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TOP(1)			      User Commands			   TOP(1)

NAME
       top - display Linux processes

SYNOPSIS
       top -hv|-bcHiOSs -d secs -n max -u|U user -p pid -o fld -w [cols]

       The traditional switches '-' and whitespace are optional.

DESCRIPTION
       The  top	 program  provides  a dynamic real-time view of a running
       system.	It can display system summary information as  well  as	a
       list  of processes or threads currently being managed by the Linux
       kernel.	The types of system summary  information  shown	 and  the
       types,  order  and size of information displayed for processes are
       all user configurable and that configuration can be  made  persis‐
       tent across restarts.

       The  program  provides a limited interactive interface for process
       manipulation as well as a much more extensive interface	for  per‐
       sonal  configuration   --  encompassing every aspect of its opera‐
       tion.  And while top is referred to throughout this document,  you
       are  free  to  name the program anything you wish.  That new name,
       possibly an alias, will then be reflected  on  top's  display  and
       used when reading and writing a configuration file.

OVERVIEW
   Documentation
       The remaining Table of Contents

	   1. COMMAND-LINE Options
	   2. SUMMARY Display
	      a. UPTIME and LOAD Averages
	      b. TASK and CPU States
	      c. MEMORY Usage
	   3. FIELDS / Columns Display
	      a. DESCRIPTIONS of Fields
	      b. MANAGING Fields
	   4. INTERACTIVE Commands
	      a. GLOBAL Commands
	      b. SUMMARY AREA Commands
	      c. TASK AREA Commands
		 1. Appearance
		 2. Content
		 3. Size
		 4. Sorting
	      d. COLOR Mapping
	   5. ALTERNATE-DISPLAY Provisions
	      a. WINDOWS Overview
	      b. COMMANDS for Windows
	      c. SCROLLING a Window
	      d. SEARCHING in a Window
	      e. FILTERING in a Window
	   6. FILES
	      a. SYSTEM Configuration File
	      b. PERSONAL Configuration File
	      c. ADDING INSPECT Entries
	   7. STUPID TRICKS Sampler
	      a. Kernel Magic
	      b. Bouncing Windows
	      c. The Big Bird Window
	      d. The Ol' Switcheroo
	   8. BUGS, 9. HISTORY Former top, 10. AUTHOR, 11. SEE Also

   Operation
       When  operating top, the two most important keys are the help ('h'
       or '?')	key and quit ('q') key.	 Alternatively, you could  simply
       use the traditional interrupt key ('^C') when you're done.

       When  started  for  the first time, you'll be presented with these
       traditional elements on the main top screen: 1) Summary	Area;  2)
       Fields/Columns  Header;	3)  Task  Area.	  Each	of  these will be
       explored in the sections that follow.  There is also an Input/Mes‐
       sage  line between the Summary Area and Columns Header which needs
       no further explanation.

       The main top screen is generally quite adaptive to changes in ter‐
       minal  dimensions  under X-Windows.  Other top screens may be less
       so, especially those with static	 text.	 It  ultimately	 depends,
       however,	 on your particular window manager and terminal emulator.
       There may be occasions when their view of terminal size	and  cur‐
       rent  contents  differs	from top's view, which is always based on
       operating system calls.

       Following any re-size operation, if a  top  screen  is  corrupted,
       appears	incomplete or disordered, simply typing something innocu‐
       ous like a punctuation character or cursor motion key will usually
       restore	it.  In extreme cases, the following sequence almost cer‐
       tainly will:
	      key/cmd  objective
	      ^Z       suspend top
	      fg       resume top
	      <Left>   force a screen redraw (if necessary)

       But if the display is still corrupted, there is one more step  you
       could  try.   Insert this command after top has been suspended but
       before resuming it.
	      key/cmd  objective
	      reset    restore your terminal settings

       Note: the width of top's display will be limited to 512 positions.
       Displaying  all	fields	requires  approximately	 250  characters.
       Remaining screen width is usually allocated to any variable  width
       columns	currently  visible.   The variable width columns, such as
       COMMAND, are noted in topic 3a. DESCRIPTIONS  of	 Fields.   Actual
       output  width  may  also	 be influenced by the -w switch, which is
       discussed in topic 1. COMMAND-LINE Options.

       Lastly, some of top's screens or functions require the use of cur‐
       sor  motion  keys like the standard arrow keys plus the Home, End,
       PgUp and PgDn keys.  If your terminal or emulator does not provide
       those  keys,  the  following combinations are accepted as alterna‐
       tives:
	      key      equivalent-key-combinations
	      Up       alt + \	    or	alt + k
	      Down     alt + /	    or	alt + j
	      Left     alt + <	    or	alt + h
	      Right    alt + >	    or	alt + l (lower case L)
	      PgUp     alt + Up	    or	alt + ctrl + k
	      PgDn     alt + Down   or	alt + ctrl + j
	      Home     alt + Left   or	alt + ctrl + h
	      End      alt + Right  or	alt + ctrl + l

       The Up and Down arrow keys have special significance when prompted
       for  line  input	 terminated with the <Enter> key.  Those keys, or
       their aliases, can be used to retrieve previous input lines  which
       can  then  be  edited and re-input.  And there are four additional
       keys available with line oriented input.
	      key      special-significance
	      Up       recall older strings for re-editing
	      Down     recall newer strings or erase entire line
	      Insert   toggle between insert and overtype modes
	      Delete   character removed at cursor, moving others left
	      Home     jump to beginning of input line
	      End      jump to end of input line

   Startup Defaults
       The following startup defaults assume no configuration file,  thus
       no  user	 customizations.   Even	 so, items shown with an asterisk
       (´*´) could be  overridden  through  the	 command-line.	 All  are
       explained in detail in the sections that follow.

	   Global-defaults
	      'A' - Alt display	     Off (full-screen)
	    * 'd' - Delay time	     3.0 seconds
	    * 'H' - Threads mode     Off (summarize as tasks)
	      'I' - Irix mode	     On	 (no, 'solaris' smp)
	    * 'p' - PID monitoring   Off (show all processes)
	    * 's' - Secure mode	     Off (unsecured)
	      'B' - Bold enable	     On	 (yes, bold globally)
	   Summary-Area-defaults
	      'l' - Load Avg/Uptime  On	 (thus program name)
	      't' - Task/Cpu states  On	 (1+1 lines, see '1')
	      'm' - Mem/Swap usage   On	 (2 lines worth)
	      '1' - Single Cpu	     On	 (thus 1 line if smp)
	   Task-Area-defaults
	      'b' - Bold hilite	     On	 (not 'reverse')
	    * 'c' - Command line     Off (name, not cmdline)
	    * 'i' - Idle tasks	     On	 (show all tasks)
	      'J' - Num align right  On	 (not left justify)
	      'j' - Str align right  Off (not right justify)
	      'R' - Reverse sort     On	 (pids high-to-low)
	    * 'S' - Cumulative time  Off (no, dead children)
	    * 'u' - User filter	     Off (show euid only)
	    * 'U' - User filter	     Off (show any uid)
	      'x' - Column hilite    Off (no, sort field)
	      'y' - Row hilite	     On	 (yes, running tasks)
	      'z' - color/mono	     Off (no, colors)

1. COMMAND-LINE Options
       The command-line syntax for top consists of:

	 -hv|-bcHiOSs -d secs -n max -u|U user -p pid -o fld -w [cols]

       The  typically  mandatory  switches  ('-') and even whitespace are
       completely optional.

       -h | -v	:Help/Version
	    Show library version and the usage prompt, then quit.

       -b  :Batch-mode operation
	    Starts top in 'Batch' mode, which could be useful for sending
	    output  from  top  to  other  programs or to a file.  In this
	    mode, top will not accept input and runs until the iterations
	    limit  you've  set with the '-n' command-line option or until
	    killed.

       -c  :Command-line/Program-name toggle
	    Starts top with  the  last	remembered  'c'	 state	reversed.
	    Thus,  if  top  was	 displaying command lines, now that field
	    will show program names, and visa versa.  See the 'c'  inter‐
	    active command for additional information.

       -d  :Delay-time interval as:  -d ss.t (secs.tenths)
	    Specifies the delay between screen updates, and overrides the
	    corresponding value in one's personal configuration	 file  or
	    the	 startup default.  Later this can be changed with the 'd'
	    or 's' interactive commands.

	    Fractional seconds are honored, but a negative number is  not
	    allowed.   In all cases, however, such changes are prohibited
	    if top is running in 'Secure mode', except for  root  (unless
	    the 's' command-line option was used).  For additional infor‐
	    mation on 'Secure mode' see topic  6a.  SYSTEM  Configuration
	    File.

       -H  :Threads-mode operation
	    Instructs  top  to	display individual threads.  Without this
	    command-line option	 a  summation  of  all	threads	 in  each
	    process  is	 shown.	  Later	 this can be changed with the 'H'
	    interactive command.

       -i  :Idle-process toggle
	    Starts top with the last remembered 'i' state reversed.  When
	    this  toggle  is  Off, tasks that have not used any CPU since
	    the last update will not be displayed.  For additional infor‐
	    mation  regarding  this  toggle  see topic 4c. TASK AREA Com‐
	    mands, SIZE.

       -n  :Number-of-iterations limit as:  -n number
	    Specifies the maximum number of iterations,	 or  frames,  top
	    should produce before ending.

       -o  :Override-sort-field as:  -o fieldname
	    Specifies  the  name  of  the  field  on  which tasks will be
	    sorted, independent of what is reflected in the configuration
	    file.  You can prepend a '+' or '-' to the field name to also
	    override the sort direction.  A leading '+' will force  sort‐
	    ing	 high  to  low,	 whereas  a '-' will ensure a low to high
	    ordering.

	    This option exists primarily  to  support  automated/scripted
	    batch mode operation.

