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dspmsg(1)							     dspmsg(1)

       dspmsg - display a selected message from a message catalog

       |  set_number]  catalog_name message_number ['default_string' [argument
       ... ]]

       The command displays a particular message from a message catalog.   The
       display	may include a message identifier, depending on the presence of
       the or option and settings for the and environment variables.   A  mes‐
       sage  identifier	 consists  of  one of more of the following items: the
       catalog name, the set number, and the message number.  See the  subsec‐
       tion below for more information about these environment variables.

       The command recognizes the following options:

	      Specifies	 that message identifiers be displayed along with mes‐
			     strings, but only for those message  sets	speci‐
			     fied by the or environment variables.

			     You  can  override the default format of the mes‐
			     sage identifier by defining  the  or  environment
			     variable.	 See  the subsection for more informa‐

	      Specifies that the message identifier is displayed for  messages
	      in all
			     message  sets  under  control  of the environment
			     variable.	If you use this option,	 the  environ‐
			     ment variables have no effect.  However, you must
			     explicitly define one of  the  environment	 vari‐
			     ables  to	display the message identifiers.  When
			     you use this option, if the  message  catalog  is
			     not  found	 and  the  default_string  argument is
			     omitted, the message identifier is	 displayed  by
			     itself.   For  example,  will be displayed if the
			     catalog_name is and the message_number is and the
			     set_number is

	      Specifies the set number.
			     If	 not  specified,  searches for messages in the
			     first message set.

       The command recognizes the following operands:

	      catalog_name   Specifies the name	 of  a	message	 catalog.   By
			     default  searches	for  the catalog in the set of
			     directories specified by the environment variable
			     and  then	in  the current directory.  The search
			     can be disabled by prefixing a path name  to  the
			     catalog.	For  more  information about see envi‐

	      message_number Specifies the message  number  in	the  specified

			     If	 the  option is omitted, only searches for the
			     message in the first message set in the catalog.

	      default_string Specifies the message for the command to  display
			     if	 cannot find a message with the specified num‐
			     ber in the catalog.  If the message includes  the
			     notation  for message inserts, either enclose the
			     default message in single quotes  or  escape  the
			     character in the insertion notation

	      argument ...   Specifies	arguments (up to 10) to be inserted in
			     the catalog message or default message if it con‐
			     tains  either  the	 or  the conversion specifica‐
			     tions.  You must include the default_string argu‐
			     ment  in order to specify message insertion argu‐

       You must specify the message catalog  (catalog_name)  and  the  message
       (message_number).   You	must also specify the message set (set_number)
       if the catalog has more than one message set and the specified  message
       is not in the first set.

       The  command displays the default_string value if the specified message
       is not found in the catalog or the catalog cannot be found  or  opened.
       Usually	default_string	is  identical  to  the message in the catalog,
       except for the language in which the text is printed.  If  you  do  not
       specify	default_string,	 displays  nothing  if	the  message cannot be
       retrieved from the catalog.

       The following example displays message number 2 in set 3 of test.cat:

       If does not find the specified message in the catalog or cannot find or
       open the catalog, it displays the string "Sorry, that item is no longer
       in stock."

   Using Symbolic Names for Default Message Strings
       When the utility preprocesses a message source file, it	can  create  a
       file  that  defines  macros  or	variables for default message strings.
       When this file is included in a shell script or program, can specify  a
       symbolic	 name for the default_string argument.	In the following exam‐
       ple the file containing default message strings	created	 by  is	 first
       sourced in the POSIX shell.  Then the command is invoked using the name
       of one of these variables as the default message string.

	      dspmsg -s 3 store.cat 2 "${STORE_SOLDOUT}"

       The store_msg.sh file was  created  by  the  utility  and  defines  the
       STORE_SOLDOUT  variable to be the string "Sorry, that item is no longer
       in stock."  The utility created the variable  name  by  prepending  the
       prefix (STORE_) that was specified with the option to the symbolic name
       for the message (SOLDOUT).  See mkcatdefs(1) for more information about
       creating	 include  files that define symbolic names for default message

   Displaying Message Identifiers with Messages
       The command displays a message by itself or  preceded  by  its  message
       identifier.   Display  of  message identifiers is enabled by one of the

	      1) The option, which must be combined with a setting for the  or
		 environment  variable	and  can be combined with a setting of
		 the environment variable.  The catname is  the	 name  of  the
		 message  catalog  file	 in  uppercase	and without the ".cat"
		 extension.   It  overrides  the  environment	variable,   if

	      2) The  option,  which  must  be combined with a setting for the
		 environment variable and is not affected by settings  of  the
		 environment variables.

