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CI(1)									 CI(1)

       ci - check in RCS revisions

       ci [options] file ...

       ci stores new revisions into RCS files.	Each file name matching an RCS
       suffix is taken to be an RCS file.  All others are assumed to be	 work‐
       ing  files  containing new revisions.  ci deposits the contents of each
       working file into the corresponding RCS file.  If only a	 working  file
       is  given, ci tries to find the corresponding RCS file in an RCS subdi‐
       rectory and then in the working file's directory.   For	more  details,
       see FILE NAMING below.

       For  ci	to work, the caller's login must be on the access list, except
       if the access list is empty or the caller is the superuser or the owner
       of  the	file.  To append a new revision to an existing branch, the tip
       revision on that branch must be locked by the caller.  Otherwise,  only
       a  new branch can be created.  This restriction is not enforced for the
       owner of the file if non-strict locking is used (see rcs(1)).   A  lock
       held by someone else can be broken with the rcs command.

       Unless  the  -f	option	is given, ci checks whether the revision to be
       deposited differs from the preceding one.  If not, instead of  creating
       a new revision ci reverts to the preceding one.	To revert, ordinary ci
       removes the working file and any lock; ci -l keeps  and	ci -u  removes
       any  lock,  and	then  they both generate a new working file much as if
       co -l or co -u had  been	 applied  to  the  preceding  revision.	  When
       reverting, any -n and -s options apply to the preceding revision.

       For  each  revision  deposited,	ci prompts for a log message.  The log
       message should summarize the change and must be terminated  by  end-of-
       file or by a line containing . by itself.  If several files are checked
       in ci asks whether to reuse the previous log message.  If the  standard
       input is not a terminal, ci suppresses the prompt and uses the same log
       message for all files.  See also -m.

       If the RCS file does not exist, ci creates it and deposits the contents
       of the working file as the initial revision (default number: 1.1).  The
       access list is initialized to empty.  Instead of the  log  message,  ci
       requests descriptive text (see -t below).

       The  number  rev	 of  the deposited revision can be given by any of the
       options -f, -i, -I, -j, -k, -l, -M, -q, -r, or -u.   rev	 can  be  sym‐
       bolic,  numeric,	 or  mixed.   Symbolic	names  in  rev must already be
       defined; see the -n and -N options for assigning names during  checkin.
       If  rev	is $, ci determines the revision number from keyword values in
       the working file.

       If rev begins with a period, then  the  default	branch	(normally  the
       trunk)  is  prepended  to  it.  If rev is a branch number followed by a
       period, then the latest revision on that branch is used.

       If rev is a revision number, it must be higher than the latest  one  on
       the branch to which rev belongs, or must start a new branch.

       If  rev	is a branch rather than a revision number, the new revision is
       appended to that branch.	 The level number is obtained by  incrementing
       the  tip revision number of that branch.	 If rev indicates a non-exist‐
       ing branch, that branch is created with the initial  revision  numbered

       If  rev is omitted, ci tries to derive the new revision number from the
       caller's last lock.  If the caller has locked the  tip  revision	 of  a
       branch,	the new revision is appended to that branch.  The new revision
       number is obtained by incrementing the tip  revision  number.   If  the
       caller locked a non-tip revision, a new branch is started at that revi‐
       sion by incrementing the highest branch number at that  revision.   The
       default initial branch and level numbers are 1.

       If  rev	is  omitted  and the caller has no lock, but owns the file and
       locking is not set to strict, then the  revision	 is  appended  to  the
       default branch (normally the trunk; see the -b option of rcs(1)).

       Exception:  On the trunk, revisions can be appended to the end, but not

       -rrev  Check in revision rev.