       -O  :Output-field-names
	    This  option  acts as a form of help for the above -o option.
	    It will cause top to print each of the available field  names
	    on a separate line, then quit.  Such names are subject to nls
	    translation.

       -p  :Monitor-PIDs mode as:  -pN1 -pN2 ...  or  -pN1,N2,N3 ...
	    Monitor only processes  with  specified  process  IDs.   This
	    option  can	 be  given  up	to 20 times, or you can provide a
	    comma delimited list with up to 20	pids.	Co-mingling  both
	    approaches is permitted.

	    A  pid value of zero will be treated as the process id of the
	    top program itself once it is running.

	    This is a command-line option only and  should  you	 wish  to
	    return  to	normal operation, it is not necessary to quit and
	    and restart top  --	 just issue any of these interactive com‐
	    mands: '=', 'u' or 'U'.

	    The 'p', 'u' and 'U' command-line options are mutually exclu‐
	    sive.

       -s  :Secure-mode operation
	    Starts top with secure mode forced, even for root.	This mode
	    is	far  better  controlled	 through the system configuration
	    file (see topic 6. FILES).

       -S  :Cumulative-time toggle
	    Starts top with the last remembered 'S' state reversed.  When
	    'Cumulative time' mode is On, each process is listed with the
	    cpu time that it and its dead children have	 used.	 See  the
	    'S'	 interactive command for additional information regarding
	    this mode.

       -u | -U	:User-filter-mode as:  -u | -U number or name
	    Display only processes with a user id or user  name	 matching
	    that  given.   The	'-u'  option  matches  on  effective user
	    whereas the '-U' option matches on any user (real, effective,
	    saved, or filesystem).

	    Prepending	an exclamation point ('!') to the user id or name
	    instucts top to display only processes with users not  match‐
	    ing the one provided.

	    The 'p', 'u' and 'U' command-line options are mutually exclu‐
	    sive.

       -w  :Output-width-override as:  -w [ number ]
	    In 'Batch' mode, when used without an argument top will  for‐
	    mat	 output	 using	the COLUMNS= and LINES= environment vari‐
	    ables, if set.  Otherwise, width will be fixed at the maximum
	    512 columns.  With an argument, output width can be decreased
	    or increased (up to 512) but the number of rows is considered
	    unlimited.

	    In	normal	display	 mode,	when used without an argument top
	    will attempt to format output using the COLUMNS=  and  LINES=
	    environment	 variables,  if	 set.	With  an argument, output
	    width can only be decreased, not  increased.   Whether  using
	    environment	 variables  or	an  argument with -w, when not in
	    'Batch'  mode  actual  terminal  dimensions	 can   never   be
	    exceeded.

	    Note:  Without  the	 use  of this command-line option, output
	    width is always based  on  the  terminal  at  which	 top  was
	    invoked whether or not in 'Batch' mode.

2. SUMMARY Display
       Each  of	 the  following	 three	areas are individually controlled
       through one or more interactive commands.  See topic  4b.  SUMMARY
       AREA  Commands  for  additional information regarding these provi‐
       sions.

   2a. UPTIME and LOAD Averages
       This portion consists of a single line containing:
	   program or window name, depending on display mode
	   current time and length of time since last boot
	   total number of users
	   system load avg over the last 1, 5 and 15 minutes

   2b. TASK and CPU States
       This portion consists of a minimum of two lines.	 In an SMP  envi‐
       ronment,	 additional  lines  can reflect individual CPU state per‐
       centages.

       Line 1 shows total tasks or threads, depending on the state of the
       Threads-mode toggle.  That total is further classified as:
	   running; sleeping; stopped; zombie

       Line 2 shows CPU state percentages based on the interval since the
       last refresh.  Where two labels are shown below,	 those	for  more
       recent kernel versions are shown first.
	   us, user    : time running un-niced user processes
	   sy, system  : time running kernel processes
	   ni, nice    : time running niced user processes
	   wa, IO-wait : time waiting for I/O completion
	   hi : time spent servicing hardware interrupts
	   si : time spent servicing software interrupts
	   st : time stolen from this vm by the hypervisor

   2c. MEMORY Usage
       This  portion  consists	of  two lines which may express values in
       kibibytes (KiB) through exbibytes (EiB) depending on  the  scaling
       factor enforced with the 'E' interactive command.

       Line 1 reflects physical memory, classified as:
	   total, used, free and buffers

       Line 2 reflects mostly virtual memory, classified as:
	   total, used, free and cached (which is physical memory)

       This table may help in interpreting the scaled values displayed:
	   KiB = kibibyte = 1024 bytes
	   MiB = mebibyte = 1024 KiB = 1,048,576 bytes
	   GiB = gibibyte = 1024 MiB = 1,073,741,824 bytes
	   TiB = tebibyte = 1024 GiB = 1,099,511,627,776 bytes
	   PiB = pebibyte = 1024 TiB = 1,125,899,906,842,624 bytes
	   EiB = exbibyte = 1024 PiB = 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes

3. FIELDS / Columns
   3a. DESCRIPTIONS of Fields
       Listed  below  are top's available process fields (columns).  They
       are shown in strict ascii alphabetical order.  You  may	customize
       their  position	and  whether or not they are displayable with the
       'f' or 'F' (Fields Management) interactive commands.

       Any field is selectable as the sort field, and you control whether
       they are sorted high-to-low or low-to-high.  For additional infor‐
       mation on sort provisions see topic 4c. TASK AREA Commands,  SORT‐
       ING.

       The  fields related to physical memory or virtual memory reference
       '(KiB)' as the default, unsuffixed display mode.	 Such fields can,
       however, be scaled differently via the 'e' interactive command.

	1. %CPU	 --  CPU Usage
	   The task's share of the elapsed CPU time since the last screen
	   update, expressed as a percentage of total CPU time.

	   In a true SMP environment, if a process is multi-threaded  and
	   top	is  not	 operating  in Threads mode, amounts greater than
	   100% may be reported.  You toggle Threads mode  with	 the  'H'
	   interactive command.

	   Also	 for multi-processor environments, if 'Irix mode' is Off,
	   top will operate in 'Solaris mode' where a  task's  cpu  usage
	   will	 be  divided  by  the  total  number of CPUs.  You toggle
	   'Irix/Solaris' modes with the 'I' interactive command.

	2. %MEM	 --  Memory Usage (RES)
	   A task's currently used share of available physical memory.

	3. CGROUPS  --	Control Groups
	   The names of the control group(s) to which a process	 belongs,
	   or '-' if not applicable for that process.

	   Control  Groups provide for allocating resources (cpu, memory,
	   network bandwidth, etc.) among installation-defined groups  of
	   processes.	They enable fine-grained control over allocating,
	   denying,   prioritizing,   managing	 and   monitoring   those
	   resources.

	   Many different hierarchies of cgroups can exist simultaneously
	   on a system and each hierarchy is attached to one or more sub‐
	   systems.  A subsystem represents a single resource.

	   Note:  The 'CGROUPS' field, unlike most columns, is not fixed-
	   width.  When displayed, it plus any other variable width  col‐
	   umns	 will  be allocated all remaining screen width (up to the
	   maximum 512 characters).  Even so, such variable width  fields
	   could still suffer truncation.  See topic 5c. SCROLLING a Win‐
	   dow for additional  information  on	accessing  any	truncated
	   data.

	4. CODE	 --  Code Size (KiB)
	   The amount of physical memory devoted to executable code, also
	   known as the 'text resident set' size or TRS.

	5. COMMAND  --	Command Name or Command Line
	   Display the command line used to start a task or the	 name  of
	   the	associated  program.  You toggle between command line and
	   name with 'c', which is both	 a  command-line  option  and  an
	   interactive command.

	   When you've chosen to display command lines, processes without
	   a command line (like kernel threads) will be shown  with  only
	   the program name in brackets, as in this example:
	       [kthreadd]

	   This	 field	may also be impacted by the 'forest view' display
	   mode.  See the 'V' interactive command for additional informa‐
	   tion regarding that mode.

	   Note:  The 'COMMAND' field, unlike most columns, is not fixed-
	   width.  When displayed, it plus any other variable width  col‐
	   umns	 will  be allocated all remaining screen width (up to the
	   maximum 512 characters).  Even so, such variable width  fields
	   could  still	 suffer	 truncation.  This is especially true for
	   this field when command lines are  being  displayed	(the  'c'
	   interactive	command.)   See	 topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window for
	   additional information on accessing any truncated data.

	6. DATA	 --  Data + Stack Size (KiB)
	   The amount of physical memory devoted to other than executable
	   code, also known as the 'data resident set' size or DRS.

	7. ENVIRON  --	Environment variables
	   Display  all	 of the environment variables, if any, as seen by
	   the respective processes.  These variables will  be	displayed
	   in their raw native order, not the sorted order you are accus‐
	   tomed to seeing with an unqualified 'set'.

	   Note: The 'ENVIRON' field, unlike most columns, is not  fixed-
	   width.   When displayed, it plus any other variable width col‐
	   umns will be allocated all remaining screen width (up  to  the
	   maximum  512 characters).  Even so, such variable width fields
	   could still suffer truncation.  This is  especially	true  for
	   this	 field.	  See topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window for additional
	   information on accessing any truncated data.

	8. Flags  --  Task Flags
	   This column represents the  task's  current	scheduling  flags
	   which  are  expressed  in  hexadecimal notation and with zeros
	   suppressed.	 These	flags  are   officially	  documented   in
	   <linux/sched.h>.

	9. GID	--  Group Id
	   The effective group ID.

       10. GROUP  --  Group Name
	   The effective group name.

       11. NI  --  Nice Value
	   The	nice  value  of	 the  task.   A negative nice value means
	   higher priority, whereas a positive	nice  value  means  lower
	   priority.   Zero  in this field simply means priority will not
	   be adjusted in determining a task's dispatch-ability.

