terminfo man page on QNX

Man page or keyword search:  
man Server   4347 pages
apropos Keyword Search (all sections)
Output format
QNX logo
[printable version]

terminfo(5)			 File Formats			   terminfo(5)

       terminfo - terminal capability data base


       Terminfo	 is  a data base describing terminals, used by screen-oriented
       programs such as nvi(1), rogue(1) and  libraries	 such  as  curses(3X).
       Terminfo describes terminals by giving a set of capabilities which they
       have, by specifying how to perform screen operations, and by specifying
       padding	requirements  and  initialization  sequences.	This describes
       ncurses version 5.7 (patch 20081102).

       Entries in terminfo consist of  a  sequence  of	`,'  separated	fields
       (embedded  commas  may be escaped with a backslash or notated as \054).
       White space after the `,' separator is ignored.	The  first  entry  for
       each  terminal  gives the names which are known for the terminal, sepa‐
       rated by `|' characters.	 The first  name  given	 is  the  most	common
       abbreviation  for  the  terminal,  the last name given should be a long
       name fully identifying the terminal, and all others are	understood  as
       synonyms	 for  the  terminal name.  All names but the last should be in
       lower case and contain no blanks; the last name may well contain	 upper
       case and blanks for readability.

       Lines beginning with a `#' in the first column are treated as comments.
       While comment lines are legal at any point, the output of captoinfo and
       infotocap  (aliases  for	 tic)  will  move  comments so they occur only
       between entries.

       Newlines and leading tabs may be used for formatting entries for	 read‐
       ability.	 These are removed from parsed entries.	 The infocmp -f option
       relies on this to format if-then-else expressions: the  result  can  be
       read by tic.

       Terminal	 names	(except	 for the last, verbose entry) should be chosen
       using the following conventions.	 The particular piece of hardware mak‐
       ing  up	the  terminal  should have a root name, thus ``hp2621''.  This
       name should not contain hyphens.	 Modes that the hardware can be in, or
       user  preferences, should be indicated by appending a hyphen and a mode
       suffix.	Thus, a vt100 in 132 column mode would be vt100-w.   The  fol‐
       lowing suffixes should be used where possible:

       For more on terminal naming conventions, see the term(7) manual page.

       The  following  is  a  complete table of the capabilities included in a
       terminfo description block and available to  terminfo-using  code.   In
       each line of the table,

       The  variable  is  the  name  by	 which the programmer (at the terminfo
       level) accesses the capability.

       The capname is the short name used in the text of the database, and  is
       used  by	 a  person updating the database.  Whenever possible, capnames
       are chosen to be the same as or similar to the ANSI X3.64-1979 standard
       (now  superseded	 by  ECMA-48,  which  uses  identical  or very similar
       names).	Semantics are also intended to match those of  the  specifica‐

       The  termcap code is the old termcap capability name (some capabilities
       are new, and have names which termcap did not originate).

       Capability names have no hard length limit, but an informal limit of  5
       characters has been adopted to keep them short and to allow the tabs in
       the source file Caps to line up nicely.

       Finally, the description field attempts to convey the semantics of  the
       capability.  You may find some codes in the description field:

       (P)    indicates that padding may be specified

       #[1-9] in  the  description  field  indicates that the string is passed
	      through tparm with parms as given (#i).

       (P*)   indicates that padding may vary in proportion to the  number  of
	      lines affected

       (#i)   indicates the ith parameter.

       These are the boolean capabilities:

       These are the numeric capabilities:

       The  following  numeric	capabilities  are  present  in the SVr4.0 term
       structure, but are not yet documented in the man page.	They  came  in
       with SVr4's printer support.

       These are the string capabilities:

       The following string capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term struc‐
       ture, but were originally not documented in the man page.

	The XSI Curses standard added these.  They are some post-4.1  versions
	of System V curses, e.g., Solaris 2.5 and IRIX 6.x.  The ncurses term‐
	cap names for them are invented; according to the XSI Curses standard,
	they  have  no	termcap	 names.	 If your compiled terminfo entries use
	these, they may	 not  be  binary-compatible  with  System  V  terminfo
	entries after SVr4.1; beware!

   A Sample Entry
       The following entry, describing an ANSI-standard terminal, is represen‐
       tative of what a terminfo entry for a modern terminal  typically	 looks

     ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
	     colors#8, ncv#3, pairs#64,
	     cub=\E[%p1%dD, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cuf=\E[%p1%dC,
	     cuu=\E[%p1%dA, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dl=\E[%p1%dM,
	     ech=\E[%p1%dX, el1=\E[1K, hpa=\E[%p1%dG, ht=\E[I,
	     ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, indn=\E[%p1%dS, .indn=\E[%p1%dT,
	     kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kcub1=\E[D, kcud1=\E[B,
	     kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, kf1=\E[M, kf10=\E[V,
	     kf11=\E[W, kf12=\E[X, kf2=\E[N, kf3=\E[O, kf4=\E[P,
	     kf5=\E[Q, kf6=\E[R, kf7=\E[S, kf8=\E[T, kf9=\E[U,
	     kich1=\E[L, mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S,
	     op=\E[37;40m, rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db,
	     rin=\E[%p1%dT, s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B,
	     s3ds=\E+B, setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
	     sgr0=\E[0;10m, tbc=\E[2g, u6=\E[%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
	     u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%p1%dd,

       Entries	may continue onto multiple lines by placing white space at the
       beginning of each line except the first.	 Comments may be  included  on
       lines  beginning	 with  ``#''.	Capabilities  in terminfo are of three
       types: Boolean capabilities which indicate that the terminal  has  some
       particular  feature, numeric capabilities giving the size of the termi‐
       nal or the size of particular delays, and  string  capabilities,	 which
       give a sequence which can be used to perform particular terminal opera‐

   Types of Capabilities
       All capabilities have names.  For instance, the fact that ANSI-standard
       terminals  have	automatic margins (i.e., an automatic return and line-
       feed when the end of a line is reached) is indicated by the  capability
       am.   Hence  the description of ansi includes am.  Numeric capabilities
       are followed by the character `#' and  then  a  positive	 value.	  Thus
       cols, which indicates the number of columns the terminal has, gives the
       value `80' for ansi.  Values for numeric capabilities may be  specified
       in decimal, octal or hexadecimal, using the C programming language con‐
       ventions (e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).

       Finally, string valued capabilities, such as el (clear to end  of  line
       sequence)  are  given  by  the  two-character  code, an `=', and then a
       string ending at the next following `,'.

