port.  Again, this file is only cre‐
	 ated in -background, -auto and -ddial modes.

     /etc/services
	 Get port number if port number is using service name.

     /var/run/ppp-authname-class-value
	 In multi-link mode, local domain sockets are created using the peer
	 authentication name (‘authname’), the peer endpoint discriminator
	 class (‘class’) and the peer endpoint discriminator value (‘value’).
	 As the endpoint discriminator value may be a binary value, it is
	 turned to HEX to determine the actual file name.

	 This socket is used to pass links between different instances of ppp.

SEE ALSO
     at(1), ftp(1), gzip(1), hostname(1), login(1), tcpdump(1), telnet(1),
     kldload(2), pipe(2), socketpair(2), libalias(3), libradius(3), syslog(3),
     uucplock(3), netgraph(4), ng_pppoe(4), crontab(5), group(5), passwd(5),
     protocols(5), radius.conf(5), resolv.conf(5), syslog.conf(5), adduser(8),
     chat(8), getty(8), inetd(8), init(8), named(8), ping(8), pppctl(8),
     pppd(8), pppoed(8), route(8), sshd(8), syslogd(8), traceroute(8), vipw(8)

HISTORY
     This program was originally written by Toshiharu OHNO ⟨tony-o@iij.ad.jp⟩,
     and was submitted to FreeBSD 2.0.5 by Atsushi Murai ⟨amurai@spec.co.jp⟩.

     It was substantially modified during 1997 by Brian Somers
     ⟨brian@Awfulhak.org⟩, and was ported to OpenBSD in November that year
     (just after the 2.2 release).

     Most of the code was rewritten by Brian Somers in early 1998 when multi-
     link ppp support was added.

BSD				August 25, 2009				   BSD
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