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man(1)									man(1)

Name
       man - displays manual pages online

Syntax
       man -k keyword...
       man -f page_title...
       man [ options ] [ -roff_options ]... [ section ] page_title...
       man [ options ] [ section page_title...	]...

       /usr/bin/man [ option ] [ section ] page_title...
       /usr/bin/man [ options ] [ section page_title...	 ]...

Description
       There  are  two	commands:  and For most users, is the default command.
       The command
       which man
       shows you which command is the default.	The recommended default is

       Both the commands provide online displays of specified reference pages.

   The /usr/ucb/man Command.
       The basic function of this command is to	 provide  online  displays  of
       reference  pages.   You can use options, however, to direct the command
       to display one line summaries of reference pages which contain specific
       keywords, to display one line summaries of specific reference pages, to
       use special formatting options when preparing the  reference  page  for
       display or printing, and to search alternate reference page directories
       for specified reference pages.

       If an option is not used, the command formats and displays one or  more
       specified reference pages.  If there are multiple reference pages which
       match a specified name, only the first matching reference page is  dis‐
       played.	 If  there  are	 multiple matches in a section for a specified
       name, the matching page in the first alphabetically  occurring  subsec‐
       tion is displayed.

       If  you	specify the command with a section argument, the command looks
       in that section of the reference pages for the specified	 page  titles.
       A section consists of a number in the range 0 to 9, optionally followed
       by an alphanumeric subsection, or section  can  be  the	name  `local',
       `new',  `old', or `public'.  Numbers 0 and 9 are non-standard.  If a is
       omitted, the command searches all  sections  of	the  reference	pages.
       The  command  displays  commands (both standard and local) over subrou‐
       tines in system libraries, and displays the first occurrence it	finds,
       if  any.	  If Section 1 is specified, the sections n, l, and o are also
       searched, if they exist.

       The section and page_title...  arguments can be paired, so that	multi‐
       ple  pages  can be searched for in a section, and multiple sections can
       be searched for a page or pages.

       All displays are directed to standard out, unless redirected, or unless
       the  option is specified.  If the standard output is a teletype device,
       the command completes the following: pipes the output through the  com‐
       mand  using  the	 option	 -s  to	 eliminate unnecessary blank lines and
       invokes the command using the option -s to display a screen at a time.

       If a specified reference page is not already formatted, but the	source
       file  exists,  the  command  preprocesses the file through the command.
       The command next pipes the output to the command, or to the command  if
       the  option was specified, using the macros package.  If the output was
       directed to the command, the output is then piped through the  postpro‐
       cessor,	then  directed	to standard out.  If the appropriate directory
       exists, the formatted display is saved there.

   The /usr/bin/man Command
       The command performs the same basic function as the command,  that  is,
       formats	and displays or prints specified reference pages.  It does not
       provide all the functions of and there are some differences  in	common
       functions.

       The command searches for the specified reference pages, and formats and
       displays all reference pages matching the specified names.  If no  sec‐
       tion  is specified, all sections 1 through 8 are searched.  In the case
       of multiple matches, the display order is in numeric section order, and
       ASCII subsection order within a section.

       All displays are directed to standard out, unless redirected, or unless
       an option is used which requests processing through the command.	 If  a
       option  was  not	 specified,  then the standard output is to a teletype
       device.	If the standard output is a teletype  device,  the  pipes  the
       output  through	the postprocessor, then directs the output to standard
       out.

       The command does not use preformatted  files.   It  searches  only  the
       directories for source files.

       If  a specified file exists, it is always preprocessed through the com‐
       mand.

       If an option is not used, the command formats  and  displays  specified
       reference pages using the command.

       If  multiple  options  are  specified,  only  the last one is executed,
       except that multiple roff_options are accepted and executed.

Options
   /usr/ucb/man Options
       The following options are recognized only by the	 command.   Note  that
       the options and do not have the same functionality as the corresponding
       options.

       -	   Squeeze multiple blank lines from output.

       -f	   Display one line summaries of each page title specified  on
		   the command line.

       -k	   Display one line summaries of each reference page that con‐
		   tains the specified keyword or keywords.

       -P manpath  Search the specified manpath directory instead of

       -s	   Remove unnecessary blank lines.

       -t	   Phototypesets the output through the command.

		   This option requires the installation of the command, which
		   is  unsupported.  When the -t option is specified, the out‐
		   put is directed, by -t option, to the printer or typesetter
		   specified  by  the  PRINTER	environment variable.  PRINTER
		   must be set to a printer which is capable of handling  out‐
		   put	files.	The default is the lp printer (see description
		   of the -t option for more information).