       A number of escape sequences are provided in the string valued capabil‐
       ities  for easy encoding of characters there.  Both \E and \e map to an
       ESCAPE character, ^x maps to a control-x for any appropriate x, and the
       sequences  \n \l \r \t \b \f \s give a newline, line-feed, return, tab,
       backspace, form-feed, and space.	 Other escapes include \^  for	^,  \\
       for \, \, for comma, \: for :, and \0 for null.	(\0 will produce \200,
       which does not terminate a string but behaves as a  null	 character  on
       most  terminals,	 providing  CS7 is specified.  See stty(1).)  Finally,
       characters may be given as three octal digits after a \.

       A delay in milliseconds may appear anywhere  in	a  string  capability,
       enclosed	 in  $<..>  brackets, as in el=\EK$<5>, and padding characters
       are supplied by tputs to provide this delay.  The delay must be a  num‐
       ber  with at most one decimal place of precision; it may be followed by
       suffixes `*' or '/' or both.  A `*' indicates that the padding required
       is  proportional	 to the number of lines affected by the operation, and
       the amount given is the per-affected-unit padding  required.   (In  the
       case  of	 insert	 character,  the  factor  is still the number of lines
       affected.)  Normally, padding is advisory if the	 device	 has  the  xon
       capability;  it	is  used  for  cost  computation  but does not trigger
       delays.	A `/' suffix indicates	that  the  padding  is	mandatory  and
       forces  a delay of the given number of milliseconds even on devices for
       which xon is present to indicate flow control.

       Sometimes individual capabilities must be commented out.	 To  do	 this,
       put  a  period before the capability name.  For example, see the second
       ind in the example above.

   Fetching Compiled Descriptions
       If the environment variable TERMINFO is set, it is interpreted  as  the
       pathname	 of  a	directory  containing the compiled description you are
       working on.  Only that directory is searched.

       If TERMINFO is not set, the ncurses version of the terminfo reader code
       will  instead  look  in	the  directory	$HOME/.terminfo for a compiled
       description.  If it fails to find one there, and the environment	 vari‐
       able TERMINFO_DIRS is set, it will interpret the contents of that vari‐
       able as a list of colon- separated directories to be searched (an empty
       entry  is  interpreted as a command to search /usr/pkg/share/terminfo).
       If no description is found in any of the TERMINFO_DIRS directories, the
       fetch fails.

       If neither TERMINFO nor TERMINFO_DIRS is set, the last place tried will
       be the system terminfo directory, /usr/pkg/share/terminfo.

       (Neither the $HOME/.terminfo lookups nor TERMINFO_DIRS  extensions  are
       supported under stock System V terminfo/curses.)

   Preparing Descriptions
       We  now	outline	 how  to  prepare descriptions of terminals.  The most
       effective way to prepare a terminal description	is  by	imitating  the
       description  of	a  similar  terminal  in  terminfo  and	 to build up a
       description gradually, using partial descriptions with vi or some other
       screen-oriented	program to check that they are correct.	 Be aware that
       a very unusual terminal may expose deficiencies in the ability  of  the
       terminfo file to describe it or bugs in the screen-handling code of the
       test program.

       To get the padding for insert line right (if the terminal  manufacturer
       did  not	 document  it)	a  severe test is to edit a large file at 9600
       baud, delete 16 or so lines from the middle of the screen, then hit the
       `u' key several times quickly.  If the terminal messes up, more padding
       is usually needed.  A similar test can be used for insert character.

   Basic Capabilities
       The number of columns on each line for the terminal  is	given  by  the
       cols  numeric capability.  If the terminal is a CRT, then the number of
       lines on the screen is given by the lines capability.  If the  terminal
       wraps  around  to  the  beginning  of the next line when it reaches the
       right margin, then it should have the am capability.  If	 the  terminal
       can  clear  its	screen,	 leaving the cursor in the home position, then
       this is given by the clear string capability.  If  the  terminal	 over‐
       strikes	(rather	 than  clearing	 a position when a character is struck
       over) then it should have the os capability.   If  the  terminal	 is  a
       printing terminal, with no soft copy unit, give it both hc and os.  (os
       applies to storage scope terminals, such as TEKTRONIX 4010  series,  as
       well  as	 hard copy and APL terminals.)	If there is a code to move the
       cursor to the left edge of the current row, give this as cr.  (Normally
       this  will  be carriage return, control M.)  If there is a code to pro‐
       duce an audible signal (bell, beep, etc) give this as bel.

       If there is a code to move the cursor one position to the left (such as
       backspace)  that	 capability should be given as cub1.  Similarly, codes
       to move to the right, up, and down should be given as cuf1,  cuu1,  and
       cud1.   These  local cursor motions should not alter the text they pass
       over, for example, you would not	 normally  use	`cuf1= '  because  the
       space would erase the character moved over.

       A very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in
       terminfo are undefined at the left and top edges	 of  a	CRT  terminal.
       Programs should never attempt to backspace around the left edge, unless
       bw is given, and never attempt to go up locally off the top.  In	 order
       to  scroll  text up, a program will go to the bottom left corner of the
       screen and send the ind (index) string.

       To scroll text down, a program goes to  the  top	 left  corner  of  the
       screen and sends the ri (reverse index) string.	The strings ind and ri
       are undefined when not on their respective corners of the screen.

       Parameterized versions of the scrolling	sequences  are	indn  and  rin
       which  have  the same semantics as ind and ri except that they take one
       parameter, and scroll that many lines.  They are also undefined	except
       at the appropriate edge of the screen.

       The  am capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the right edge of
       the screen when text is output, but this does not necessarily apply  to
       a  cuf1	from  the last column.	The only local motion which is defined
       from the left edge is if bw is given, then a cub1 from  the  left  edge
       will  move  to the right edge of the previous row.  If bw is not given,
       the effect is undefined.	 This is useful for drawing a box  around  the
       edge of the screen, for example.	 If the terminal has switch selectable
       automatic margins, the terminfo file usually assumes that this  is  on;
       i.e.,  am.  If the terminal has a command which moves to the first col‐
       umn of the next line, that command can be given as nel  (newline).   It
       does  not  matter  if  the  command clears the remainder of the current
       line, so if the terminal has no cr and lf it may still be  possible  to
       craft a working nel out of one or both of them.

       These capabilities suffice to describe hard-copy and “glass-tty” termi‐
       nals.  Thus the model 33 teletype is described as

       33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
	    bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

       while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

       adm3|3|lsi adm3,
	    am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
	    ind=^J, lines#24,

   Parameterized Strings
       Cursor addressing and other strings requiring parameters in the	termi‐
       nal  are described by a parameterized string capability, with printf(3)
       like escapes %x in it.  For example, to address	the  cursor,  the  cup
       capability  is  given,  using  two  parameters:	the  row and column to
       address to.  (Rows and columns are numbered from zero and refer to  the
       physical screen visible to the user, not to any unseen memory.)	If the
       terminal has memory relative cursor addressing, that can	 be  indicated
       by mrcup.