       -r     The bare -r option (without any revision) has an unusual meaning
	      in  ci.  With other RCS commands, a bare -r option specifies the
	      most recent revision on the default branch, but with ci, a  bare
	      -r option reestablishes the default behavior of releasing a lock
	      and removing the working file,  and  is  used  to	 override  any
	      default  -l  or  -u  options  established	 by  shell  aliases or

	      works like -r, except it performs an additional  co -l  for  the
	      deposited revision.  Thus, the deposited revision is immediately
	      checked out again and locked.  This is useful for saving a revi‐
	      sion  although  one  wants  to  continue	editing	 it  after the

	      works like -l, except that the deposited revision is not locked.
	      This lets one read the working file immediately after checkin.

	      The  -l,	bare  -r,  and	-u  options are mutually exclusive and
	      silently override each other.  For example, ci -u -r is  equiva‐
	      lent to ci -r because bare -r overrides -u.

	      forces  a	 deposit; the new revision is deposited even it is not
	      different from the preceding one.

	      searches the working file for keyword values  to	determine  its
	      revision	number,	 creation date, state, and author (see co(1)),
	      and assigns these values to the deposited revision, rather  than
	      computing	 them locally.	It also generates a default login mes‐
	      sage noting the login of the caller and the actual checkin date.
	      This  option  is	useful	for software distribution.  A revision
	      that is sent to several sites should be checked in with  the  -k
	      option  at  these	 sites	to preserve the original number, date,
	      author, and state.  The extracted keyword values and the default
	      log  message  can be overridden with the options -d, -m, -s, -w,
	      and any option that carries a revision number.

	      quiet mode; diagnostic output is not printed.  A	revision  that
	      is not different from the preceding one is not deposited, unless
	      -f is given.

	      initial checkin; report an error if the RCS file already exists.
	      This avoids race conditions in certain applications.

	      just  checkin  and do not initialize; report an error if the RCS
	      file does not already exist.

	      interactive mode; the user is prompted and  questioned  even  if
	      the standard input is not a terminal.

	      uses  date for the checkin date and time.	 The date is specified
	      in free format as explained in co(1).  This is useful for	 lying
	      about  the checkin date, and for -k if no date is available.  If
	      date is empty, the working file's time of last  modification  is

	      Set the modification time on any new working file to be the date
	      of the retrieved revision.  For example, ci -d -M -u f does  not
	      alter  f's modification time, even if f's contents change due to
	      keyword substitution.  Use this option with care; it can confuse

	      uses the string msg as the log message for all revisions checked
	      in.  If msg is omitted, it defaults to "***  empty  log  message
	      ***".   By  convention,  log messages that start with # are com‐
	      ments and are ignored by programs like GNU Emacs's  vc  package.
	      Also,  log  messages  that  start	 with {clumpname} (followed by
	      white space) are meant to be clumped together if possible,  even
	      if  they	are  associated	 with different files; the {clumpname}
	      label is used only for clumping, and is  not  considered	to  be
	      part of the log message itself.

       -nname assigns  the  symbolic name name to the number of the checked-in
	      revision.	 ci  prints  an	 error	message	 if  name  is  already
	      assigned to another number.

       -Nname same  as	-n,  except that it overrides a previous assignment of

	      sets the state of the  checked-in	 revision  to  the  identifier
	      state.  The default state is Exp.

       -tfile writes descriptive text from the contents of the named file into
	      the RCS file, deleting the existing text.	 The file cannot begin
	      with -.

	      Write descriptive text from the string into the RCS file, delet‐
	      ing the existing text.

	      The -t option, in both its forms, has effect only during an ini‐
	      tial checkin; it is silently ignored otherwise.

	      During  the  initial checkin, if -t is not given, ci obtains the
	      text from standard input, terminated by end-of-file or by a line
	      containing  . by	itself.	  The user is prompted for the text if
	      interaction is possible; see -I.

	      For backward compatibility with older versions of RCS, a bare -t
	      option is ignored.