   /usr/bin/man Options
       The following options are recognized by the  command.   Note  that  the
       options	and  do	 not  have the same functionality as the corresponding
       options.

       -roff_options
		   Inserts the specified roff_option  in  front	 of  the  -man
		   option  when the appropriate *roff text formatter is called
		   (the other  options	determine  which  *roff	 formatter  is
		   called).   Multiple	roff_options  can  be specified.  If a
		   null value is specified, the results are unpredictable.

       -e | -et | -te
		   Preproceses the display with the command, then performs the
		   same steps as the option.

		   This	 option requires the installation of the and commands,
		   which are unsupported.

       -ek | -ke   Preproceses the display with the command, then performs the
		   same steps as the option.

		   This	 option requires the installation of the and commands,
		   which are unsupported.

       -k	   Formats the display	through	 the  command,	using  troff's
		   option, then directs the output to the command.

		   This	 option requires the installation of the and commands,
		   which are unsupported.

       -n	   Formats the display	through	 the  command.	 This  is  the
		   default.

       -ne | -en   Preproceses the display with the command, then performs the
		   same steps as the option.

		   This option requires the installation of the command, which
		   is unsupported.

       -t	   Photypesets the output through the command.

		   This option requires the installation of the command, which
		   is unsupported.

       -w	   Shows where the specified reference pages are located, rel‐
		   ative to the directory.

Restrictions
       The reference pages are reproducible on phototypesetters or on hardcopy
       devices.	 However, some devices do not properly handle special  charac‐
       ters which causes information to be lost.

       Some  options require the installation of unsupported software.	Use of
       these options is at your own risk.

       Options which call the or commands will generally fail when  used  with
       the  ULTRIX  reference  pages, because any ULTRIX reference pages which
       use commands were preprocessed through the text formatter before	 being
       packaged	 for  shipment	to  you.   text preprocessors generally report
       numerous errors when attempts are made to reprocess files a second time
       through an text preprocessor.

       Both  and commands to the directory before searching for and formatting
       files.  Some reference pages assume that this happens.	Therefore,  an
       attempt	to  format some reference pages manually with a text formatter
       may fail if you are not sitting in the directory.

   /usr/ucb/man Restrictions
       If a specified reference page exists in the appropriate directory,  but
       there is no appropriate directory, you will not be able to scroll back‐
       wards in the display.

       The man directories for sections n, l, o,  p,  0	 and  9	 are  optional
       directories. They must be created by the system administrator.

       The directories are not required to exist.  They must be created by the
       system administrator.  This is generally done through the command.

Examples
   /usr/ucb/man Examples
       The following examples all assume the use of the default command:

       The following example shows how to locate  reference  pages  containing
       the keyword `graph':
       % man -k graph
       The following example shows how to display the reference page:
       % man 1g graph
       The following example shows how to display reference pages:
       % man 1 plot 3 plot
       The following example shows how to display and reference pages:
       % man 1 chmod chown 2 chmod chown
       The  following  example	shows  how  to display a reference page in the
       directory.  In order to locate the reference page here,	it  must  have
       the file name so its reference page title would be
       % man local test
       To locate the reference pages in Section 1:
       % man 1 test 1sh5 test
       If  you have a directory which contains subdirectories, which also con‐
       tain reference pages, then the following example shows how to display a
       reference page located somewhere in a subdirectory of
       % man -P /usr/local games

   /usr/bin/man Examples
       The following example shows how to display reference pages:
       % /usr/bin/man chmod
       The  above  displays  all  the reference pages from all sections of the
       installed reference pages.

       The following example shows how to display all the reference  pages  in
       Section 1:
       % /usr/bin/man 1 test

       The following example shows how to locate all the reference pages:
       % /usr/bin/man -w test

       The  following  example	shows how to locate all the reference pages in
       Section 3:
       % /usr/bin/man -w 3 intro
       The following example displays the reference page with a starting  page
       number of 10.
       % /usr/bin/man -n10 1 man

Files
       The default	   command.

       The alternate	   command.

       These directories contain the online reference pages which
			   are divided into sections 1 through 8, n, l, o, and
			   p.  Sections 0 and 9 can also exist but  these  are
			   non-standard sections.

       These directories contain the files generated by the
			   and commands.

       This file contains the summary lines of each reference page.

       These directories contain reference pages to be searched by the
			   command when the manpath option is specified. These
			   directories must have  the  same  organization  and
			   format as

See Also
       apropos(1),  col(1),  nroff(1), page(1), tbl(1), whatis(1), whereis(1),
       man(7), catman(8)

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