       The  parameter mechanism uses a stack and special % codes to manipulate
       it.  Typically a sequence will push one	of  the	 parameters  onto  the
       stack  and  then print it in some format.  Print (e.g., "%d") is a spe‐
       cial case.  Other operations, including "%t" pop their operand from the
       stack.	It  is noted that more complex operations are often necessary,
       e.g., in the sgr string.

       The % encodings have the following meanings:

       %%   outputs `%'

	    as in printf, flags are [-+#] and space.  Use a `:' to  allow  the
	    next  character to be a `-' flag, avoiding interpreting "%-" as an

       %c   print pop() like %c in printf

       %s   print pop() like %s in printf

	    push i'th parameter

	    set dynamic variable [a-z] to pop()

	    get dynamic variable [a-z] and push it

	    set static variable [a-z] to pop()

	    get static variable [a-z] and push it

	    The terms "static" and "dynamic"  are  misleading.	 Historically,
	    these are simply two different sets of variables, whose values are
	    not reset between calls to tparm.  However, that fact is not docu‐
	    mented  in	other  implementations.	  Relying on it will adversely
	    impact portability to other implementations.

       %'c' char constant c

	    integer constant nn

       %l   push strlen(pop)

       %+ %- %* %/ %m
	    arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())

       %& %| %^
	    bit operations (AND, OR and exclusive-OR): push(pop() op pop())

       %= %> %<
	    logical operations: push(pop() op pop())

       %A, %O
	    logical AND and OR operations (for conditionals)

       %! %~
	    unary operations (logical and bit complement): push(op pop())

       %i   add 1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

       %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
	    This forms an if-then-else.	 The %e elsepart is optional.  Usually
	    the	 %?  expr  part	 pushes a value onto the stack, and %t pops it
	    from the stack, testing if it is nonzero (true).  If  it  is  zero
	    (false), control passes to the %e (else) part.

	    It is possible to form else-if's a la Algol 68:
	    %? c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e %;

	    where ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

	    Use	 the  -f  option of tic or infocmp to see the structure of if-
	    the-else's.	 Some strings, e.g., sgr can be very complicated  when
	    written  on	 one line.  The -f option splits the string into lines
	    with the parts indented.

       Binary operations are in postfix form with the operands	in  the	 usual
       order.  That is, to get x-5 one would use "%gx%{5}%-".  %P and %g vari‐
       ables are persistent across escape-string evaluations.

       Consider the HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12, needs to  be
       sent  \E&a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds.  Note that the order of the
       rows and columns is inverted here, and that  the	 row  and  column  are
       printed	  as	two    digits.	   Thus	   its	 cup   capability   is

       The Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent preceded  by
       a   ^T,	 with	the   row   and	  column  simply  encoded  in  binary,
       “cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c”.  Terminals which  use  “%c”	need  to  be  able  to
       backspace  the cursor (cub1), and to move the cursor up one line on the
       screen (cuu1).  This is necessary because it  is	 not  always  safe  to
       transmit	 \n ^D and \r, as the system may change or discard them.  (The
       library routines dealing with terminfo set tty modes so that  tabs  are
       never  expanded, so \t is safe to send.	This turns out to be essential
       for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and column offset  by
       a blank character, thus “cup=\E=%p1%' '%+%c%p2%' '%+%c”.	 After sending
       `\E=', this pushes the first parameter, pushes the ASCII	 value	for  a
       space (32), adds them (pushing the sum on the stack in place of the two
       previous values) and outputs that value as a character.	Then the  same
       is  done for the second parameter.  More complex arithmetic is possible
       using the stack.

   Cursor Motions
       If the terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very  upper  left
       corner  of screen) then this can be given as home; similarly a fast way
       of getting to the lower left-hand corner can be given as ll;  this  may
       involve going up with cuu1 from the home position, but a program should
       never do this itself (unless ll does) because it can make no assumption
       about  the  effect  of moving up from the home position.	 Note that the
       home position is the same as addressing to (0,0): to the top left  cor‐
       ner of the screen, not of memory.  (Thus, the \EH sequence on HP termi‐
       nals cannot be used for home.)

       If the terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing, these can
       be  given  as  single  parameter	 capabilities hpa (horizontal position
       absolute) and vpa (vertical position absolute).	 Sometimes  these  are
       shorter	than  the  more	 general  two  parameter sequence (as with the
       hp2645) and can be used in preference to cup.  If there are  parameter‐
       ized  local  motions  (e.g.,  move  n spaces to the right) these can be
       given as cud, cub, cuf, and cuu with a single parameter indicating  how
       many  spaces  to move.  These are primarily useful if the terminal does
       not have cup, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

       If the terminal needs to be in a special mode when  running  a  program
       that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter and exit this mode can
       be given as smcup and rmcup.  This arises, for example, from  terminals
       like  the  Concept  with more than one page of memory.  If the terminal
       has only memory relative cursor addressing and not screen relative cur‐
       sor addressing, a one screen-sized window must be fixed into the termi‐
       nal for cursor addressing to work properly.  This is also used for  the
       TEKTRONIX  4025,	 where	smcup sets the command character to be the one
       used by terminfo.  If the smcup sequence will not  restore  the	screen
       after  an  rmcup	 sequence  is output (to the state prior to outputting
       rmcup), specify nrrmc.

   Area Clears
       If the terminal can clear from the current position to the end  of  the
       line,  leaving  the cursor where it is, this should be given as el.  If
       the terminal can clear from the beginning of the line  to  the  current
       position	 inclusive,  leaving  the  cursor  where it is, this should be
       given as el1.  If the terminal can clear from the current  position  to
       the  end	 of  the display, then this should be given as ed.  Ed is only
       defined from the first column of a line.	 (Thus, it can be simulated by
       a request to delete a large number of lines, if a true ed is not avail‐

   Insert/delete line and vertical motions
       If the terminal can open a new blank line before	 the  line  where  the
       cursor  is,  this  should  be  given as il1; this is done only from the
       first position of a line.  The cursor must then	appear	on  the	 newly
       blank  line.   If  the terminal can delete the line which the cursor is
       on, then this should be given as dl1; this is done only from the	 first
       position on the line to be deleted.  Versions of il1 and dl1 which take
       a single parameter and insert or delete that many lines can be given as
       il and dl.

       If  the	terminal  has a settable scrolling region (like the vt100) the
       command to set this can be described with  the  csr  capability,	 which
       takes two parameters: the top and bottom lines of the scrolling region.
       The cursor position is, alas, undefined after using this command.