       12. P  --  Last used CPU (SMP)
	   A number representing the last used processor.  In a true  SMP
	   environment	this will likely change frequently since the ker‐
	   nel intentionally uses weak affinity.  Also, the very  act  of
	   running  top	 may break this weak affinity and cause more pro‐
	   cesses to change CPUs more often (because of the extra  demand
	   for cpu time).

       13. PGRP	 --  Process Group Id
	   Every  process  is  member  of a unique process group which is
	   used for distribution of signals and by terminals to arbitrate
	   requests  for  their input and output.  When a process is cre‐
	   ated (forked), it becomes a member of the process group of its
	   parent.   By convention, this value equals the process ID (see
	   PID) of the first  member  of  a  process  group,  called  the
	   process group leader.

       14. PID	--  Process Id
	   The task's unique process ID, which periodically wraps, though
	   never restarting at zero.  In kernel terms, it is a	dispatch‐
	   able entity defined by a 'task_struct'.

	   This value may also be used as: a process group ID (see PGRP);
	   a session ID for the session leader (see SID); a thread  group
	   ID  for  the thread group leader (see TGID); and a TTY process
	   group ID for the process group leader (see TPGID).

       15. PPID	 --  Parent Process Id
	   The process ID (pid) of a task's parent.

       16. PR  --  Priority
	   The scheduling priority of the task.	 If you see 'rt' in  this
	   field, it means the task is running under 'real time' schedul‐
	   ing priority.

	   Under linux, real time priority is somewhat	misleading  since
	   traditionally  the  operating itself was not preemptable.  And
	   while the 2.6 kernel can be made mostly preemptable, it is not
	   always so.

       17. RES	--  Resident Memory Size (KiB)
	   The non-swapped physical memory a task has used.

       18. RUID	 --  Real User Id
	   The real user ID.

       19. RUSER  --  Real User Name
	   The real user name.

       20. S  --  Process Status
	   The status of the task which can be one of:
	       D = uninterruptible sleep
	       R = running
	       S = sleeping
	       T = traced or stopped
	       Z = zombie

	   Tasks  shown	 as running should be more properly thought of as
	   'ready to run'  --  their task_struct is simply represented on
	   the Linux run-queue.	 Even without a true SMP machine, you may
	   see numerous tasks in this  state  depending	 on  top's  delay
	   interval and nice value.

       21. SHR	--  Shared Memory Size (KiB)
	   The	amount	of  shared memory available to a task, not all of
	   which is typically resident.	 It simply reflects  memory  that
	   could be potentially shared with other processes.

       22. SID	--  Session Id
	   A  session  is a collection of process groups (see PGRP), usu‐
	   ally established by the login shell.	 A newly  forked  process
	   joins  the  session of its creator.	By convention, this value
	   equals the process ID (see PID) of the  first  member  of  the
	   session, called the session leader, which is usually the login
	   shell.

       23. SUID	 --  Saved User Id
	   The saved user ID.

       24. SUPGIDS  --	Supplementary Group IDs
	   The IDs of any supplementary group(s) established at login  or
	   inherited from a task's parent.  They are displayed in a comma
	   delimited list.

	   Note: The 'SUPGIDS' field, unlike most columns, is not  fixed-
	   width.   When displayed, it plus any other variable width col‐
	   umns will be allocated all remaining screen width (up  to  the
	   maximum  512 characters).  Even so, such variable width fields
	   could still suffer truncation.  See topic 5c. SCROLLING a Win‐
	   dow	for  additional	 information  on  accessing any truncated
	   data.

       25. SUPGRPS  --	Supplementary Group Names
	   The names of any supplementary group(s) established	at  login
	   or  inherited  from	a task's parent.  They are displayed in a
	   comma delimited list.

	   Note: The 'SUPGRPS' field, unlike most columns, is not  fixed-
	   width.   When displayed, it plus any other variable width col‐
	   umns will be allocated all remaining screen width (up  to  the
	   maximum  512 characters).  Even so, such variable width fields
	   could still suffer truncation.  See topic 5c. SCROLLING a Win‐
	   dow	for  additional	 information  on  accessing any truncated
	   data.

       26. SUSER  --  Saved User Name
	   The saved user name.

       27. SWAP	 --  Swapped Size (KiB)
	   The non-resident portion of a task's address space.

       28. TGID	 --  Thread Group Id
	   The ID of the thread group to which a task belongs.	It is the
	   PID	of  the	 thread group leader.  In kernel terms, it repre‐
	   sents those tasks that share an 'mm_struct'.

       29. TIME	 --  CPU Time
	   Total CPU time the task  has	 used  since  it  started.   When
	   'Cumulative	mode'  is On, each process is listed with the cpu
	   time that it and its dead  children	have  used.   You  toggle
	   'Cumulative	mode'  with  'S',  which  is  both a command-line
	   option and an interactive command.  See  the	 'S'  interactive
	   command for additional information regarding this mode.

       30. TIME+  --  CPU Time, hundredths
	   The	same  as  'TIME', but reflecting more granularity through
	   hundredths of a second.

       31. TPGID  --  Tty Process Group Id
	   The process group ID of the foreground process  for	the  con‐
	   nected tty, or -1 if a process is not connected to a terminal.
	   By convention, this value equals the process ID (see	 PID)  of
	   the the process group leader (see PGRP).

       32. TTY	--  Controlling Tty
	   The	name  of  the  controlling terminal.  This is usually the
	   device (serial port, pty, etc.) from	 which	the  process  was
	   started,  and  which	 it uses for input or output.  However, a
	   task need not be associated with a  terminal,  in  which  case
	   you'll see '?' displayed.

       33. UID	--  User Id
	   The effective user ID of the task's owner.

       34. USED	 --  Memory in Use (KiB)
	   This	 field	represents the non-swapped physical memory a task
	   has used (RES) plus the non-resident portion	 of  its  address
	   space (SWAP).

       35. USER	 --  User Name
	   The effective user name of the task's owner.

       36. VIRT	 --  Virtual Memory Size (KiB)
	   The	total  amount  of  virtual  memory  used by the task.  It
	   includes all code, data and shared libraries plus  pages  that
	   have	 been swapped out and pages that have been mapped but not
	   used.

       37. WCHAN  --  Sleeping in Function
	   Depending on the availability of the kernel	link  map  ('Sys‐
	   tem.map'), this field will show the name or the address of the
	   kernel function in which the task is currently sleeping.  Run‐
	   ning tasks will display a dash ('-') in this column.

	   By  displaying  this	 field,	 top's	own  working set could be
	   increased by over 700Kb,  depending	on  the	 kernel	 version.
	   Should  that	 occur, your only means of reducing that overhead
	   will be to stop and restart top.

       38. nDRT	 --  Dirty Pages Count
	   The number of pages that have been modified	since  they  were
	   last	 written to auxiliary storage.	Dirty pages must be writ‐
	   ten to auxiliary storage  before  the  corresponding	 physical
	   memory location can be used for some other virtual page.

       39. nMaj	 --  Major Page Fault Count
	   The number of major page faults that have occurred for a task.
	   A page fault occurs when a process attempts to  read	 from  or
	   write  to  a virtual page that is not currently present in its
	   address space.  A major page fault is when  auxiliary  storage
	   access is involved in making that page available.

       40. nMin	 --  Minor Page Fault count
	   The number of minor page faults that have occurred for a task.
	   A page fault occurs when a process attempts to  read	 from  or
	   write  to  a virtual page that is not currently present in its
	   address space.  A minor page fault does not involve	auxiliary
	   storage access in making that page available.

       41. nTH	--  Number of Threads
	   The number of threads associated with a process.

       42. vMj	--  Major Page Fault Count Delta
	   The	number	of major page faults that have occurred since the
	   last update (see nMaj).

       43. vMn	--  Minor Page Fault Count Delta
	   The number of minor page faults that have occurred  since  the
	   last update (see nMin).

   3b. MANAGING Fields
       After  pressing the interactive command 'f' or 'F' (Fields Manage‐
       ment) you will be presented with a screen showing:  1)  the  ´cur‐
       rent´  window name; 2) the designated sort field; 3) all fields in
       their current order along with descriptions.  Entries marked  with
       an  asterisk are the currently displayed fields, screen width per‐
       mitting.

	   o  As the on screen instructions indicate, you navigate  among
	      the  fields  with	 the  Up  and Down arrow keys.	The PgUp,
	      PgDn, Home and End keys can also be used to  quickly  reach
	      the first or last available field.

	   o  The  Right  arrow key selects a field for repositioning and
	      the Left arrow key or the <Enter> key commits that  field's
	      placement.

	   o  The  'd'	key  or the <Space> bar toggles a field's display
	      status, and thus the presence or absence of the asterisk.

	   o  The 's' key designates a field  as  the  sort  field.   See
	      topic 4c. TASK AREA Commands, SORTING for additional infor‐
	      mation regarding your selection of a sort field.

	   o  The 'a' and 'w' keys can	be  used  to  cycle  through  all
	      available	 windows  and  the  'q' or <Esc> keys exit Fields
	      Management.

       The Fields Management screen can also be used to change the  ´cur‐
       rent´  window/field  group  in  either  full-screen mode or alter‐
       nate-display mode.  Whatever was targeted when 'q'  or  <Esc>  was
       pressed	will  be  made	current as you return to the top display.
       See topic 5. ALTERNATE-DISPLAY Provisions and the 'g'  interactive
       command for insight into ´current´ windows and field groups.

       Note: Any window that has been scrolled horizontally will be reset
       if any field changes are made via the  Fields  Management  screen.
       Any  vertical  scrolled	position,  however, will not be affected.
       See topic  5c.  SCROLLING  a  Window  for  additional  information
       regarding vertical and horizontal scrolling.