       Display	of  message identifiers is disabled under any of the following

	      1) For the option:

		 · The and environment variables are not defined.

		 · The value of the or (if that variable is not	 defined)  the
		   value of the environment variable does not include the mes‐
		   sage set containing the message.

		 · The value of the or (if that variable is not set) the value
		   of the environment variable is set to "", that is, NULL.

	      2) For the option:

		 The and environment variables are not defined.

	      3) For the and options:

		 The  value  of	 the  or (if that variable is not defined) the
		 value of the environment variable is  set  to	"",  that  is,

       Message	identifiers  are  made	up  of some combination of the catalog
       name, set identifier, message identifier,  and  delimiting  characters.
       Following  are  some examples of message identifiers you can display by
       using the options and environment variables discussed in this manpage:



       The first example illustrates the default format	 for  message  identi‐
       fiers if you use the option and do not set one of the environment vari‐
       ables.  The second example illustrates what happens when	 you  use  the
       option and set the to "", that is, the catalog name followed by a space
       followed by the message number.

       The following subsections discuss the and environment variables in more

   Using the CAT_MIDSET* Environment Variables
       The  and	 environment variables are used to control how to activate the
       message identifier feature.  You can use them to specify a  space-sepa‐
       rated list of numeric identifiers for the sets containing messages that
       will be displayed with message identifiers.  For example,  if  you  set
       one  of	these  variables  to "3 4", only messages in sets 3 and 4 will
       have their message identfiers displayed.	 The messages in other sets in
       the  message  catalog  will  be displayed without their message identi‐
       fiers.  If you set one of these variables to "", this will disable dis‐
       play of message identifiers for all sets in the message catalog.

       The  command  checks  for  the  and environment variables only when the
       option is specified.  When this option is specified,  first  determines
       if  the	environment variable is set.  If it is set, and message_number
       is in one of the sets specified by the variable, precedes the specified
       message with its message identifier.  If a catalog-specific environment
       variable is not set, searches for the environment variable and uses its
       setting.	 If neither environment variable is set, does not display mes‐
       sage identifiers.

       Usually, application programmers want to	 display  message  identifiers
       only  for  messages that are warning or error conditions.  If a message
       catalog is well designed, messages  associated  with  these  conditions
       reside  in  different sets from those containing informational messages
       or background text strings.  You can set the  environment  variable  to
       list only the message sets that contain warnings or errors and then use
       to confine display of message identifiers to those kinds of messages.

   Using the CAT_MIDFMT* Environment Variables
       The and environment variables control the format of the message identi‐
       fier.   One  of	these  environment variables must be defined to enable
       display of identifiers with the option.	These variables can be defined
       to  override  the default format used for identifiers displayed through
       the option.  The command first checks the catalog-specific  environment
       variable and then, if the catalog-specific version is not found, checks
       for the environment variable.

       The value of the environment variables can include one or more  of  the
       following substitution directives (in any order):

	      The message catalog name without the file extension.

	      The identifier for the message set.
		   This is the numeric constant identifier.

	      The message identifier.
		   This is the numeric constant identifier.

	      The default format.
		   If specified first in the format string, the default format
		   ("").  If not specified first in  the  format  string,  the
		   substitution directive is ignored.

       The  format  can include additional ASCII characters, such as the space
       or colon, as delimiters between segments of the	identifier.   However,
       you  cannot include the percent character as a delimiter because of its
       special meaning to the shell.

       Following are some example formats and  resulting  message  identifiers
       and  strings.   Assume  for these examples that the catalog name is du,
       the message set identifier is 3, the message identifier is 2,  and  the
       message string is "Out of memory".

	      ·	   ""

		   du/3/2: Out of memory

	      ·	   ""

		   du/3/2: Out of memory

	      ·	   ""

		   du-2: Out of memory

	      ·	   ""

		   du 2: Out of memory

   Environment Variables
       provides	 a  default  value for the internationalization variables that
       are unset or null.  If is unset or null, it defaults to (see lang(5)).

       when set to a non-empty string value, overrides the values of all other
       internationalization variables.

       determines the language in which messages are displayed.

       determines the path to be used for searching the specified message cat‐
       alog file.  It affects how the internationalization variables are being
       used in locating the desired message catalog.

       To display message number 2 in set number 1 of test.cat, enter:

       If  the message does not exist in the set, the string "Default Message"
       will be displayed.

       The command was developed by OSF and HP.

       dspcat(1),   gencat(1),	 mkcatdefs(1),	 catclose(3C),	  catgets(3C),


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