       It is possible to get the effect of insert or delete line using csr  on
       a  properly chosen region; the sc and rc (save and restore cursor) com‐
       mands may be useful for ensuring that  your  synthesized	 insert/delete
       string  does  not  move the cursor.  (Note that the ncurses(3X) library
       does  this  synthesis  automatically,   so   you	  need	 not   compose
       insert/delete strings for an entry with csr).

       Yet another way to construct insert and delete might be to use a combi‐
       nation of index with the memory-lock feature found  on  some  terminals
       (like the HP-700/90 series, which however also has insert/delete).

       Inserting  lines	 at  the  top or bottom of the screen can also be done
       using ri or ind on many terminals without a  true  insert/delete	 line,
       and is often faster even on terminals with those features.

       The boolean non_dest_scroll_region should be set if each scrolling win‐
       dow is effectively a view port on a screen-sized canvas.	 To  test  for
       this capability, create a scrolling region in the middle of the screen,
       write something to the bottom line, move the cursor to the top  of  the
       region, and do ri followed by dl1 or ind.  If the data scrolled off the
       bottom of the region by the  ri	re-appears,  then  scrolling  is  non-
       destructive.   System  V	 and XSI Curses expect that ind, ri, indn, and
       rin will simulate destructive scrolling; their  documentation  cautions
       you  not to define csr unless this is true.  This curses implementation
       is more liberal and will do explicit erases after scrolling if ndstr is

       If  the	terminal has the ability to define a window as part of memory,
       which all commands affect, it should  be	 given	as  the	 parameterized
       string  wind.  The four parameters are the starting and ending lines in
       memory and the starting and ending columns in memory, in that order.

       If the terminal can retain display memory above, then the da capability
       should  be  given;  if  display	memory	can be retained below, then db
       should be given.	 These indicate that deleting a line or scrolling  may
       bring  non-blank lines up from below or that scrolling back with ri may
       bring down non-blank lines.

   Insert/Delete Character
       There are two basic kinds of  intelligent  terminals  with  respect  to
       insert/delete  character	 which	can  be described using terminfo.  The
       most common insert/delete character operations affect only the  charac‐
       ters  on	 the current line and shift characters off the end of the line
       rigidly.	 Other terminals, such as the Concept 100 and the Perkin Elmer
       Owl, make a distinction between typed and untyped blanks on the screen,
       shifting upon an insert or delete only  to  an  untyped	blank  on  the
       screen  which  is either eliminated, or expanded to two untyped blanks.
       You can determine the kind of terminal you have by clearing the	screen
       and  then  typing  text separated by cursor motions.  Type “abc	  def”
       using local cursor motions (not	spaces)	 between  the  “abc”  and  the
       “def”.	Then position the cursor before the “abc” and put the terminal
       in insert mode.	If typing characters causes the rest of	 the  line  to
       shift  rigidly  and  characters to fall off the end, then your terminal
       does not distinguish between blanks  and	 untyped  positions.   If  the
       “abc”  shifts over to the “def” which then move together around the end
       of the current line and onto the next as you insert, you have the  sec‐
       ond  type  of terminal, and should give the capability in, which stands
       for “insert null”.  While these are two logically  separate  attributes
       (one  line  versus  multi-line  insert  mode,  and special treatment of
       untyped spaces) we have seen no terminals whose insert mode  cannot  be
       described with the single attribute.

       Terminfo	 can  describe	both  terminals which have an insert mode, and
       terminals which send a simple sequence to open a blank position on  the
       current line.  Give as smir the sequence to get into insert mode.  Give
       as rmir the sequence to leave  insert  mode.   Now  give	 as  ich1  any
       sequence	 needed	 to  be	 sent  just before sending the character to be
       inserted.  Most terminals with a true insert mode will not  give	 ich1;
       terminals  which	 send a sequence to open a screen position should give
       it here.

       If your terminal has both, insert mode is usually preferable  to	 ich1.
       Technically,  you  should  not  give  both unless the terminal actually
       requires both to be used in combination.	 Accordingly, some  non-curses
       applications  get  confused if both are present; the symptom is doubled
       characters in an update using insert.  This requirement	is  now	 rare;
       most  ich  sequences do not require previous smir, and most smir insert
       modes do not require ich1 before each character.	  Therefore,  the  new
       curses  actually	 assumes this is the case and uses either rmir/smir or
       ich/ich1 as appropriate (but not both).	If you have to write an	 entry
       to  be  used  under  new curses for a terminal old enough to need both,
       include the rmir/smir sequences in ich1.

       If post insert padding is needed, give this as a number of milliseconds
       in  ip (a string option).  Any other sequence which may need to be sent
       after an insert of a single character may also be given in ip.  If your
       terminal	 needs	both  to be placed into an `insert mode' and a special
       code to precede each inserted character, then both smir/rmir  and  ich1
       can  be	given,	and  both  will be used.  The ich capability, with one
       parameter, n, will repeat the effects of ich1 n times.

       If padding is necessary between characters typed while  not  in	insert
       mode, give this as a number of milliseconds padding in rmp.

       It  is  occasionally  necessary	to move around while in insert mode to
       delete characters on the same line (e.g., if there is a tab  after  the
       insertion  position).   If  your terminal allows motion while in insert
       mode you can give the capability mir to	speed  up  inserting  in  this
       case.   Omitting	 mir  will affect only speed.  Some terminals (notably
       Datamedia's) must not have mir because of the  way  their  insert  mode

       Finally,	 you  can  specify dch1 to delete a single character, dch with
       one parameter, n, to delete n characters, and  delete  mode  by	giving
       smdc  and  rmdc	to  enter  and exit delete mode (any mode the terminal
       needs to be placed in for dch1 to work).

       A command to erase n characters	(equivalent  to	 outputting  n	blanks
       without moving the cursor) can be given as ech with one parameter.

   Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
       If your terminal has one or more kinds of display attributes, these can
       be represented in a number of different ways.  You  should  choose  one
       display	form  as  standout  mode,  representing a good, high contrast,
       easy-on-the-eyes, format for  highlighting  error  messages  and	 other
       attention  getters.   (If  you  have a choice, reverse video plus half-
       bright is good, or reverse video alone.)	 The sequences	to  enter  and
       exit  standout  mode  are given as smso and rmso, respectively.	If the
       code to change into or out of standout mode  leaves  one	 or  even  two
       blank  spaces  on  the screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061 do, then
       xmc should be given to tell how many spaces are left.

       Codes to begin underlining and end underlining can be given as smul and
       rmul respectively.  If the terminal has a code to underline the current
       character and move the cursor one space	to  the	 right,	 such  as  the
       Microterm Mime, this can be given as uc.