4. INTERACTIVE Commands
       Listed below is a brief index of commands within categories.  Some
       commands appear more than once  --  their  meaning  or  scope  may
       vary depending on the context in which they are issued.

	 4a. Global-Commands
	       <Ent/Sp> ?, =, 0,
	       A, B, d, E, e, g, h, H, I, k, q, r, s, W, X, Y, Z
	 4b. Summary-Area-Commands
	       C, l, t, m, 1, 2, 3
	 4c. Task-Area-Commands
	       Appearance:  b, J, j, x, y, z
	       Content:	    c, f, F, o, O, S, u, U, V
	       Size:	    #, i, n
	       Sorting:	    <, >, f, F, R
	 4d. Color-Mapping
	       <Ret>, a, B, b, H, M, q, S, T, w, z, 0 - 7
	 5b. Commands-for-Windows
	       -, _, =, +, A, a, g, G, w
	 5c. Scrolling-a-Window
	       C, Up, Dn, Left, Right, PgUp, PgDn, Home, End
	 5d. Searching-in-a-Window
	       L, &

   4a. GLOBAL Commands
       The  global  interactive	 commands  are	always	available in both
       full-screen mode and alternate-display  mode.   However,	 some  of
       these  interactive  commands  are  not  available  when running in
       'Secure mode'.

       If you wish to know in advance whether or not your  top	has  been
       secured,	 simply	 ask  for help and view the system summary on the
       second line.

	 <Enter> or <Space>  :Refresh-Display
	      These commands awaken top	 and  following	 receipt  of  any
	      input  the  entire  display  will	 be repainted.	They also
	      force an update of any hotplugged cpu  or	 physical  memory
	      changes.

	      Use either of these keys if you have a large delay interval
	      and wish to see current status,

	  ? | h	 :Help
	      There are two help levels available.  The first  will  pro‐
	      vide  a reminder of all the basic interactive commands.  If
	      top is secured, that screen will be abbreviated.

	      Typing 'h' or '?' on that help screen will take you to help
	      for those interactive commands applicable to alternate-dis‐
	      play mode.

	  =  :Exit-Task-Limits
	      Removes restrictions on which tasks are shown.   This  com‐
	      mand  will reverse any 'i' (idle tasks) and 'n' (max tasks)
	      commands that might be active.  It  also	provides  for  an
	      exit from pid monitoring, 'user' filtering and 'other' fil‐
	      tering.  See the '-p' command-line option for a  discussion
	      of  PID monitoring, the 'U' or 'u' interactive commands for
	      user filtering and the 'O' or 'o' interactive commands  for
	      'other' filtering.

	      Additionally,  any  window  that	has been scrolled will be
	      reset with this command.	See topic 5c. SCROLLING a  Window
	      for  additional information regarding vertical and horizon‐
	      tal scrolling.

	      When operating in alternate-display mode this command has a
	      broader meaning.

	  0  :Zero-Suppress toggle
	      This  command  determines	 whether  zeros are shown or sup‐
	      pressed for many of the fields in a  task	 window.   Fields
	      like UID, GID, NI, PR or P are not affected by this toggle.

	  A  :Alternate-Display-Mode toggle
	      This  command  will  switch  between  full-screen	 mode and
	      alternate-display mode.	See  topic  5.	ALTERNATE-DISPLAY
	      Provisions and the 'g' interactive command for insight into
	      ´current´ windows and field groups.

	  B  :Bold-Disable/Enable toggle
	      This command will influence  use	of  the	 'bold'	 terminfo
	      capability  and  alters both the summary area and task area
	      for the ´current´ window.	 While it is  intended	primarily
	      for use with dumb terminals, it can be applied anytime.

	      Note:  When this toggle is On and top is operating in mono‐
	      chrome mode, the entire display will appear as normal text.
	      Thus,  unless  the 'x' and/or 'y' toggles are using reverse
	      for emphasis, there will be  no  visual  confirmation  that
	      they are even on.

       *  d | s	 :Change-Delay-Time-interval
	      You  will	 be prompted to enter the delay time, in seconds,
	      between display updates.

	      Fractional seconds are honored, but a  negative  number  is
	      not   allowed.	Entering  0  causes  (nearly)  continuous
	      updates, with an unsatisfactory display as the  system  and
	      tty  driver  try	to keep up with top's demands.	The delay
	      value is inversely proportional to system loading,  so  set
	      it with care.

	      If  at  any  time	 you wish to know the current delay time,
	      simply ask for help and view the system summary on the sec‐
	      ond line.

	  E  :Extend-Memory-Scale in Summary Area
	      With  this command you can cycle through the available sum‐
	      mary area memory scaling which ranges from  KiB  (kibibytes
	      or    1,024    bytes)    through	  EiB	 (exbibytes    or
	      1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes).

	      If you see a '+' between a displayed number and the follow‐
	      ing  label,  it  means that top was forced to truncate some
	      portion of that number.  By  raising  the	 scaling  factor,
	      such truncation can be avoided.

	  e  :Extend-Memory-Scale in Task Windows
	      With  this command you can cycle through the available task
	      window memory scaling which ranges from KiB  (kibibytes  or
	      1,024	 bytes)	    through	PiB	(pebibytes     or
	      1,125,899,906,842,624 bytes).

	      While top will try to  honor  the	 selected  target  range,
	      additional  scaling  might  still	 be necessary in order to
	      accommodate current values.  If you  wish	 to  see  a  more
	      homogeneous result in the memory columns, raising the scal‐
	      ing range will usually accomplish that  goal.   Raising  it
	      too  high, however, is likely to produce an all zero result
	      which cannot be suppressed with the  '0'	interactive  com‐
	      mand.

	  g  :Choose-Another-Window/Field-Group
	      You will be prompted to enter a number between 1 and 4 des‐
	      ignating the field group which should be made the ´current´
	      window.	You  will soon grow comfortable with these 4 win‐
	      dows, especially after experimenting with alternate-display
	      mode.

	  H  :Threads-mode toggle
	      When  this  toggle  is  On, individual threads will be dis‐
	      played for all processes in all visible task windows.  Oth‐
	      erwise,  top  displays  a	 summation of all threads in each
	      process.

	  I  :Irix/Solaris-Mode toggle
	      When operating in	 'Solaris  mode'  ('I'	toggled	 Off),	a
	      task's  cpu  usage  will	be divided by the total number of
	      CPUs.  After issuing this command, you'll be told	 the  new
	      state of this toggle.

       *  k  :Kill-a-task
	      You will be prompted for a PID and then the signal to send.

	      Entering no PID or a negative number will be interpreted as
	      the default shown in the prompt (the first task displayed).
	      A PID value of zero means the top program itself.

	      The default signal, as reflected in the prompt, is SIGTERM.
	      However, you can send any signal, via number or name.

	      If you wish to abort the kill process, do one of	the  fol‐
	      lowing depending on your progress:
		  1) at the pid prompt, type an invalid number
		  2) at the signal prompt, type 0 (or any invalid signal)

	  q  :Quit

       *  r  :Renice-a-Task
	      You  will	 be prompted for a PID and then the value to nice
	      it to.

	      Entering no PID or a negative number will be interpreted as
	      the default shown in the prompt (the first task displayed).
	      A PID value of zero means the top program itself.

	      A positive nice value will cause a process to  lose  prior‐
	      ity.   Conversely,  a  negative  nice  value  will  cause a
	      process to be viewed more favorably by the  kernel.   As	a
	      general  rule,  ordinary	users  can only increase the nice
	      value and are prevented from lowering it.

	      If you wish to abort the renice process, do one of the fol‐
	      lowing depending on your progress:
		  1) at the pid prompt, type an invalid number
		  2) at the nice prompt, type <Enter> with no input

	  W  :Write-the-Configuration-File
	      This  will  save	all  of your options and toggles plus the
	      current display mode and delay time.  By issuing this  com‐
	      mand  just  before  quitting  top, you will be able restart
	      later in exactly that same state.

	  X  :Extra-Fixed-Width
	      Some fields are fixed width and  not  scalable.	As  such,
	      they  are subject to truncation which would be indicated by
	      a '+' in the last position.

	      This interactive command can be used to alter the widths of
	      the following fields:

		  field	 default    field  default    field  default
		  GID	    5	    GROUP     8	      WCHAN    10
		  RUID	    5	    RUSER     8
		  SUID	    5	    SUSER     8
		  UID	    5	    USER      8
				    TTY	      8

	      You  will	 be  prompted  for  the amount to be added to the
	      default widths shown above.  Entering zero forces a  return
	      to those defaults.

	      If  you  enter  a	 negative  number, top will automatically
	      increase the column size as needed until there is	 no  more
	      truncated	 data.	You can accelerate this process by reduc‐
	      ing the delay interval or holding down the <Space> bar.

	      Note: Whether explicitly or  automatically  increased,  the
	      widths  for  these  fields  are never decreased by top.  To
	      narrow them you must specify a smaller  number  or  restore
	      the defaults.

	  Y  :Inspect-Other-Output
	      After  issuing  the  'Y'	interactive  command, you will be
	      prompted for a target PID.  Typing a value or accepting the
	      default  results	in a separate screen.  That screen can be
	      used to view a variety of files  or  piped  command  output
	      while the normal top iterative display is paused.

	      Note:  This interactive command is only fully realized when
	      supporting entries have been manually added to the  end  of
	      the  top configuration file.  For details on creating those
	      entries, see topic 6c. ADDING INSPECT Entries.

