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FIND(1)			  BSD General Commands Manual		       FIND(1)

NAME
     find — walk a file hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
     find [-H | -L | -P] [-EXdsx] [-f path] path ... [expression]
     find [-H | -L | -P] [-EXdsx] -f path [path ...] [expression]

DESCRIPTION
     The find utility recursively descends the directory tree for each path
     listed, evaluating an expression (composed of the “primaries” and
     “operands” listed below) in terms of each file in the tree.

     The options are as follows:

     -E	     Interpret regular expressions followed by -regex and -iregex pri‐
	     maries as extended (modern) regular expressions rather than basic
	     regular expressions (BRE's).  The re_format(7) manual page fully
	     describes both formats.

     -H	     Cause the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned
	     for each symbolic link specified on the command line to be those
	     of the file referenced by the link, not the link itself.  If the
	     referenced file does not exist, the file information and type
	     will be for the link itself.  File information of all symbolic
	     links not on the command line is that of the link itself.

     -L	     Cause the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned
	     for each symbolic link to be those of the file referenced by the
	     link, not the link itself.	 If the referenced file does not
	     exist, the file information and type will be for the link itself.

	     This option is equivalent to the deprecated -follow primary.

     -P	     Cause the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned
	     for each symbolic link to be those of the link itself.  This is
	     the default.

     -X	     Permit find to be safely used in conjunction with xargs(1).  If a
	     file name contains any of the delimiting characters used by
	     xargs(1), a diagnostic message is displayed on standard error,
	     and the file is skipped.  The delimiting characters include sin‐
	     gle (“ ' ”) and double (“ " ”) quotes, backslash (“\”), space,
	     tab and newline characters.

	     However, you may wish to consider the -print0 primary in conjunc‐
	     tion with “xargs -0” as an effective alternative.

     -d	     Cause find to perform a depth-first traversal, i.e., directories
	     are visited in post-order and all entries in a directory will be
	     acted on before the directory itself.  By default, find visits
	     directories in pre-order, i.e., before their contents.  Note, the
	     default is not a breadth-first traversal.

	     This option is equivalent to the -depth primary of IEEE Std
	     1003.1-2001 (“POSIX.1”).  The -d option can be useful when find
	     is used with cpio(1) to process files that are contained in
	     directories with unusual permissions.  It ensures that you have
	     write permission while you are placing files in a directory, then
	     sets the directory's permissions as the last thing.

     -f	     Specify a file hierarchy for find to traverse.  File hierarchies
	     may also be specified as the operands immediately following the
	     options.

     -s	     Cause find to traverse the file hierarchies in lexicographical
	     order, i.e., alphabetical order within each directory.  Note:
	     ‘find -s’ and ‘find | sort’ may give different results.

     -x	     Prevent find from descending into directories that have a device
	     number different than that of the file from which the descent
	     began.

	     This option is equivalent to the deprecated -xdev primary.

PRIMARIES
     -Bmin n
	     True if the difference between the time of a file's inode cre‐
	     ation and the time find was started, rounded up to the next full
	     minute, is n minutes.

     -Bnewer file
	     Same as -newerBm.

     -Btime n[smhdw]
	     If no units are specified, this primary evaluates to true if the
	     difference between the time of a file's inode creation and the
	     time find was started, rounded up to the next full 24-hour
	     period, is n 24-hour periods.

	     If units are specified, this primary evaluates to true if the
	     difference between the time of a file's inode creation and the
	     time find was started is exactly n units.	Please refer to the
	     -atime primary description for information on supported time
	     units.

     -acl    May be used in conjunction with other primaries to locate files
	     with extended ACLs.  See acl(3) for more information.

     -amin n
	     True if the difference between the file last access time and the
	     time find was started, rounded up to the next full minute, is n
	     minutes.

     -anewer file
	     Same as -neweram.

     -atime n[smhdw]
	     If no units are specified, this primary evaluates to true if the
	     difference between the file last access time and the time find
	     was started, rounded up to the next full 24-hour period, is n
	     24-hour periods.

	     If units are specified, this primary evaluates to true if the
	     difference between the file last access time and the time find
	     was started is exactly n units.  Possible time units are as fol‐
	     lows:

	     s	     second
	     m	     minute (60 seconds)
	     h	     hour (60 minutes)
	     d	     day (24 hours)
	     w	     week (7 days)

	     Any number of units may be combined in one -atime argument, for
	     example, “-atime -1h30m”.	Units are probably only useful when
	     used in conjunction with the + or - modifier.