       Other  capabilities  to	enter various highlighting modes include blink
       (blinking) bold (bold or extra bright) dim (dim or  half-bright)	 invis
       (blanking  or invisible text) prot (protected) rev (reverse video) sgr0
       (turn off all attribute modes) smacs  (enter  alternate	character  set
       mode) and rmacs (exit alternate character set mode).  Turning on any of
       these modes singly may or may not turn off other modes.

       If there is a sequence to set arbitrary	combinations  of  modes,  this
       should  be  given  as  sgr (set attributes), taking 9 parameters.  Each
       parameter is either 0 or nonzero, as the corresponding attribute is  on
       or  off.	 The 9 parameters are, in order: standout, underline, reverse,
       blink, dim, bold, blank, protect, alternate  character  set.   Not  all
       modes need be supported by sgr, only those for which corresponding sep‐
       arate attribute commands exist.

       For example, the DEC vt220 supports most of the modes:

       We begin each escape sequence by turning off any existing modes,	 since
       there  is  no quick way to determine whether they are active.  Standout
       is set up to be the combination of reverse and bold.  The vt220	termi‐
       nal  has	 a protect mode, though it is not commonly used in sgr because
       it protects characters on the screen from  the  host's  erasures.   The
       altcharset  mode	 also  is  different  in  that	it is either ^O or ^N,
       depending on whether it is off or on.  If all modes are turned on,  the
       resulting sequence is \E[0;1;4;5;7;8m^N.

       Some  sequences are common to different modes.  For example, ;7 is out‐
       put when either p1 or p3 is  true,  that	 is,  if  either  standout  or
       reverse modes are turned on.

       Writing out the above sequences, along with their dependencies yields

       Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:


       Remember	 that  if  you specify sgr, you must also specify sgr0.	 Also,
       some implementations rely on sgr being given if sgr0 is, Not  all  ter‐
       minfo  entries  necessarily have an sgr string, however.	 Many terminfo
       entries are derived from termcap entries which have no sgr string.  The
       only drawback to adding an sgr string is that termcap also assumes that
       sgr0 does not exit alternate character set mode.

       Terminals with  the  ``magic  cookie''  glitch  (xmc)  deposit  special
       ``cookies''  when they receive mode-setting sequences, which affect the
       display algorithm rather than having extra  bits	 for  each  character.
       Some  terminals, such as the HP 2621, automatically leave standout mode
       when they move to a new line or	the  cursor  is	 addressed.   Programs
       using  standout mode should exit standout mode before moving the cursor
       or sending a newline, unless the msgr capability, asserting that it  is
       safe to move in standout mode, is present.

       If  the	terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate an error
       quietly (a bell replacement) then this can be given as flash;  it  must
       not move the cursor.

       If  the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is not
       on the bottom line (to make, for example, a non-blinking underline into
       an  easier  to  find block or blinking underline) give this sequence as
       cvvis.  If there is a way to make the cursor completely invisible, give
       that  as	 civis.	 The capability cnorm should be given which undoes the
       effects of both of these modes.

       If your terminal correctly generates  underlined	 characters  (with  no
       special	codes  needed)	even  though  it does not overstrike, then you
       should give the capability ul.  If  a  character	 overstriking  another
       leaves  both  characters	 on the screen, specify the capability os.  If
       overstrikes are erasable with a blank, then this should be indicated by
       giving eo.

   Keypad and Function Keys
       If  the	terminal  has  a keypad that transmits codes when the keys are
       pressed, this information can be given.	Note that it is	 not  possible
       to handle terminals where the keypad only works in local (this applies,
       for example, to the unshifted HP 2621 keys).  If the keypad can be  set
       to transmit or not transmit, give these codes as smkx and rmkx.	Other‐
       wise the keypad is assumed to always transmit.  The codes sent  by  the
       left  arrow,  right  arrow,  up arrow, down arrow, and home keys can be
       given as kcub1, kcuf1, kcuu1, kcud1, and khome respectively.  If	 there
       are  function keys such as f0, f1, ..., f10, the codes they send can be
       given as kf0, kf1, ..., kf10.  If these keys have labels other than the
       default f0 through f10, the labels can be given as lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.
       The codes transmitted by certain other special keys can be  given:  kll
       (home  down),  kbs (backspace), ktbc (clear all tabs), kctab (clear the
       tab stop in this column), kclr  (clear  screen  or  erase  key),	 kdch1
       (delete	character),  kdl1 (delete line), krmir (exit insert mode), kel
       (clear to end of line), ked (clear to end  of  screen),	kich1  (insert
       character  or  enter insert mode), kil1 (insert line), knp (next page),
       kpp (previous page), kind  (scroll  forward/down),  kri	(scroll	 back‐
       ward/up),  khts	(set  a tab stop in this column).  In addition, if the
       keypad has a 3 by 3 array of keys including the four  arrow  keys,  the
       other  five  keys  can  be given as ka1, ka3, kb2, kc1, and kc3.	 These
       keys are useful when the effects of  a  3  by  3	 directional  pad  are

       Strings to program function keys can be given as pfkey, pfloc, and pfx.
       A string to program screen labels should be specified as pln.  Each  of
       these  strings takes two parameters: the function key number to program
       (from 0 to 10) and the string to program it with.  Function key numbers
       out  of	this  range may program undefined keys in a terminal dependent
       manner.	The difference between the capabilities is that	 pfkey	causes
       pressing	 the  given  key  to  be the same as the user typing the given
       string; pfloc causes the string to  be  executed	 by  the  terminal  in
       local; and pfx causes the string to be transmitted to the computer.

       The  capabilities  nlab,	 lw  and  lh define the number of programmable
       screen labels and their width and height.  If  there  are  commands  to
       turn  the  labels on and off, give them in smln and rmln.  smln is nor‐
       mally output after one or more pln sequences  to	 make  sure  that  the
       change becomes visible.

   Tabs and Initialization
       If  the	terminal has hardware tabs, the command to advance to the next
       tab stop can be given as ht (usually control I).	 A  ``back-tab''  com‐
       mand  which  moves  leftward  to the preceding tab stop can be given as
       cbt.  By convention, if the teletype modes indicate that tabs are being
       expanded	 by  the computer rather than being sent to the terminal, pro‐
       grams should not use ht or cbt even if they are present, since the user
       may  not have the tab stops properly set.  If the terminal has hardware
       tabs which are initially set every n spaces when the terminal  is  pow‐
       ered  up, the numeric parameter it is given, showing the number of spa‐
       ces the tabs are set to.	 This is normally used by the tset command  to
       determine  whether  to  set  the	 mode  for hardware tab expansion, and
       whether to set the tab stops.  If the terminal has tab stops  that  can
       be  saved  in  non-volatile memory, the terminfo description can assume
       that they are properly set.