	      Most of the keys used to navigate the Inspect  feature  are
	      reflected	 in  its  header  prologue.   There are, however,
	      additional keys available once you have selected a particu‐
	      lar  file	 or command.  They are familiar to anyone who has
	      used the pager 'less' and are summarized	here  for  future
	      reference.

		  key	   function
		  '='	   alternate status-line, file or pipeline
		  '/'	   find, equivalent to 'L' locate
		  'n'	   find next, equivalent to '&' locate next
		  <Space>  scroll down, equivalent to <PgDn>
		  'b'	   scroll up, equivalent to <PgUp>
		  'g'	   first line, equivalent to <Home>
		  'G'	   last line, equivalent to <End>

	  Z  :Change-Color-Mapping
	      This  key	 will take you to a separate screen where you can
	      change the colors for the ´current´ window, or for all win‐
	      dows.   For  details regarding this interactive command see
	      topic 4d. COLOR Mapping.

       *  The commands shown with an asterisk (´*´) are not available  in
	  'Secure  mode',  nor	will  they  be	shown on the level-1 help
	  screen.

   4b. SUMMARY AREA Commands
       The summary area interactive commands are always available in both
       full-screen  mode  and  alternate-display  mode.	  They affect the
       beginning lines of your display and will determine the position of
       messages and prompts.

       These  commands	always	impact	just  the  ´current´ window/field
       group.  See topic 5.  ALTERNATE-DISPLAY	Provisions  and	 the  'g'
       interactive  command  for insight into ´current´ windows and field
       groups.

	  C  :Show-scroll-coordinates toggle
	      Toggle an informational message which is displayed whenever
	      the  message  line  is not otherwise being used.	For addi‐
	      tional information see topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window.

	  l  :Load-Average/Uptime toggle
	      This is also the line containing the program name (possibly
	      an  alias)  when operating in full-screen mode or the ´cur‐
	      rent´ window name when operating in alternate-display mode.

	  t  :Task/Cpu-States toggle
	      This command affects from 2 to  many  summary  area  lines,
	      depending	 on the state of the '1', '2' or '3' command tog‐
	      gles and whether or not top is running under true SMP.

	      This portion of the summary area is also influenced by  the
	      'H'  interactive	command toggle, as reflected in the total
	      label which shows either 'Tasks' or 'Threads'.

	  m  :Memory/Swap-Usage toggle
	      This command affects the two  summary  area  lines  dealing
	      with physical and virtual memory.

	  1  :Single/Separate-Cpu-States toggle
	      This  command affects how the 't' command's Cpu States por‐
	      tion is shown.  Although this toggle  exists  primarily  to
	      serve massively-parallel SMP machines, it is not restricted
	      to solely SMP environments.

	      When you see '%Cpu(s):' in the summary area, the '1' toggle
	      is On and all cpu information is gathered in a single line.
	      Otherwise, each cpu is  displayed	 separately  as:  '%Cpu0,
	      %Cpu1, ...'  up to available screen height.

	  2  :NUMA-Nodes/Cpu-Summary toggle
	      This  command  toggles  between the '1' command cpu summary
	      display (only) or a summary display plus the cpu usage sta‐
	      tistics for each NUMA Node.  It is only available if a sys‐
	      tem has the requisite NUMA support.

	  3  :Expand-NUMA-Node
	      You will be invited to enter a number representing  a  NUMA
	      Node.   Thereafter,  a node summary plus the statistics for
	      each cpu in that node will be shown until either the '1' or
	      '2' command toggle is pressed.  This interactive command is
	      only available if a system has the requisite NUMA support.

       Note: If the entire summary area has been toggled Off for any win‐
       dow,  you  would be left with just the message line.  In that way,
       you will have maximized available task rows but (temporarily) sac‐
       rificed the program name in full-screen mode or the ´current´ win‐
       dow name when in alternate-display mode.

   4c. TASK AREA Commands
       The  task  area	interactive  commands  are  always  available  in
       full-screen mode.

       The  task  area interactive commands are never available in alter‐
       nate-display mode if the ´current´ window's task display has  been
       toggled Off (see topic 5. ALTERNATE-DISPLAY Provisions).

       APPEARANCE of task window
	  J  :Justify-Numeric-Columns toggle
	      Alternates  between right-justified (the default) and left-
	      justified numeric data.  If  the	numeric	 data  completely
	      fills  the available column, this command toggle may impact
	      the column header only.

	  j  :Justify-Character-Columns toggle
	      Alternates between left-justified (the default) and  right-
	      justified character data.	 If the character data completely
	      fills the available column, this command toggle may  impact
	      the column header only.

	 The  following	 commands will also be influenced by the state of
	 the global 'B' (bold enable) toggle.

	  b  :Bold/Reverse toggle
	      This command will impact how the 'x' and	'y'  toggles  are
	      displayed.   Further,  it	 will  only  be available when at
	      least one of those toggles is On.

	  x  :Column-Highlight toggle
	      Changes highlighting for the current sort	 field.	  If  you
	      forget  which  field is being sorted this command can serve
	      as a quick visual reminder, providing  the  sort	field  is
	      being  displayed.	  The  sort  field  might  not be visible
	      because:
		  1) there is insufficient Screen Width
		  2) the 'f' interactive command turned it Off

	  y  :Row-Highlight toggle
	      Changes highlighting for "running" tasks.	  For  additional
	      insight into this task state, see topic 3a. DESCRIPTIONS of
	      Fields, the 'S' field (Process Status).

	      Use of this provision provides important insight into  your
	      system's	health.	  The only costs will be a few additional
	      tty escape sequences.

	  z  :Color/Monochrome toggle
	      Switches the ´current´ window between your last used  color
	      scheme  and  the	older form of black-on-white or white-on-
	      black.  This command will alter both the summary	area  and
	      task  area but does not affect the state of the 'x', 'y' or
	      'b' toggles.

       CONTENT of task window
	  c  :Command-Line/Program-Name toggle
	      This command will be honored whether or not  the	'COMMAND'
	      column is currently visible.  Later, should that field come
	      into view, the change you applied will be seen.

	  f | F	 :Fields-Management
	      These keys display a separate screen where you  can  change
	      which  fields are displayed, their order and also designate
	      the sort field.  For additional information on these inter‐
	      active commands see topic 3b. MANAGING Fields.

	  o | O	 :Other-Filtering
	      You  will be prompted for the selection criteria which then
	      determines which tasks will be shown in the ´current´  win‐
	      dow.   Your criteria can be made case sensitive or case can
	      be ignored.  And you determine if	 top  should  include  or
	      exclude matching tasks.

	      See  topic  5e.  FILTERING in a window for details on these
	      and additional related interactive commands.

	  S  :Cumulative-Time-Mode toggle
	      When 'Cumulative mode' is On, each process is  listed  with
	      the cpu time that it and its dead children have used.

	      When  Off, programs that fork into many separate tasks will
	      appear less demanding.  For programs like 'init' or a shell
	      this is appropriate but for others, like compilers, perhaps
	      not.  Experiment with two task  windows  sharing	the  same
	      sort field but with different 'S' states and see which rep‐
	      resentation you prefer.

	      After issuing this command, you'll be informed of	 the  new
	      state  of	 this  toggle.	 If  you  wish to know in advance
	      whether or not 'Cumulative mode' is in effect,  simply  ask
	      for help and view the window summary on the second line.

	  u | U	 :Show-Specific-User-Only
	      You  will	 be  prompted  for the uid or name of the user to
	      display.	 The  '-u'  option  matches  on	  effective  user
	      whereas  the  '-U' option matches on any user (real, effec‐
	      tive, saved, or filesystem).

	      Thereafter, in that task window only matching users will be
	      shown,  or possibly no processes will be shown.  Prepending
	      an exclamation point ('!') to the user id or name	 instucts
	      top  to  display only processes with users not matching the
	      one provided.

	      Different task windows can can be used to filter	different
	      users.   Later,  if  you wish to monitor all users again in
	      the ´current´ window, re-issue this command but just  press
	      <Enter> at the prompt.

	  V  :Forest-View-Mode toggle
	      In  this	mode,  processes are reordered according to their
	      parents and the layout of the COMMAND column resembles that
	      of  a  tree.   In	 forest view mode it is still possible to
	      toggle between program name and commamd line (see	 the  'c'
	      interactive  command) or between processes and threads (see
	      the 'H' interactive command).

	      Note: Typing any key affecting the  sort	order  will  exit
	      forest  view  mode  in the ´current´ window.  See topic 4c.
	      TASK AREA Commands, SORTING for information on those keys.

       SIZE of task window
	  i  :Idle-Process toggle
	      Displays all tasks or just active tasks.	When this  toggle
	      is  Off,	tasks  that  have not used any CPU since the last
	      update will not be displayed.  However, due to  the  granu‐
	      larity  of  the  %CPU  and TIME+ fields, some processes may
	      still be displayed that appear to have used no CPU.

	      If this command is applied to the last task display when in
	      alternate-display	 mode,	then  it will not affect the win‐
	      dow's size, as all prior task displays  will  have  already
	      been painted.

	  n | #	 :Set-Maximum-Tasks
	      You  will	 be prompted to enter the number of tasks to dis‐
	      play.  The lessor of your number and available screen  rows
	      will be used.

	      When  used  in  alternate-display mode, this is the command
	      that gives you precise control over the size of  each  cur‐
	      rently  visible task display, except for the very last.  It
	      will not affect the last window's size, as all  prior  task
	      displays will have already been painted.

	      Note:  If you wish to increase the size of the last visible
	      task  display  when  in  alternate-display   mode,   simply
	      decrease the size of the task display(s) above it.

       SORTING of task window
	 For compatibility, this top supports most of the former top sort
	 keys.	Since this is primarily a service to  former  top  users,
	 these commands do not appear on any help screen.
	    command   sorted-field		    supported
	      A		start time (non-display)      No
	      M		%MEM			      Yes
	      N		PID			      Yes
	      P		%CPU			      Yes
	      T		TIME+			      Yes

	 Before	 using any of the following sort provisions, top suggests
	 that you temporarily turn on column highlighting using	 the  'x'
	 interactive command.  That will help ensure that the actual sort
	 environment matches your intent.