       -T     Set  the RCS file's modification time to the new revision's time
	      if the former precedes the latter and there is a	new  revision;
	      preserve	the  RCS  file's  modification time otherwise.	If you
	      have locked a revision, ci usually updates the RCS file's	 modi‐
	      fication time to the current time, because the lock is stored in
	      the RCS file and removing the lock  requires  changing  the  RCS
	      file.   This  can create an RCS file newer than the working file
	      in one of two ways: first, ci -M can create a working file  with
	      a	 date  before  the current time; second, when reverting to the
	      previous revision the RCS file can change while the working file
	      remains unchanged.  These two cases can cause excessive recompi‐
	      lation caused by a make(1) dependency of the working file on the
	      RCS  file.   The	-T option inhibits this recompilation by lying
	      about the RCS file's date.  Use this option with	care;  it  can
	      suppress	recompilation  even when a checkin of one working file
	      should affect another working file associated with the same  RCS
	      file.   For  example,  suppose the RCS file's time is 01:00, the
	      (changed) working file's time is 02:00, some other copy  of  the
	      working file has a time of 03:00, and the current time is 04:00.
	      Then ci -d -T sets the RCS file's time to 02:00 instead  of  the
	      usual 04:00; this causes make(1) to think (incorrectly) that the
	      other copy is newer than the RCS file.

	      uses login for the author field of the deposited revision.  Use‐
	      ful  for	lying  about  the  author,  and for -k if no author is

       -V     Print RCS's version number.

       -Vn    Emulate RCS version n.  See co(1) for details.

	      specifies the suffixes for RCS files.  A nonempty suffix matches
	      any file name ending in the suffix.  An empty suffix matches any
	      file name of the	form  RCS/frag	or  frag1/RCS/frag2.   The  -x
	      option can specify a list of suffixes separated by /.  For exam‐
	      ple, -x,v/ specifies two suffixes: ,v and the empty suffix.   If
	      two or more suffixes are specified, they are tried in order when
	      looking for an RCS file; the first one that works	 is  used  for
	      that  file.  If no RCS file is found but an RCS file can be cre‐
	      ated, the suffixes are tried in order to determine the  new  RCS
	      file's  name.   The  default for suffixes is installation-depen‐
	      dent; normally it is ,v/ for hosts like Unix that permit	commas
	      in  file	names,	and  is empty (i.e. just the empty suffix) for
	      other hosts.

       -zzone specifies the date output format in  keyword  substitution,  and
	      specifies	 the  default time zone for date in the -ddate option.
	      The zone should be empty, a numeric UTC offset, or  the  special
	      string  LT  for local time.  The default is an empty zone, which
	      uses the traditional RCS format of UTC  without  any  time  zone
	      indication  and  with  slashes separating the parts of the date;
	      otherwise, times are output in ISO 8601 format  with  time  zone
	      indication.  For example, if local time is January 11, 1990, 8pm
	      Pacific Standard Time, eight hours west of UTC, then the time is
	      output as follows:

		     option    time output
		     -z	       1990/01/12 04:00:00	  (default)
		     -zLT      1990-01-11 20:00:00-08
		     -z+05:30  1990-01-12 09:30:00+05:30

	      The  -z  option does not affect dates stored in RCS files, which
	      are always UTC.

       Pairs of RCS files and working files can be  specified  in  three  ways
       (see also the example section).

       1) Both the RCS file and the working file are given.  The RCS file name
       is of the form frag1/workfileX and the working file name is of the form
       frag2/workfile  where  frag1/  and  frag2/  are	(possibly different or
       empty) file names, workfile is a file name, and X is an RCS suffix.  If
       X is empty, frag1/ must start with RCS/ or must contain /RCS/.

       2) Only the RCS file is given.  Then the working file is created in the
       current directory and its name is derived from the  RCS	file  name  by
       removing frag1/ and the suffix X.

       3) Only the working file is given.  Then ci considers each RCS suffix X
       in turn, looking for an RCS file of the form frag2/RCS/workfileX or (if
       the former is not found and X is nonempty) frag2/workfileX.