       Other capabilities include is1, is2, and	 is3,  initialization  strings
       for  the	 terminal, iprog, the path name of a program to be run to ini‐
       tialize the terminal, and if, the name of a file containing  long  ini‐
       tialization  strings.   These  strings are expected to set the terminal
       into modes consistent with the rest of the terminfo description.	  They
       are  normally sent to the terminal, by the init option of the tput pro‐
       gram, each time the user logs in.  They will be printed in the  follow‐
       ing order:

	      run the program

	      output is1 is2

	      set the margins using
		     mgc, smgl and smgr

	      set tabs using
		     tbc and hts

	      print the file

	      and finally
		     output is3.

       Most  initialization  is	 done with is2.	 Special terminal modes can be
       set up without duplicating strings by putting the common	 sequences  in
       is2 and special cases in is1 and is3.

       A  set  of  sequences  that  does a harder reset from a totally unknown
       state can be given as rs1, rs2, rf and rs3, analogous to is1 , is2 , if
       and  is3	 respectively.	These strings are output by the reset program,
       which is used when the terminal gets into a wedged state.  Commands are
       normally	 placed	 in  rs1, rs2 rs3 and rf only if they produce annoying
       effects on the screen and are not necessary when logging in.  For exam‐
       ple, the command to set the vt100 into 80-column mode would normally be
       part of is2, but it causes an annoying glitch of the screen and is  not
       normally	 needed	 since	the  terminal  is usually already in 80 column

       The reset program writes strings including iprog,  etc.,	 in  the  same
       order  as  the  init program, using rs1, etc., instead of is1, etc.  If
       any of rs1, rs2, rs3, or rf reset capability strings are	 missing,  the
       reset program falls back upon the corresponding initialization capabil‐
       ity string.

       If there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can be given  as
       tbc (clear all tab stops) and hts (set a tab stop in the current column
       of every row).  If a more complex sequence is needed to	set  the  tabs
       than can be described by this, the sequence can be placed in is2 or if.

   Delays and Padding
       Many  older  and slower terminals do not support either XON/XOFF or DTR
       handshaking, including hard copy terminals and some very	 archaic  CRTs
       (including,  for example, DEC VT100s).  These may require padding char‐
       acters after certain cursor motions and screen changes.

       If the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow control (that is, it
       automatically  emits  ^S	 back  to  the host when its input buffers are
       close to full), set xon.	 This capability suppresses  the  emission  of
       padding.	  You can also set it for memory-mapped console devices effec‐
       tively that do not have a  speed	 limit.	  Padding  information	should
       still be included so that routines can make better decisions about rel‐
       ative costs, but actual pad characters will not be transmitted.

       If pb (padding baud rate) is given, padding is suppressed at baud rates
       below  the  value  of  pb.  If the entry has no padding baud rate, then
       whether padding is emitted or not is completely controlled by xon.

       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as  a  pad,
       then  this  can	be  given as pad.  Only the first character of the pad
       string is used.

   Status Lines
       Some terminals have an extra `status line' which is not	normally  used
       by software (and thus not counted in the terminal's lines capability).

       The  simplest case is a status line which is cursor-addressable but not
       part of the main scrolling region on the screen; the Heathkit H19 has a
       status  line  of	 this  kind,  as  would a 24-line VT100 with a 23-line
       scrolling region set up on initialization.  This situation is indicated
       by the hs capability.

       Some  terminals	with status lines need special sequences to access the
       status line.  These may be expressed as a string with single  parameter
       tsl  which takes the cursor to a given zero-origin column on the status
       line.  The capability fsl must return to the main-screen	 cursor	 posi‐
       tions  before the last tsl.  You may need to embed the string values of
       sc (save cursor) and rc (restore cursor) in tsl and fsl	to  accomplish

       The  status  line is normally assumed to be the same width as the width
       of the terminal.	 If this is  untrue,  you  can	specify	 it  with  the
       numeric capability wsl.

       A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified as dsl.

       The  boolean  capability	 eslok	specifies that escape sequences, tabs,
       etc., work ordinarily in the status line.

       The ncurses implementation does not yet use any of these	 capabilities.
       They are documented here in case they ever become important.

   Line Graphics
       Many  terminals have alternate character sets useful for forms-drawing.
       Terminfo and curses build in support for the  drawing  characters  sup‐
       ported  by  the VT100, with some characters from the AT&T 4410v1 added.
       This alternate character set may be specified by the acsc capability.

       The best way to define a new device's graphics set is to add  a	column
       to  a  copy of this table for your terminal, giving the character which
       (when emitted between smacs/rmacs switches) will	 be  rendered  as  the
       corresponding graphic.  Then read off the VT100/your terminal character
       pairs right to left in sequence; these become the ACSC string.

   Color Handling
       Most color terminals are either `Tektronix-like'	 or  `HP-like'.	  Tek‐
       tronix-like  terminals  have a predefined set of N colors (where N usu‐
       ally 8), and can set character-cell foreground and  background  charac‐
       ters  independently,  mixing  them  into N * N color-pairs.  On HP-like
       terminals, the use must set each color pair up  separately  (foreground
       and  background	are  not independently settable).  Up to M color-pairs
       may be set up from 2*M different colors.	 ANSI-compatible terminals are

       Some basic color capabilities are independent of the color method.  The
       numeric capabilities colors and pairs specify the  maximum  numbers  of
       colors  and  color-pairs	 that can be displayed simultaneously.	The op
       (original pair) string resets foreground and background colors to their
       default	values	for  the terminal.  The oc string resets all colors or
       color-pairs to their default values for the terminal.   Some  terminals
       (including many PC terminal emulators) erase screen areas with the cur‐
       rent background color rather  than  the	power-up  default  background;
       these should have the boolean capability bce.

       To  change  the	current foreground or background color on a Tektronix-
       type terminal, use setaf (set ANSI  foreground)	and  setab  (set  ANSI
       background)  or setf (set foreground) and setb (set background).	 These
       take one parameter, the color number.  The SVr4 documentation describes
       only  setaf/setab;  the	XPG4 draft says that "If the terminal supports
       ANSI escape sequences to set background and foreground, they should  be
       coded as setaf and setab, respectively.	If the terminal supports other
       escape sequences to set background and foreground, they should be coded
       as setf and setb, respectively.	The vidputs() function and the refresh
       functions use setaf and setab if they are defined."

       The setaf/setab and setf/setb capabilities take a single numeric	 argu‐
       ment  each.  Argument values 0-7 of setaf/setab are portably defined as
       follows (the middle column is the symbolic  #define  available  in  the
       header  for the curses or ncurses libraries).  The terminal hardware is
       free to map these as it likes, but the RGB values indicate normal loca‐
       tions in color space.

       The argument values of setf/setb historically correspond to a different
       mapping, i.e.,

       It is important to not confuse the two sets of color capabilities; oth‐
       erwise red/blue will be interchanged on the display.