	 The following interactive commands will only be honored when the
	 current sort field is visible.	 The sort field might not be vis‐
	 ible because:
	      1) there is insufficient Screen Width
	      2) the 'f' interactive command turned it Off

	  <  :Move-Sort-Field-Left
	      Moves the sort column to the left unless the  current  sort
	      field is the first field being displayed.

	  >  :Move-Sort-Field-Right
	      Moves  the sort column to the right unless the current sort
	      field is the last field being displayed.

	 The  following	 interactive  commands	will  always  be  honored
	 whether or not the current sort field is visible.

	  f | F	 :Fields-Management
	      These  keys  display a separate screen where you can change
	      which field is used as the sort column, among  other  func‐
	      tions.   This  can be a convenient way to simply verify the
	      current sort field, when running top with column highlight‐
	      ing turned Off.

	  R  :Reverse/Normal-Sort-Field toggle
	      Using  this  interactive	command you can alternate between
	      high-to-low and low-to-high sorts.

	 Note: Field sorting uses internal values, not	those  in  column
	 display.   Thus,  the	TTY  and WCHAN fields will violate strict
	 ASCII collating sequence.

   4d. COLOR Mapping
       When you issue the 'Z' interactive command, you will be	presented
       with  a	separate  screen.   That screen can be used to change the
       colors in just the ´current´ window or in all four windows  before
       returning to the top display.

       The following interactive commands are available.
	   4 upper case letters to select a target
	   8 numbers to select a color
	   normal toggles available
	       'B'	 :bold disable/enable
	       'b'	 :running tasks "bold"/reverse
	       'z'	 :color/mono
	   other commands available
	       'a'/'w'	 :apply, then go to next/prior
	       <Enter>	 :apply and exit
	       'q'	 :abandon current changes and exit

       If  you use 'a' or 'w' to cycle the targeted window, you will have
       applied the color scheme that was displayed  when  you  left  that
       window.	You can, of course, easily return to any window and reap‐
       ply different colors or turn colors Off completely  with	 the  'z'
       toggle.

       The  Color Mapping screen can also be used to change the ´current´
       window/field group in either full-screen mode or alternate-display
       mode.   Whatever was targeted when 'q' or <Enter> was pressed will
       be made current as you return to the top display.

5. ALTERNATE-DISPLAY Provisions
   5a. WINDOWS Overview
       Field Groups/Windows:
	  In full-screen mode there is a single window represented by the
	  entire screen.  That single window can still be changed to dis‐
	  play 1 of 4 different field groups  (see  the	 'g'  interactive
	  command,  repeated  below).	Each  of the 4 field groups has a
	  unique separately configurable summary area and its own config‐
	  urable task area.

	  In  alternate-display mode, those 4 underlying field groups can
	  now be made visible simultaneously, or can be turned Off  indi‐
	  vidually at your command.

	  The  summary area will always exist, even if it's only the mes‐
	  sage line.  At any given time only one summary area can be dis‐
	  played.   However,  depending	 on your commands, there could be
	  from zero to four separate task displays currently  showing  on
	  the screen.

       Current Window:
	  The  ´current´ window is the window associated with the summary
	  area and the window to which task related commands  are  always
	  directed.   Since  in alternate-display mode you can toggle the
	  task display Off, some commands might	 be  restricted	 for  the
	  ´current´ window.

	  A  further  complication arises when you have toggled the first
	  summary area line Off.  With the loss of the window  name  (the
	  'l'  toggled	line),	you'll not easily know what window is the
	  ´current´ window.

   5b. COMMANDS for Windows
	  - | _	 :Show/Hide-Window(s) toggles
	      The '-' key turns the ´current´ window's	task  display  On
	      and  Off.	  When	On, that task area will show a minimum of
	      the columns header you've established with the 'f' interac‐
	      tive  command.   It  will	 also reflect any other task area
	      options/toggles you've applied yielding zero or more tasks.

	      The '_' key does the same for all task displays.	In  other
	      words,  it switches between the currently visible task dis‐
	      play(s) and any task display(s) you had  toggled	Off.   If
	      all 4 task displays are currently visible, this interactive
	      command will leave the summary area  as  the  only  display
	      element.

       *  = | +	 :Equalize-(reinitialize)-Window(s)
	      The  '='	key forces the ´current´ window's task display to
	      be visible.  It also reverses any	 'i'  (idle  tasks),  'n'
	      (max  tasks), 'u'/'U' (user filter) and 'o'/'O' (other fil‐
	      ter) commands that might be active.  Also,  if  the  window
	      had been scrolled, it will be reset with this command.  See
	      topic 5c. SCROLLING a  Window  for  additional  information
	      regarding vertical and horizontal scrolling.

	      The  '+'	key does the same for all windows.  The four task
	      displays will reappear, evenly balanced.	 They  will  also
	      have   retained	any  customizations  you  had  previously
	      applied, except for the 'i' (idle tasks), 'n' (max  tasks),
	      'u'/'U' (user filter), 'o'/'O' (other filter) and scrolling
	      interactive commands.

       *  A  :Alternate-Display-Mode toggle
	      This command  will  switch  between  full-screen	mode  and
	      alternate-display mode.

	      The  first  time you issue this command, all four task dis‐
	      plays will be shown.  Thereafter when you switch modes, you
	      will  see	 only  the  task display(s) you've chosen to make
	      visible.

       *  a | w	 :Next-Window-Forward/Backward
	      This will	 change	 the  ´current´	 window,  which	 in  turn
	      changes  the  window to which commands are directed.  These
	      keys act in a circular fashion so you can reach any desired
	      ´current´ window using either key.

	      Assuming	the  window name is visible (you have not toggled
	      'l' Off), whenever the  ´current´	 window	 name  loses  its
	      emphasis/color,  that's  a reminder the task display is Off
	      and many commands will be restricted.

       *  g  :Choose-Another-Window/Field-Group
	      You will be prompted to enter a number between 1 and 4 des‐
	      ignating the field group which should be made the ´current´
	      window.

	      In full-screen mode, this command is necessary to alter the
	      ´current´	 window.  In alternate-display mode, it is simply
	      a less convenient alternative to the 'a' and 'w' commands.

	  G  :Change-Window/Field-Group-Name
	      You will be prompted for a new name to be	 applied  to  the
	      ´current´ window.	 It does not require that the window name
	      be visible (the 'l' toggle to be On).

       *  The interactive commands shown with an asterisk (´*´) have  use
	  beyond alternate-display mode.
	      ´=', 'A', 'g'  are always available
	      ´a', 'w'	     act the same with color mapping
			     and fields management

   5c. SCROLLING a Window
       Typically  a  task window is a partial view into a systems's total
       tasks/threads which shows only some of the  available  fields/col‐
       umns.   With  these  scrolling keys, you can move that view verti‐
       cally or horizontally to reveal any desired task or column.

       Up,PgUp	:Scroll-Tasks
	   Move the view up toward the first task row,	until  the  first
	   task	 is displayed at the top of the ´current´ window.  The Up
	   arrow key moves a single line while PgUp  scrolls  the  entire
	   window.

       Down,PgDn  :Scroll-Tasks
	   Move	 the  view  down toward the last task row, until the last
	   task is the only task displayed at the top  of  the	´current´
	   window.   The  Down	arrow  key moves a single line while PgDn
	   scrolls the entire window.

       Left,Right  :Scroll-Columns
	   Move the view of displayable fields horizontally one column at
	   a time.

	   Note:  As  a reminder, some fields/columns are not fixed-width
	   but allocated all remaining screen width when  visible.   When
	   scrolling  right  or left, that feature may produce some unex‐
	   pected results initially.

	   Additionally, there are special provisions  for  any	 variable
	   width field when positioned as the last displayed field.  Once
	   that field is reached via the right arrow key, and is thus the
	   only	 column	 shown,	 you  can continue scrolling horizontally
	   within such a field.	 See the 'C'  interactive  command  below
	   for additional information.

       Home  :Jump-to-Home-Position
	   Reposition the display to the un-scrolled coordinates.

       End  :Jump-to-End-Position
	   Reposition  the  display so that the rightmost column reflects
	   the last displayable field and the bottom task row  represents
	   the last task.

	   Note:  From	this position it is still possible to scroll down
	   and right using the arrow keys.  This is true until	a  single
	   column and a single task is left as the only display element.

       C  :Show-scroll-coordinates toggle
	   Toggle  an  informational  message which is displayed whenever
	   the message line is not otherwise being  used.   That  message
	   will take one of two forms depending on whether or not a vari‐
	   able width column has also been scrolled.

	     scroll coordinates: y = n/n (tasks), x = n/n (fields)
	     scroll coordinates: y = n/n (tasks), x = n/n (fields) + nn

	   The coordinates shown as n/n are relative to	 the  upper  left
	   corner  of the ´current´ window.  The additional '+ nn' repre‐
	   sents the displacement into a variable width	 column	 when  it
	   has	been  scrolled horizontally.  Such displacement occurs in
	   normal 8 character tab stop amounts via  the	 right	and  left
	   arrow keys.

	   y = n/n (tasks)
	       The  first  n  represents  the topmost visible task and is
	       controlled by scrolling keys.  The  second  n  is  updated
	       automatically to reflect total tasks.

	   x = n/n (fields)
	       The  first  n represents the leftmost displayed column and
	       is controlled by scrolling keys.	  The  second  n  is  the
	       total number of displayable fields and is established with
	       the 'f' interactive command.

       The above interactive commands are always available in full-screen
       mode  but  never	 available in alternate-display mode if the ´cur‐
       rent´ window's task display has been toggled Off.