     -cmin n
	     True if the difference between the time of last change of file
	     status information and the time find was started, rounded up to
	     the next full minute, is n minutes.

     -cnewer file
	     Same as -newercm.

     -ctime n[smhdw]
	     If no units are specified, this primary evaluates to true if the
	     difference between the time of last change of file status infor‐
	     mation and the time find was started, rounded up to the next full
	     24-hour period, is n 24-hour periods.

	     If units are specified, this primary evaluates to true if the
	     difference between the time of last change of file status infor‐
	     mation and the time find was started is exactly n units.  Please
	     refer to the -atime primary description for information on sup‐
	     ported time units.

     -d	     Same as depth.  GNU find implements this as a primary in mistaken
	     emulation of FreeBSD find(1).

     -delete
	     Delete found files and/or directories.  Always returns true.
	     This executes from the current working directory as find recurses
	     down the tree.  It will not attempt to delete a filename with a
	     “/” character in its pathname relative to “.” for security rea‐
	     sons.  Depth-first traversal processing is implied by this
	     option.  Following symlinks is incompatible with this option.

     -depth  Always true; same as the -d option.

     -depth n
	     True if the depth of the file relative to the starting point of
	     the traversal is n.

     -empty  True if the current file or directory is empty.

     -exec utility [argument ...] ;
	     True if the program named utility returns a zero value as its
	     exit status.  Optional arguments may be passed to the utility.
	     The expression must be terminated by a semicolon (“;”).  If you
	     invoke find from a shell you may need to quote the semicolon if
	     the shell would otherwise treat it as a control operator.	If the
	     string “{}” appears anywhere in the utility name or the arguments
	     it is replaced by the pathname of the current file.  Utility will
	     be executed from the directory from which find was executed.
	     Utility and arguments are not subject to the further expansion of
	     shell patterns and constructs.

     -exec utility [argument ...] {} +
	     Same as -exec, except that “{}” is replaced with as many path‐
	     names as possible for each invocation of utility.	This behaviour
	     is similar to that of xargs(1).

     -execdir utility [argument ...] ;
	     The -execdir primary is identical to the -exec primary with the
	     exception that utility will be executed from the directory that
	     holds the current file.  The filename substituted for the string
	     “{}” is not qualified.

     -execdir utility [argument ...] {} +
	     Same as -execdir, except that “{}” is replaced with as many path‐
	     names as possible for each invocation of utility.	This behaviour
	     is similar to that of xargs(1).

     -flags [-|+]flags,notflags
	     The flags are specified using symbolic names (see chflags(1)).
	     Those with the "no" prefix (except "nodump") are said to be
	     notflags.	Flags in flags are checked to be set, and flags in
	     notflags are checked to be not set.  Note that this is different
	     from -perm, which only allows the user to specify mode bits that
	     are set.

	     If flags are preceded by a dash (“-”), this primary evaluates to
	     true if at least all of the bits in flags and none of the bits in
	     notflags are set in the file's flags bits.	 If flags are preceded
	     by a plus (“+”), this primary evaluates to true if any of the
	     bits in flags is set in the file's flags bits, or any of the bits
	     in notflags is not set in the file's flags bits.  Otherwise, this
	     primary evaluates to true if the bits in flags exactly match the
	     file's flags bits, and none of the flags bits match those of
	     notflags.

     -fstype type
	     True if the file is contained in a file system of type type.  The
	     sysctl(8) command can be used to find out the types of file sys‐
	     tems that are available on the system:

		   sysctl vfs

	     In addition, there are two pseudo-types, “local” and “rdonly”.
	     The former matches any file system physically mounted on the sys‐
	     tem where the find is being executed and the latter matches any
	     file system which is mounted read-only.

     -gid gname
	     The same thing as -group gname for compatibility with GNU find.
	     GNU find imposes a restriction that gname is numeric, while
	     find(1) does not.

     -group gname
	     True if the file belongs to the group gname.  If gname is numeric
	     and there is no such group name, then gname is treated as a group
	     ID.

     -ignore_readdir_race
	     This option is for GNU find compatibility and is ignored.

     -ilname pattern
	     Like -lname, but the match is case insensitive.  This is a GNU
	     find extension.

     -iname pattern
	     Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.

     -inum n
	     True if the file has inode number n.

     -ipath pattern
	     Like -path, but the match is case insensitive.

     -iregex pattern
	     Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

     -iwholename pattern
	     The same thing as -ipath, for GNU find compatibility.

