sa, accton - print process accounting statistics
/etc/sa [ options ] [ file ]
/etc/accton [ file ]
file With an argument naming an existing file, causes system
accounting information for every process executed to be placed
at the end of the file. If no argument is given, accounting is
The command reports on, cleans up, and generally maintains accounting
The is able to condense the information in into a summary file which
contains a count of the number of times each command was called and the
time resources consumed. This condensation is desirable because on a
large system can grow by 100 blocks per day. The summary file is nor‐
mally read before the accounting file, so the reports include all
If a file name is given as the last argument, that file will be treated
as the accounting file. The file is the default.
Output fields are labeled: “cpu” for the sum of user+system time (in
cpu seconds), “re” for real time (also in cpu seconds), “k” for cpu-
time averaged core usage (in 1k units), “avio” for average number of
I/O operations per execution. With options fields labeled “tio” for
total I/O operations, “k*sec” for cpu storage integral (kilo-core sec‐
onds), “u” and “s” for user and system cpu time alone (both in cpu sec‐
onds) will sometimes appear.
Options-a List all command names including those containing unprintable
characters and those used only once. By default, places all
command names containing unprintable characters and those used
only once under the name `***other.'
-b Sort output by sum of user and system time divided by number of
calls. Default sort is by sum of user and system times.
-c Besides total user, system, and real time for each command,
print percentage of total time over all commands.
-d Sort by average number of disk I/O operations.
-D Print and sort by total number of disk I/O operations.
-f Force no interactive threshold compression with option.
-i Do not read in summary file.
-j Instead of total minutes for each category, give seconds per
-k Sort by cpu-time average memory usage.
-K Print and sort by cpu-storage integral.
-l Separate system and user time; normally they are combined.
-m Print number of processes and number of CPU minutes for each
-n Sort by number of calls.
-r Reverse order of sort.
-s Merge accounting file into summary file when done.
-t For each command, report ratio of real time to the sum of user
and system times. If the sum of user and system times is too
small to report, `*ignore*' appears in this field.
-u Superseding all other flags, print for each command in the
accounting file the user ID and command name.
-v Followed by a number n, types the name of each command used n
times or fewer. Await a reply from the terminal; if it begins
with `y', add the command to the category `**junk**.' This is
used to strip out garbage.
Accounting is suspended when there is less than 2% free space on disk.
Accounting resumes when free space rises above 4%.
See Alsoacct(2), ac(8)sa(8)