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BIOCTL(8)		OpenBSD System Manager's Manual		     BIOCTL(8)

     bioctl - RAID management interface

     bioctl [-hiqv] [-a alarm-function] [-b channel:target[.lun]]
	    [-H channel:target[.lun]] [-R device | channel:target[.lun]]
	    [-u channel:target[.lun]] device

     bioctl [-dhiPqsv] [-C flag[,flag,...]] [-c raidlevel] [-k keydisk]
	    [-l special[,special,...]] [-p passfile]
	    [-R device | channel:target[.lun]] [-r rounds] device

     RAID device drivers which support management functionality can register
     their services with the bio(4) driver.  bioctl then can be used to
     maintain RAID volumes.

     In the first synopsis, RAID controllers are managed.  device specifies
     either a drive (e.g. sd0) or a RAID controller (e.g. ami0).  For
     operations which will be performed against ses(4) or safte(4) enclosures,
     it is also possible to directly specify the enclosure name (e.g. safte0).

     In the second synopsis, softraid(4) devices are managed.  device
     specifies either a drive (e.g. sd0) or a softraid(4) device (e.g.

     The options for RAID controllers are as follows:

     -a alarm-function
	     Control the RAID card's alarm functionality, if supported.
	     alarm-function may be one of:

	     disable  Disable the alarm on the RAID controller.
	     enable   Enable the alarm on the RAID controller.
	     get      Retrieve the current alarm state (enabled or disabled).
	     silence | quiet
		      Silence the alarm if it is currently beeping.

	     The alarm-function may be specified as given above, or by the
	     first letter only (e.g. -a e).

     -b channel:target[.lun]
	     Instruct the device at channel:target[.lun] to start blinking, if
	     there is ses(4) or safte(4) support in the enclosure.

     -H channel:target[.lun]
	     If the device at channel:target[.lun] is currently marked
	     ``Unused'', promote it to being a ``Hot Spare''.

     -h	     Where necessary, produce ``human-readable'' output.  Use unit
	     suffixes: Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, Terabyte, Petabyte,
	     Exabyte in order to reduce the number of digits to four or less.

     -i	     Enumerate the selected RAID devices.  This is the default if no
	     other option is given.

     -q	     Show vendor, product, revision, and serial number for the given

     -R device | channel:target[.lun]
	     Manually kick off a rebuild of a RAID volume, using device or
	     channel:target[.lun] as a new chunk (with softraid(4), a
	     partition of fstype ``RAID'') in the volume.  device must be
	     specified as a full path to the chunk device file (e.g.
	     /dev/wd0d).  A RAID volume rather than a RAID controller is
	     expected as the final argument.

     -u channel:target[.lun]
	     Instruct the device at channel:target[.lun] to cease blinking, if
	     there is ses(4) or safte(4) support in the enclosure.

     -v	     Be more verbose in output.

     In addition to the relevant options listed above, the options for
     softraid(4) devices are as follows:

     -C flag[,flag,...]
	     Pass flag to bioctl.  May be one of:

	     force    Force the operation; for example, force the creation of
		      volumes with unclean data in the metadata areas.
	     noauto   Do not automatically assemble this volume at boot time.

     -c raidlevel
	     Create a softraid(4) device of level raidlevel.  The device must
	     begin with ``softraid'' followed by a number.

	     Valid raidlevels are:

		   0	   RAID 0: A striping discipline.
		   1	   RAID 1: A mirroring discipline.
		   4	   RAID 4: A striping discipline with fixed parity
		   5	   RAID 5: A striping discipline with floating parity
		   C	   CRYPTO: An encrypting discipline.

	     The RAID 0 and RAID 1 disciplines requires a minimum of two
	     devices passed to -l, RAID 4 and RAID 5 require at least three
	     devices, and the CRYPTO discipline requires exactly one.

     -d	     Delete volume specified by device.

     -k keydisk
	     Use special device keydisk as a key disk for a crypto volume.

     -l special[,special,...]
	     Use special device list to create within the softraid(4)
	     framework.	 Requires -c.

     -P	     Change the passphrase on the selected crypto volume.

     -p passfile
	     Passphrase file used when crypto volumes are brought up.  This
	     file must be root owned and have 0600 permissions.	 This option
	     cannot be used during the initial creation of the crypto volume.

     -r rounds
	     When creating an encrypted volume, specifies the number of
	     iterations of the PBKDF2 algorithm used to convert a passphrase
	     into a key.  Higher iteration counts take more time, but offer
	     more resistance to key guessing attacks.  The minimum is 1000
	     rounds and the default is 8192.

     -s	     Read the passphrase for the selected crypto volume from
	     /dev/stdin rather than /dev/tty.  This option cannot be used
	     during the initial creation of the crypto volume.

     The following command, executed from the command line, would configure
     the device softraid0 with 4 special devices (/dev/sd2e, /dev/sd3e,
     /dev/sd4e, /dev/sd5e) and a raid level of 1:

	# bioctl -c 1 -l /dev/sd2e,/dev/sd3e,/dev/sd4e,/dev/sd5e softraid0

     The following command, executed from the command line, would configure
     the device softraid0 with one special device (/dev/sd2e) and an
     encrypting volume:

	# bioctl -c C -l /dev/sd2e softraid0

     bioctl will ask for a passphrase, which will be needed to unlock the
     encrypted disk.  After creating a newly encrypted disk, the first
     megabyte of it should be zeroed, so tools like fdisk(8) or disklabel(8)
     don't get confused by the random data that appears on the new disk.  This
     can be done with the following command (assuming the new disk is sd3):

	# dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rsd3c bs=1m count=1

     Deleting a softraid volume requires the exact volume name.	 For example:

	# bioctl -d sd2

     The following command starts a rebuild of the degraded softraid volume
     sd0 using a new chunk on wd0d:

	# bioctl -R /dev/wd0d sd0

     bio(4), scsi(4), softraid(4)

     PKCS #5: Password-Based Cryptography Specification Version 2.0, RFC 2898,

     The bioctl command first appeared in OpenBSD 3.8.

     The bioctl interface was written by Marco Peereboom <>.

     Use of the CRYPTO & RAID 4/5 disciplines are currently considered

OpenBSD 4.9		       December 22, 2010		   OpenBSD 4.9

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