       On  an  HP-like terminal, use scp with a color-pair number parameter to
       set which color pair is current.

       On a Tektronix-like terminal, the capability  ccc  may  be  present  to
       indicate that colors can be modified.  If so, the initc capability will
       take a color number (0 to colors - 1)and three  more  parameters	 which
       describe	 the  color.   These  three parameters default to being inter‐
       preted as RGB (Red, Green, Blue) values.	 If the boolean capability hls
       is  present,  they  are	instead	 as  HLS  (Hue, Lightness, Saturation)
       indices.	 The ranges are terminal-dependent.

       On an HP-like terminal, initp may give  a  capability  for  changing  a
       color-pair  value.   It will take seven parameters; a color-pair number
       (0 to max_pairs - 1), and two triples describing first  background  and
       then foreground colors.	These parameters must be (Red, Green, Blue) or
       (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) depending on hls.

       On some color terminals, colors collide with highlights.	 You can  reg‐
       ister  these collisions with the ncv capability.	 This is a bit-mask of
       attributes not to be used when colors are enabled.  The	correspondence
       with the attributes understood by curses is as follows:

       For  example, on many IBM PC consoles, the underline attribute collides
       with the foreground color blue and is  not  available  in  color	 mode.
       These should have an ncv capability of 2.

       SVr4  curses does nothing with ncv, ncurses recognizes it and optimizes
       the output in favor of colors.

       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as  a  pad,
       then  this  can	be  given as pad.  Only the first character of the pad
       string is used.	If the terminal does not have a pad character, specify
       npc.   Note that ncurses implements the termcap-compatible PC variable;
       though the application may set this value to  something	other  than  a
       null,  ncurses will test npc first and use napms if the terminal has no
       pad character.

       If the terminal can move up or down half a line, this can be  indicated
       with hu (half-line up) and hd (half-line down).	This is primarily use‐
       ful for superscripts and subscripts on hard-copy terminals.  If a hard-
       copy  terminal  can eject to the next page (form feed), give this as ff
       (usually control L).

       If there is a command to repeat a given character  a  given  number  of
       times  (to  save	 time transmitting a large number of identical charac‐
       ters) this can be indicated with the  parameterized  string  rep.   The
       first  parameter	 is the character to be repeated and the second is the
       number of times to repeat it.  Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10) is the
       same as `xxxxxxxxxx'.

       If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the TEKTRONIX
       4025, this can be indicated with cmdch.	A prototype command  character
       is  chosen  which is used in all capabilities.  This character is given
       in the cmdch capability to identify it.	The  following	convention  is
       supported on some UNIX systems: The environment is to be searched for a
       CC variable, and if found, all occurrences of the  prototype  character
       are replaced with the character in the environment variable.

       Terminal	 descriptions  that  do not represent a specific kind of known
       terminal, such as switch, dialup, patch, and  network,  should  include
       the  gn (generic) capability so that programs can complain that they do
       not know how to talk to the terminal.  (This capability does not	 apply
       to  virtual  terminal  descriptions  for which the escape sequences are

       If the terminal has a ``meta key'' which acts as a shift	 key,  setting
       the  8th	 bit  of any character transmitted, this fact can be indicated
       with km.	 Otherwise, software will assume that the 8th  bit  is	parity
       and  it	will usually be cleared.  If strings exist to turn this ``meta
       mode'' on and off, they can be given as smm and rmm.

       If the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on the screen at
       once,  the number of lines of memory can be indicated with lm.  A value
       of lm#0 indicates that the number of lines is not fixed, but that there
       is still more memory than fits on the screen.

       If  the terminal is one of those supported by the UNIX virtual terminal
       protocol, the terminal number can be given as vt.

       Media copy strings which control an auxiliary printer connected to  the
       terminal	 can  be  given as mc0: print the contents of the screen, mc4:
       turn off the printer, and mc5: turn on the printer.  When  the  printer
       is  on,	all text sent to the terminal will be sent to the printer.  It
       is undefined whether the text is also displayed on the terminal	screen
       when  the  printer  is  on.   A variation mc5p takes one parameter, and
       leaves the printer on for as many characters as the value of the param‐
       eter, then turns the printer off.  The parameter should not exceed 255.
       All text, including mc4, is transparently passed to the	printer	 while
       an mc5p is in effect.

   Glitches and Braindamage
       Hazeltine  terminals, which do not allow `~' characters to be displayed
       should indicate hz.

       Terminals which ignore a line-feed immediately after an am  wrap,  such
       as the Concept and vt100, should indicate xenl.

       If  el  is  required  to get rid of standout (instead of merely writing
       normal text on top of it), xhp should be given.

       Teleray terminals, where tabs turn all characters moved over to blanks,
       should  indicate	 xt (destructive tabs).	 Note: the variable indicating
       this is now `dest_tabs_magic_smso'; in  older  versions,	 it  was  tel‐
       eray_glitch.  This glitch is also taken to mean that it is not possible
       to position the cursor on top of a  ``magic  cookie'',  that  to	 erase
       standout	 mode  it  is instead necessary to use delete and insert line.
       The ncurses implementation ignores this glitch.

       The Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly transmit the	escape
       or  control  C  characters, has xsb, indicating that the f1 key is used
       for escape and f2 for control C.	 (Only	certain	 Superbees  have  this
       problem,	 depending on the ROM.)	 Note that in older terminfo versions,
       this capability was called `beehive_glitch'; it is now `no_esc_ctl_c'.

       Other specific terminal problems may be corrected by adding more	 capa‐
       bilities of the form xx.

   Similar Terminals
       If  there  are  two  very  similar  terminals, one (the variant) can be
       defined as being just like the other (the  base)	 with  certain	excep‐
       tions.  In the definition of the variant, the string capability use can
       be given with the name of the base terminal.   The  capabilities	 given
       before  use override those in the base type named by use.  If there are
       multiple use capabilities, they are merged in reverse order.  That  is,
       the  rightmost  use  reference  is processed first, then the one to its
       left, and so forth.  Capabilities given explicitly in the  entry	 over‐
       ride those brought in by use references.

       A capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the left of the use ref‐
       erence that imports it, where xx is the capability.  For	 example,  the

	    2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,

       defines a 2621-nl that does not have the smkx or rmkx capabilities, and
       hence does not turn on the function key labels  when  in	 visual	 mode.
       This  is	 useful	 for  different modes for a terminal, or for different
       user preferences.

   Pitfalls of Long Entries
       Long terminfo entries are unlikely to be a problem; to date,  no	 entry
       has  even approached terminfo's 4096-byte string-table maximum.	Unfor‐
       tunately, the termcap translations are much more strictly  limited  (to
       1023  bytes),  thus  termcap  translations of long terminfo entries can
       cause problems.