       Note: When any form of filtering is active, you	can  expect  some
       slight abberations when scrolling since not all tasks will be vis‐
       ible.  This is paticularly apparent when using the  Up/Down  arrow
       keys.

   5d. SEARCHING in a Window
       You  can	 use these interactive commands to locate a task row con‐
       taining a particular value.

       L  :Locate-a-string
	   You will be prompted for the case-sensitive string  to  locate
	   starting  from  the	current window coordinates.  There are no
	   restrictions on search string content.

	   Searches are not limited to values from a single field or col‐
	   umn.	 All of the values displayed in a task row are allowed in
	   a search string.  You may include spaces, numbers, symbols and
	   even forest view artwork.

	   Keying  <Enter> with no input will effectively disable the '&'
	   key until a new search string is entered.

       &  :Locate-next
	   Assuming a  search  string  has  been  established,	top  will
	   attempt to locate the next occurrence.

       When  a	match is found, the current window is repositioned verti‐
       cally so the task row containing that string is first.  The scroll
       coordinates  message  can  provide  confirmation	 of such vertical
       repositioning  (see  the	 'C'  interactive  command).   Horizontal
       scrolling, however, is never altered via searching.

       The  availability  of  a matching string will be influenced by the
       following factors.
	  a. Which fields are displayable from the total available,
	     see topic 3b. MANAGING Fields.
	  b. Scrolling a window vertically and/or horizontally,
	     see topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window.
	  c. The state of the command/command-line toggle,
	     see the 'c' interactive command.
	  d. The stability of the chosen sort column,
	     for example PID is good but %CPU bad.

       If  a  search  fails,  restoring	  the	´current´   window   home
       (unscrolled) position, scrolling horizontally, displaying command-
       lines or choosing a more stable sort field  could  yet  produce	a
       successful '&' search.

       The above interactive commands are always available in full-screen
       mode but never available in alternate-display mode  if  the  ´cur‐
       rent´ window's task display has been toggled Off.

       Note:  Whenever	a search key is typed, top will turn column high‐
       lighting Off to prevent	false  matches	on  internal  non-display
       escape  sequences.  Such highlighting will be restored when a win‐
       dow's search string is empty.  See the 'x' interactive command for
       additional information on sort column highlighting.

   5e. FILTERING in a Window
       You can use the 'Other Filter' feature to establish selection cri‐
       teria which will then determine which tasks are shown in the ´cur‐
       rent´ window.

       Establishing  a	filter requires: 1) a field name; 2) an operator;
       and 3) a selection value, as a minimum.	This is the most  complex
       of top's user input requirements so, when you make a mistake, com‐
       mand recall will be your friend.	 Remember the Up/Down arrow  keys
       or their aliases when prompted for input.

       Filter Basics
	  .  field names are case sensitive and spelled as in the header
	  .  selection values need not comprise the full displayed field
	  .  a selection is either case insensitive or sensitive to case
	  .  the default is inclusion, prepending '!' denotes exclusions
	  .  multiple selection criteria can be applied to a task window
	  .  inclusion and exclusion criteria can be used simultaneously
	  .  the 1 equality and 2 relational filters can be freely mixed
	  .  separate unique filters are maintained for each task window

       If a field is not turned on or is not currently in view, then your
       selection criteria will not affect the display.	Later,	should	a
       filtered field become visible, the selection criteria will then be
       applied.

       Keyboard Summary
	 o  :Other-Filter (lower case)
	     You will be prompted to establish a filter that ignores case
	     when matching.

	 O  :Other-Filter (upper case)
	     You will be prompted to establish a case sensitive filter.

	^O  :Show-Active-Filters (Ctrl key + 'o')
	     This  can serve as a reminder of which filters are active in
	     the ´current´ window.  A summary will be shown on	the  mes‐
	     sage line until you press the <Enter> key.

	 =  :Reset-Filtering in current window
	     This  clears all of your selection criteria in the ´current´
	     window.  It also has additional impact so please  see  topic
	     4a. GLOBAL Commands.

	 +  :Reset-Filtering in all windows
	     This  clears the selection criteria in all windows, assuming
	     you are in alternate-display mode.	 As with the '=' interac‐
	     tive  command,  it	 too  has  additional consequences so you
	     might wish to see topic 5b. COMMANDS for Windows.

       Input Requirements
	  When prompted for selection criteria, the data you provide must
	  take one of two forms.  There are 3 required pieces of informa‐
	  tion, with a 4th as optional.	 These examples	 use  spaces  for
	  clarity but your input generally would not.
		  #1	       #2  #3		   ( required )
		  Field-Name   ?   include-if-value
	       !  Field-Name   ?   exclude-if-value
	       #4				   ( optional )

	  Items #1, #3 and #4 should be self-explanatory.  Item #2 repre‐
	  sents both a required delimiter and the operator which must  be
	  one of either equality ('=') or relation ('<' or '>').

	  The  '='  equality  operator	requires only a partial match and
	  that can reduce your 'if-value' input requirements.  The '>' or
	  '<' relational operators always employ string comparisons, even
	  with numeric fields.	They are designed to work with a  field's
	  default  justification  and  with  homogeneous data.	When some
	  field's numeric amounts have been subjected  to  scaling  while
	  others have not, that data is no longer homogeneous.

	  If  you  establish a relational filter and you have changed the
	  default 'Numeric' or 'Character' justification, that filter  is
	  likely  to fail.  When a relational filter is applied to a mem‐
	  ory field and you have not changed the scaling, it may  produce
	  misleading   results.	   This	 happens,  for	example,  because
	  '100.0m' (MiB) would appear greater than  '1.000g'  (GiB)  when
	  compared as strings.

	  If your filtered results appear suspect, simply altering justi‐
	  fication or scaling may yet achieve the desired objective.  See
	  the 'j', 'J' and 'e' interactive commands for additional infor‐
	  mation.

       Potential Problems
	  These GROUP filters could produce the exact same results or the
	  second one might not display anything at all, just a blank task
	  window.
	       GROUP=root	 ( only the same results when )
	       GROUP=ROOT	 ( invoked via lower case 'o' )

	  Either of these RES filters  might  yield  inconsistent  and/or
	  misleading  results,	depending  on  the current memory scaling
	  factor.  Or both filters could produce the exact same results.
	       RES>9999		 ( only the same results when )
	       !RES<10000	 ( memory scaling is at 'KiB' )

	  This nMin filter  illustrates	 a  problem  unique  to	 scalable
	  fields.   This particular field can display a maximum of 4 dig‐
	  its, beyond which values are automatically  scaled  to  KiB  or
	  above.   So  while  amounts  greater than 9999 exist, they will
	  appear as 2.6m, 197k, etc.
	       nMin>9999	 ( always a blank task window )

       Potential Solutions
	  These examples illustrate how 'Other	Filtering'  can	 be  cre‐
	  atively  applied  to achieve almost any desired result.  Single
	  quotes are sometimes shown to delimit the spaces which are part
	  of  a	 filter	 or  to represent a request for status (^O) accu‐
	  rately.  But if you used them with if-values in real	life,  no
	  matches would be found.

	  Assuming  field  nTH is displayed, the first filter will result
	  in only multi-threaded processes being shown.	 It also  reminds
	  us that a trailing space is part of every displayed field.  The
	  second filter achieves the exact same results with less typing.
	       !nTH=' 1 '		 ( ' for clarity only )
	       nTH>1			 ( same with less i/p )

	  With Forest View mode active and the COMMAND	column	in  view,
	  this	filter effectively collapses child processes so that just
	  3 levels are shown.
	       !COMMAND='	`- '	 ( ' for clarity only )

	  The final two filters appear	as  in	response  to  the  status
	  request  key (^O).  In reality, each filter would have required
	  separate input.  The PR example shows the two	 concurrent  fil‐
	  ters	necessary to display tasks with priorities of 20 or more,
	  since some might be negative.	 Then by exploiting trailing spa‐
	  ces, the nMin series of filters could achieve the failed '9999'
	  objective discussed above.
	       'PR>20' + '!PR=-'	 ( 2 for right result )
	       '!nMin=0 ' + '!nMin=1 ' + '!nMin=2 ' + '!nMin=3 ' ...

       Note: When 'Other Filtering' is active,	top  turns  column  high‐
       lighting	 Off  to  prevent  false  matches on internal non-display
       escape sequences.  Such highlighting will be restored when a  win‐
       dow  is	no  longer subject to filtering.  See the 'x' interactive
       command for additional information on sort column highlighting.

6. FILES
   6a. SYSTEM Configuration File
       The presence of this file will  influence  which	 version  of  the
       'help'  screen is shown to an ordinary user.  More importantly, it
       will limit what ordinary users are allowed to do when top is  run‐
       ning.  They will not be able to issue the following commands.
	   k	    Kill a task
	   r	    Renice a task
	   d or s   Change delay/sleep interval

       The  system configuration file is not created by top.  Rather, you
       create this file manually and place it in the /etc directory.  Its
       name  must  be  'toprc' and must have no leading '.' (period).  It
       must have only two lines.

       Here is an example of the contents of /etc/toprc:
	   s	    # line 1: 'secure' mode switch
	   5.0	    # line 2: 'delay'  interval in seconds

   6b. PERSONAL Configuration File
       This file is written as '$HOME/.your-name-4-top' + 'rc'.	 Use  the
       'W' interactive command to create it or update it.

       Here is the general layout:
	   global   # line  1: the program name/alias notation
	     "	    # line  2: id,altscr,irixps,delay,curwin
	   per ea   # line  a: winname,fieldscur
	   window   # line  b: winflags,sortindx,maxtasks
	     "	    # line  c: summclr,msgsclr,headclr,taskclr
	   global   # line 15: fixed-width incr
	     "	    # any remaining lines are devoted to the
	     "	    # generalized 'inspect' provisions
	     "	    # discussed below

       If  the	$HOME  variable is not present, top will try to write the
       personal configuration file to the current directory,  subject  to
       permissions.