       If the RCS file is specified without a file name in 1) and 2), ci looks
       for the RCS file first in the directory ./RCS and then in  the  current

       ci  reports  an	error  if  an attempt to open an RCS file fails for an
       unusual reason, even if the RCS file's name is just one of several pos‐
       sibilities.   For  example, to suppress use of RCS commands in a direc‐
       tory d, create a regular file named d/RCS so that  casual  attempts  to
       use RCS commands in d fail because d/RCS is not a directory.

       Suppose ,v is an RCS suffix and the current directory contains a subdi‐
       rectory RCS with an RCS file io.c,v.  Then each of the  following  com‐
       mands  check  in a copy of io.c into RCS/io.c,v as the latest revision,
       removing io.c.

	      ci  io.c;	   ci  RCS/io.c,v;   ci	 io.c,v;
	      ci  io.c	RCS/io.c,v;    ci  io.c	 io.c,v;
	      ci  RCS/io.c,v  io.c;    ci  io.c,v  io.c;

       Suppose instead that the empty suffix is an RCS suffix and the  current
       directory  contains a subdirectory RCS with an RCS file io.c.  The each
       of the following commands checks in a new revision.

	      ci  io.c;	   ci  RCS/io.c;
	      ci  io.c	RCS/io.c;
	      ci  RCS/io.c  io.c;

       An RCS file created by ci inherits the  read  and  execute  permissions
       from  the  working  file.  If the RCS file exists already, ci preserves
       its read and execute permissions.  ci always turns off all  write  per‐
       missions of RCS files.

       Temporary  files	 are  created  in the directory containing the working
       file, and also in the temporary directory (see  TMPDIR  under  ENVIRON‐
       MENT).  A semaphore file or files are created in the directory contain‐
       ing the RCS file.  With a nonempty suffix, the  semaphore  names	 begin
       with  the  first	 character of the suffix; therefore, do not specify an
       suffix whose first character could be that  of  a  working  file	 name.
       With  an	 empty	suffix, the semaphore names end with _ so working file
       names should not end in _.

       ci never changes an RCS file or working file.  Normally, ci unlinks the
       file  and  creates a new one; but instead of breaking a chain of one or
       more symbolic links to an RCS file, it  unlinks	the  destination  file
       instead.	  Therefore, ci breaks any hard or symbolic links to any work‐
       ing file it changes; and hard links to RCS files are  ineffective,  but
       symbolic links to RCS files are preserved.

       The  effective user must be able to search and write the directory con‐
       taining the RCS file.  Normally, the real user must be able to read the
       RCS  and working files and to search and write the directory containing
       the working file;  however,  some  older	 hosts	cannot	easily	switch
       between	real and effective users, so on these hosts the effective user
       is used for all accesses.  The effective user is the same as  the  real
       user  unless  your  copies  of  ci  and	co have setuid privileges.  As
       described in the next section, these privileges yield extra security if
       the  effective user owns all RCS files and directories, and if only the
       effective user can write RCS directories.

       Users can control access to RCS files by setting the permissions of the
       directory  containing  the  files;  only users with write access to the
       directory can use RCS commands to change its RCS files.	 For  example,
       in  hosts that allow a user to belong to several groups, one can make a
       group's RCS directories writable to that	 group	only.	This  approach
       suffices	 for informal projects, but it means that any group member can
       arbitrarily change the group's RCS files,  and  can  even  remove  them
       entirely.   Hence more formal projects sometimes distinguish between an
       RCS administrator, who can change the RCS  files	 at  will,  and	 other
       project	members,  who  can check in new revisions but cannot otherwise
       change the RCS files.

       To prevent anybody but their RCS administrator from deleting revisions,
       a set of users can employ setuid privileges as follows.

       · Check	that  the host supports RCS setuid use.	 Consult a trustworthy
	 expert if there are any doubts.  It is best  if  the  seteuid	system
	 call  works  as  described  in Posix 1003.1a Draft 5, because RCS can
	 switch back and forth easily between real and effective  users,  even
	 if  the  real user is root.  If not, the second best is if the setuid
	 system call supports saved setuid (the {_POSIX_SAVED_IDS} behavior of
	 Posix	1003.1-1990); this fails only if the real or effective user is
	 root.	If RCS detects any failure in setuid, it quits immediately.