       The man pages for 4.3BSD and older versions of tgetent()	 instruct  the
       user  to	 allocate a 1024-byte buffer for the termcap entry.  The entry
       gets null-terminated by the termcap library, so that makes the  maximum
       safe  length  for a termcap entry 1k-1 (1023) bytes.  Depending on what
       the application and the termcap library being used does, and  where  in
       the  termcap file the terminal type that tgetent() is searching for is,
       several bad things can happen.

       Some termcap libraries print a warning message or exit if they find  an
       entry that's longer than 1023 bytes; others do not; others truncate the
       entries to 1023 bytes.  Some application programs  allocate  more  than
       the recommended 1K for the termcap entry; others do not.

       Each  termcap  entry has two important sizes associated with it: before
       "tc" expansion, and after "tc" expansion.  "tc" is the capability  that
       tacks on another termcap entry to the end of the current one, to add on
       its capabilities.  If a termcap entry does not use the "tc" capability,
       then of course the two lengths are the same.

       The  "before tc expansion" length is the most important one, because it
       affects more than just users of that particular terminal.  This is  the
       length  of the entry as it exists in /etc/termcap, minus the backslash-
       newline pairs, which tgetent() strips out while reading it.  Some term‐
       cap  libraries strip off the final newline, too (GNU termcap does not).
       Now suppose:

       *    a termcap entry before expansion is more than 1023 bytes long,

       *    and the application has only allocated a 1k buffer,

       *    and the termcap library (like the one in BSD/OS 1.1 and GNU) reads
	    the whole entry into the buffer, no matter what its length, to see
	    if it is the entry it wants,

       *    and tgetent() is searching for a terminal type that either is  the
	    long  entry,  appears in the termcap file after the long entry, or
	    does not appear in the file at  all	 (so  that  tgetent()  has  to
	    search the whole termcap file).

       Then  tgetent()	will overwrite memory, perhaps its stack, and probably
       core dump the program.  Programs like telnet are particularly  vulnera‐
       ble;  modern telnets pass along values like the terminal type automati‐
       cally.  The results are almost as undesirable with a  termcap  library,
       like  SunOS  4.1.3 and Ultrix 4.4, that prints warning messages when it
       reads an overly long termcap entry.  If	a  termcap  library  truncates
       long  entries,  like  OSF/1  3.0,  it  is immune to dying here but will
       return incorrect data for the terminal.

       The "after tc expansion" length will  have  a  similar  effect  to  the
       above, but only for people who actually set TERM to that terminal type,
       since tgetent() only does "tc" expansion once it is found the  terminal
       type it was looking for, not while searching.

       In  summary,  a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes can cause,
       on various combinations of termcap libraries and applications,  a  core
       dump,  warnings, or incorrect operation.	 If it is too long even before
       "tc" expansion, it will have this effect even for users of  some	 other
       terminal	 types	and  users whose TERM variable does not have a termcap

       When in -C (translate to termcap) mode, the ncurses  implementation  of
       tic(1M)	issues	warning	 messages  when the pre-tc length of a termcap
       translation is too long.	 The -c (check) option	also  checks  resolved
       (after tc expansion) lengths.

   Binary Compatibility
       It  is  not  wise  to  count  on portability of binary terminfo entries
       between commercial UNIX versions.  The problem is  that	there  are  at
       least  two  versions  of	 terminfo (under HP-UX and AIX) which diverged
       from System V terminfo after SVr1, and have added  extension  capabili‐
       ties  to the string table that (in the binary format) collide with Sys‐
       tem V and XSI Curses extensions.

       Some SVr4 curses implementations, and all  previous  to	SVr4,  do  not
       interpret the %A and %O operators in parameter strings.

       SVr4/XPG4  do  not  specify  whether msgr licenses movement while in an
       alternate-character-set mode (such modes may, among other  things,  map
       CR  and	NL  to	characters  that  do  not trigger local motions).  The
       ncurses implementation ignores msgr in ALTCHARSET  mode.	  This	raises
       the  possibility that an XPG4 implementation making the opposite inter‐
       pretation may need terminfo entries  made  for  ncurses	to  have  msgr
       turned off.

       The ncurses library handles insert-character and insert-character modes
       in a slightly non-standard way to get better  update  efficiency.   See
       the Insert/Delete Character subsection above.

       The  parameter  substitutions  for  set_clock and display_clock are not
       documented in SVr4 or the XSI Curses standard.  They are	 deduced  from
       the documentation for the AT&T 505 terminal.

       Be careful assigning the kmous capability.  The ncurses wants to inter‐
       pret it as KEY_MOUSE, for use by terminals  and	emulators  like	 xterm
       that  can  return  mouse-tracking  information  in  the	keyboard-input

       Different commercial ports of terminfo  and  curses  support  different
       subsets of the XSI Curses standard and (in some cases) different exten‐
       sion sets.  Here is a summary, accurate as of October 1995:

       SVR4, Solaris, ncurses -- These support all SVr4 capabilities.

       SGI -- Supports the SVr4 set, adds  one	undocumented  extended	string
       capability (set_pglen).

       SVr1, Ultrix -- These support a restricted subset of terminfo capabili‐
       ties.  The booleans end with xon_xoff;  the  numerics  with  width_sta‐
       tus_line; and the strings with prtr_non.

       HP/UX   --  Supports  the  SVr1	subset,	 plus  the  SVr[234]  numerics
       num_labels, label_height, label_width, plus function  keys  11  through
       63,  plus  plab_norm,  label_on,	 and label_off, plus some incompatible
       extensions in the string table.

       AIX -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus function keys 11 through 63, plus
       a number of incompatible string table extensions.

       OSF -- Supports both the SVr4 set and the AIX extensions.

				files containing terminal descriptions

       tic(1M), infocmp(1M), curses(3X), printf(3), term(5).

       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
       by Pavel Curtis.

                             _         _         _ 
                            | |       | |       | |     
                            | |       | |       | |     
                         __ | | __ __ | | __ __ | | __  
                         \ \| |/ / \ \| |/ / \ \| |/ /  
                          \ \ / /   \ \ / /   \ \ / /   
                           \   /     \   /     \   /    
                            \_/       \_/       \_/ 
More information is available in HTML format for server QNX

List of man pages available for QNX

Copyright (c) for man pages and the logo by the respective OS vendor.

For those who want to learn more, the polarhome community provides shell access and support.

[legal] [privacy] [GNU] [policy] [cookies] [netiquette] [sponsors] [FAQ]
Polarhome, production since 1999.
Member of Polarhome portal.
Based on Fawad Halim's script.
Vote for polarhome
Free Shell Accounts :: the biggest list on the net