     -links n
	     True if the file has n links.

     -lname pattern
	     Like -name, but the contents of the symbolic link are matched
	     instead of the file name.	This is a GNU find extension.

     -ls     This primary always evaluates to true.  The following information
	     for the current file is written to standard output: its inode
	     number, size in 512-byte blocks, file permissions, number of hard
	     links, owner, group, size in bytes, last modification time, and
	     pathname.	If the file is a block or character special file, the
	     major and minor numbers will be displayed instead of the size in
	     bytes.  If the file is a symbolic link, the pathname of the
	     linked-to file will be displayed preceded by “->”.	 The format is
	     identical to that produced by “ls -dgils”.

     -maxdepth n
	     Always true; descend at most n directory levels below the command
	     line arguments.  If any -maxdepth primary is specified, it
	     applies to the entire expression even if it would not normally be
	     evaluated.	 “-maxdepth 0” limits the whole search to the command
	     line arguments.

     -mindepth n
	     Always true; do not apply any tests or actions at levels less
	     than n.  If any -mindepth primary is specified, it applies to the
	     entire expression even if it would not normally be evaluated.
	     “-mindepth 1” processes all but the command line arguments.

     -mmin n
	     True if the difference between the file last modification time
	     and the time find was started, rounded up to the next full
	     minute, is n minutes.

     -mnewer file
	     Same as -newer.

     -mount  The same thing as -xdev, for GNU find compatibility.

     -mtime n[smhdw]
	     If no units are specified, this primary evaluates to true if the
	     difference between the file last modification time and the time
	     find was started, rounded up to the next full 24-hour period, is
	     n 24-hour periods.

	     If units are specified, this primary evaluates to true if the
	     difference between the file last modification time and the time
	     find was started is exactly n units.  Please refer to the -atime
	     primary description for information on supported time units.

     -name pattern
	     True if the last component of the pathname being examined matches
	     pattern.  Special shell pattern matching characters (“[”, “]”,
	     “*”, and “?”) may be used as part of pattern.  These characters
	     may be matched explicitly by escaping them with a backslash
	     (“\”).

     -newer file
	     True if the current file has a more recent last modification time
	     than file.

     -newerXY file
	     True if the current file has a more recent last access time
	     (X=a), inode creation time (X=B), change time (X=c), or modifica‐
	     tion time (X=m) than the last access time (Y=a), inode creation
	     time (Y=B), change time (Y=c), or modification time (Y=m) of
	     file.  In addition, if Y=t, then file is instead interpreted as a
	     direct date specification of the form understood by cvs(1).  Note
	     that -newermm is equivalent to -newer.

     -nogroup
	     True if the file belongs to an unknown group.

     -noignore_readdir_race
	     This option is for GNU find compatibility and is ignored.

     -noleaf
	     This option is for GNU find compatibility.	 In GNU find it dis‐
	     ables an optimization not relevant to find(1), so it is ignored.

     -nouser
	     True if the file belongs to an unknown user.

     -ok utility [argument ...] ;
	     The -ok primary is identical to the -exec primary with the excep‐
	     tion that find requests user affirmation for the execution of the
	     utility by printing a message to the terminal and reading a
	     response.	If the response is not affirmative (‘y’ in the “POSIX”
	     locale), the command is not executed and the value of the -ok
	     expression is false.

     -okdir utility [argument ...] ;
	     The -okdir primary is identical to the -execdir primary with the
	     same exception as described for the -ok primary.

     -path pattern
	     True if the pathname being examined matches pattern.  Special
	     shell pattern matching characters (“[”, “]”, “*”, and “?”) may be
	     used as part of pattern.  These characters may be matched explic‐
	     itly by escaping them with a backslash (“\”).  Slashes (“/”) are
	     treated as normal characters and do not have to be matched
	     explicitly.

     -perm [-|+]mode
	     The mode may be either symbolic (see chmod(1)) or an octal num‐
	     ber.  If the mode is symbolic, a starting value of zero is
	     assumed and the mode sets or clears permissions without regard to
	     the process' file mode creation mask.  If the mode is octal, only
	     bits 07777 (S_ISUID | S_ISGID | S_ISTXT | S_IRWXU | S_IRWXG |
	     S_IRWXO) of the file's mode bits participate in the comparison.
	     If the mode is preceded by a dash (“-”), this primary evaluates
	     to true if at least all of the bits in the mode are set in the
	     file's mode bits.	If the mode is preceded by a plus (“+”), this
	     primary evaluates to true if any of the bits in the mode are set
	     in the file's mode bits.  Otherwise, this primary evaluates to
	     true if the bits in the mode exactly match the file's mode bits.
	     Note, the first character of a symbolic mode may not be a dash
	     (“-”).