       · Choose a user A to serve as RCS administrator for the set  of	users.
	 Only  A can invoke the rcs command on the users' RCS files.  A should
	 not be root or any other user with special powers.   Mutually	suspi‐
	 cious sets of users should use different administrators.

       · Choose a file name B to be a directory of files to be executed by the

       · Have A set up B to contain copies of ci and co that are setuid	 to  A
	 by  copying the commands from their standard installation directory D
	 as follows:

	      mkdir  B
	      cp  D/c[io]  B
	      chmod  go-w,u+s  B/c[io]

       · Have each user prepend B to their command search path as follows:

	      PATH=B:$PATH;  export  PATH  # ordinary shell
	      set  path=(B  $path)  # C shell

       · Have A create each RCS directory R with write access  only  to	 A  as

	      mkdir  R
	      chmod  go-w  R

       · If  you  want	to  let only certain users read the RCS files, put the
	 users into a group G, and have A further protect the RCS directory as

	      chgrp  G	R
	      chmod  g-w,o-rwx	R

       · Have  A  copy	old  RCS  files (if any) into R, to ensure that A owns

       · An RCS file's access list limits who can check in and lock revisions.
	 The default access list is empty, which grants checkin access to any‐
	 one who can read the RCS file.	 If you	 want  limit  checkin  access,
	 have  A  invoke  rcs -a  on  the  file;  see  rcs(1).	In particular,
	 rcs -e -aA limits access to just A.

       · Have A initialize any	new  RCS  files	 with  rcs -i  before  initial
	 checkin, adding the -a option if you want to limit checkin access.

       · Give setuid privileges only to ci, co, and rcsclean; do not give them
	 to rcs or to any other command.

       · Do not use other setuid commands to invoke RCS	 commands;  setuid  is
	 trickier than you think!

	      Options  prepended to the argument list, separated by spaces.  A
	      backslash escapes spaces within an option.  The RCSINIT  options
	      are  prepended to the argument lists of most RCS commands.  Use‐
	      ful RCSINIT options include -q, -V, -x, and -z.

	      An integer lim, measured in kilobytes, specifying the  threshold
	      under which commands will try to use memory-based operations for
	      processing the RCS file.	(For RCS files of size	lim  kilobytes
	      or  greater,  RCS will use the slower standard input/output rou‐
	      tines.)  Default value is 256.

       TMPDIR Name of the temporary directory.	If not	set,  the  environment
	      variables TMP and TEMP are inspected instead and the first value
	      found is taken; if  none	of  them  are  set,  a	host-dependent
	      default is used, typically /tmp.

       For  each  revision,  ci prints the RCS file, the working file, and the
       number of both the deposited and the preceding revision.	 The exit sta‐
       tus is zero if and only if all operations were successful.

       Author: Walter F. Tichy.
       Manual Page Revision: 5.9.0; Release Date: 2014-05-03.
       Copyright © 2010-2013 Thien-Thi Nguyen.
       Copyright © 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 Paul Eggert.
       Copyright © 1982, 1988, 1989 Walter F. Tichy.

       co(1),  emacs(1),  ident(1),  make(1), rcs(1), rcsclean(1), rcsdiff(1),
       rcsmerge(1), rlog(1), setuid(2), rcsfile(5).

       Walter F. Tichy, RCS--A System for Version Control,  Software--Practice
       & Experience 15, 7 (July 1985), 637-654.

       The  full  documentation for RCS is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If
       the info(1) and RCS programs are properly installed at your  site,  the

	      info rcs

       should  give  you access to the complete manual.	 Additionally, the RCS

       has news and links to the latest release, development site, etc.

GNU RCS 5.9.0			  2014-05-03				 CI(1)

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