   6c. ADDING INSPECT Entries
       To  exploit  the	 'Y' interactive command, you must add entries at
       the end of the top personal configuration file.	Such entries sim‐
       ply  reflect  a file to be read or command/pipeline to be executed
       whose results will then be displayed  in	 a  separate  scrollable,
       searchable window.

       If you don't know the location or name of your top rcfile, use the
       'W' interactive command to rewrite it and note those details.

       Inspect entries can be added with a redirected echo or by  editing
       the configuration file.	Redirecting an echo risks overwriting the
       rcfile should it replace (>) rather than append (>>) to that file.
       Conversely, when using an editor care must be taken not to corrupt
       existing lines, some of which will  contain  unprintable	 data  or
       unusual characters.

       Those  Inspect entries beginning with a '#' character are ignored,
       regardless of content.  Otherwise they consist of the following	3
       elements, each of which must be separated by a tab character (thus
       2 '\t' total):

	 .type:	 literal 'file' or 'pipe'
	 .name:	 selection shown on the Inspect screen
	 .fmts:	 string representing a path or command

       The two types of Inspect entries are not	 interchangeable.   Those
       designated  'file' will be accessed using fopen and must reference
       a single file in the '.fmts' element.  Entries  specifying  'pipe'
       will  employ  popen,  their  '.fmts'  element  could  contain many
       pipelined commands and, none can be interactive.

       If the file or pipeline represented in your '.fmts' deals with the
       specific	 PID  input  or	 accepted  when prompted, then the format
       string must also contain the '%d'  specifier,  as  these	 examples
       illustrate.

	 .fmts=	 /proc/%d/numa_maps
	 .fmts=	 lsof -P -p %d

       For 'pipe' type entries only, you may also wish to redirect stderr
       to stdout for a more comprehensive result.  Thus the format string
       becomes:

	 .fmts=	 pmap -x %d 2>&1

       Here  are  examples of both types of Inspect entries as they might
       appear in the rcfile.  The first entry will be ignored due to  the
       initial	'#'  character.	  For  clarity, the pseudo tab depictions
       (^I) are surrounded by an extra space but the  actual  tabs  would
       not be.

	 # pipe ^I Sockets ^I lsof -n -P -i 2>&1
	 pipe ^I Open Files ^I lsof -P -p %d 2>&1
	 file ^I NUMA Info ^I /proc/%d/numa_maps
	 pipe ^I Log ^I tail -n100 /var/log/syslog | sort -Mr

       Except  for  the	 commented  entry above, these next examples show
       what could be echoed to	achieve	 similar  results,  assuming  the
       rcfile  name was '.toprc'.  However, due to the embedded tab char‐
       acters, each of these lines should be preceded by '/bin/echo  -e',
       not  just  a  simple an 'echo', to enable backslash interpretation
       regardless of which shell you use.

	 "pipe\tOpen Files\tlsof -P -p %d 2>&1" >> ~/.toprc
	 "file\tNUMA Info\t/proc/%d/numa_maps" >> ~/.toprc
	 "pipe\tLog\ttail -n200 /var/log/syslog | sort -Mr" >> ~/.toprc

       Caution: If any inspect entry  you  create  produces  output  with
       unprintable  characters	they  will  be displayed in either the ^C
       notation or hexidecimal <FF> form, depending on their value.  This
       applies	to  tab	 characters as well, which will show as '^I'.  If
       you want a truer	 representation,  any  embedded	 tabs  should  be
       expanded.

	 # next would have contained '\t' ...
	 # file ^I <your_name> ^I /proc/%d/status
	 # but this will eliminate embedded '\t' ...
	 pipe ^I <your_name> ^I cat /proc/%d/status | expand -

       The  above  example  takes what could have been a 'file' entry but
       employs a 'pipe' instead so as to expand the embedded tabs.

       Note: While 'pipe' type entries have been discussed  in	terms  of
       pipelines  and  commands,  there	 is  nothing  to prevent you from
       including  shell scripts as  well.   Perhaps  even  newly  created
       scripts designed specifically for the 'Y' interactive command.

       Lastly, as the number of your Inspect entries grows over time, the
       'Options:' row will be truncated when screen  width  is	exceeded.
       That  does not affect operation other than to make some selections
       invisible.

       However, if some choices are lost to truncation but  you	 want  to
       see more options, there is an easy solution hinted at below.

	 Inspection Pause at pid ...
	 Use:  left/right then <Enter> ...
	 Options:  help	 1  2  3  4  5	6  7  8	 9  10	11 ...

       The  entries in the top rcfile would have a number for the '.name'
       element and the 'help' entry would identify a shell script  you've
       written	explaining  what those numbered selections actually mean.
       In that way, many more choices can be made visible.

7. STUPID TRICKS Sampler
       Many of these 'tricks' work best when you give  top  a  scheduling
       boost.  So plan on starting him with a nice value of -10, assuming
       you've got the authority.

   7a. Kernel Magic
       For these stupid tricks, top needs full-screen mode.

       o  The user interface, through  prompts	and  help,  intentionally
	  implies  that the delay interval is limited to tenths of a sec‐
	  ond.	However, you're free to set any desired	 delay.	  If  you
	  want	to  see	 Linux at his scheduling best, try a delay of .09
	  seconds or less.

	  For this experiment, under x-windows open an xterm and maximize
	  it.  Then do the following:
	    . provide a scheduling boost and tiny delay via:
		nice -n -10 top -d.09
	    . keep sorted column highlighting Off so as to
	      minimize path length
	    . turn On reverse row highlighting for emphasis
	    . try various sort columns (TIME/MEM work well),
	      and normal or reverse sorts to bring the most
	      active processes into view

	  What	you'll	see  is	 a very busy Linux doing what he's always
	  done for you, but there was no program available to  illustrate
	  this.

       o  Under	 an  xterm  using 'white-on-black' colors, on top's Color
	  Mapping screen set the task color to black  and  be  sure  that
	  task	highlighting  is  set to bold, not reverse.  Then set the
	  delay interval to around .3 seconds.

	  After bringing the most active processes into view, what you'll
	  see are the ghostly images of just the currently running tasks.

       o  Delete  the  existing	 rcfile,  or create a new symlink.  Start
	  this new version then type 'T' (a secret  key,  see  topic  4c.
	  Task Area Commands, SORTING) followed by 'W' and 'q'.	 Finally,
	  restart the program with -d0 (zero delay).

	  Your display will be refreshed at three times the rate  of  the
	  former  top,	a  300%	 speed advantage.  As top climbs the TIME
	  ladder, be as patient as you can while speculating  on  whether
	  or not top will ever reach the top.

   7b. Bouncing Windows
       For these stupid tricks, top needs alternate-display mode.

       o  With	3  or 4 task displays visible, pick any window other than
	  the last and turn idle processes Off using the 'i' command tog‐
	  gle.	 Depending  on	where  you applied 'i', sometimes several
	  task displays are bouncing and sometimes it's	 like  an  accor‐
	  dion, as top tries his best to allocate space.

       o  Set each window's summary lines differently: one with no memory
	  ('m'); another with no states ('t'); maybe one with nothing  at
	  all,	just  the  message  line.   Then hold down 'a' or 'w' and
	  watch a variation on bouncing windows	 --  hopping windows.

       o  Display all 4 windows and for each, in turn, set idle processes
	  to  Off  using the 'i' command toggle.  You've just entered the
	  "extreme bounce" zone.

   7c. The Big Bird Window
       This stupid trick also requires alternate-display mode.

       o  Display all 4 windows and make sure that 1:Def is the ´current´
	  window.   Then, keep increasing window size with the 'n' inter‐
	  active command until all the other task  displays  are  "pushed
	  out of the nest".

	  When	they've	 all  been  displaced,	toggle	between all visi‐
	  ble/invisible windows using the '_' command toggle.  Then  pon‐
	  der this:
	     is top fibbing or telling honestly your imposed truth?

   7d. The Ol' Switcheroo
       This stupid trick works best without alternate-display mode, since
       justification is active on a per window basis.

       o  Start top and make COMMAND the  last	(rightmost)  column  dis‐
	  played.   If	necessary,  use the 'c' command toggle to display
	  command lines and ensure that forest view mode is  active  with
	  the 'V' command toggle.

	  Then use the up/down arrow keys to position the display so that
	  some truncated command lines are shown ('+' in last  position).
	  You may have to resize your xterm to produce truncation.

	  Lastly,  use	the 'j' command toggle to make the COMMAND column
	  right justified.

	  Now use the right arrow key to reach the COMMAND column.   Con‐
	  tinuing  with	 the right arrow key, watch closely the direction
	  of travel for the command lines being shown.

	     some lines travel left, while others travel right

	     eventually all lines will Switcheroo, and move right

8. BUGS
       To report bugs, follow the instructions at:
	   http://www.debian.org/Bugs/Reporting

9. HISTORY Former top
       The original top was written  by	 Roger	Binns,	based  on  Branko
       Lankester's <lankeste@fwi.uva.nl> ps program.

       Robert  Nation <nation@rocket.sanders.lockheed.com> adapted it for
       the proc file system.

       Helmut Geyer  <Helmut.Geyer@iwr.uni-heidelberg.de>  added  support
       for configurable fields.

       Plus many other individuals contributed over the years.

10. AUTHOR
       This entirely new and enhanced replacement was written by:
	   Jim Warner, <james.warner@comcast.net>

       With invaluable help from:
	   Craig Small, <csmall@enc.com.au>
	   Albert Cahalan, <albert@users.sf.net>

11. SEE Also
       free(1), ps(1), uptime(1), atop(1), slabtop(1), vmstat(8), w(1).

procps-ng			March 2013			   TOP(1)
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