     -print  This primary always evaluates to true.  It prints the pathname of
	     the current file to standard output.  If none of -exec, -ls,
	     -print0, or -ok is specified, the given expression shall be
	     effectively replaced by ( given expression ) -print.

     -print0
	     This primary always evaluates to true.  It prints the pathname of
	     the current file to standard output, followed by an ASCII NUL
	     character (character code 0).

     -prune  This primary always evaluates to true.  It causes find to not
	     descend into the current file.  Note, the -prune primary has no
	     effect if the -d option was specified.

     -regex pattern
	     True if the whole path of the file matches pattern using regular
	     expression.  To match a file named “./foo/xyzzy”, you can use the
	     regular expression “.*/[xyz]*” or “.*/foo/.*”, but not “xyzzy” or
	     “/foo/”.

     -samefile name
	     True if the file is a hard link to name.  If the command option
	     -L is specified, it is also true if the file is a symbolic link
	     and points to name.

     -size n[ckMGTP]
	     True if the file's size, rounded up, in 512-byte blocks is n.  If
	     n is followed by a c, then the primary is true if the file's size
	     is n bytes (characters).  Similarly if n is followed by a scale
	     indicator then the file's size is compared to n scaled as:

	     k	     kilobytes (1024 bytes)
	     M	     megabytes (1024 kilobytes)
	     G	     gigabytes (1024 megabytes)
	     T	     terabytes (1024 gigabytes)
	     P	     petabytes (1024 terabytes)

     -type t
	     True if the file is of the specified type.	 Possible file types
	     are as follows:

	     b	     block special
	     c	     character special
	     d	     directory
	     f	     regular file
	     l	     symbolic link
	     p	     FIFO
	     s	     socket

     -uid uname
	     The same thing as -user uname for compatibility with GNU find.
	     GNU find imposes a restriction that uname is numeric, while
	     find(1) does not.

     -user uname
	     True if the file belongs to the user uname.  If uname is numeric
	     and there is no such user name, then uname is treated as a user
	     ID.

     -wholename pattern
	     The same thing as -path, for GNU find compatibility.

     All primaries which take a numeric argument allow the number to be pre‐
     ceded by a plus sign (“+”) or a minus sign (“-”).	A preceding plus sign
     means “more than n”, a preceding minus sign means “less than n” and nei‐
     ther means “exactly n”.

OPERATORS
     The primaries may be combined using the following operators.  The opera‐
     tors are listed in order of decreasing precedence.

     ( expression )
	     This evaluates to true if the parenthesized expression evaluates
	     to true.

     ! expression
     -not expression
	     This is the unary NOT operator.  It evaluates to true if the
	     expression is false.

     -false  Always false.
     -true   Always true.

     expression -and expression
     expression expression
	     The -and operator is the logical AND operator.  As it is implied
	     by the juxtaposition of two expressions it does not have to be
	     specified.	 The expression evaluates to true if both expressions
	     are true.	The second expression is not evaluated if the first
	     expression is false.

     expression -or expression
	     The -or operator is the logical OR operator.  The expression
	     evaluates to true if either the first or the second expression is
	     true.  The second expression is not evaluated if the first
	     expression is true.

     All operands and primaries must be separate arguments to find.  Primaries
     which themselves take arguments expect each argument to be a separate
     argument to find.

ENVIRONMENT
     The LANG, LC_ALL, LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES and LC_TIME environ‐
     ment variables affect the execution of the find utility as described in
     environ(7).

EXAMPLES
     The following examples are shown as given to the shell:

     find / \! -name "*.c" -print
	     Print out a list of all the files whose names do not end in .c.

     find / -newer ttt -user wnj -print
	     Print out a list of all the files owned by user “wnj” that are
	     newer than the file ttt.

     find / \! \( -newer ttt -user wnj \) -print
	     Print out a list of all the files which are not both newer than
	     ttt and owned by “wnj”.

     find / \( -newer ttt -or -user wnj \) -print
	     Print out a list of all the files that are either owned by “wnj”
	     or that are newer than ttt.

     find / -newerct '1 minute ago' -print
	     Print out a list of all the files whose inode change time is more
	     recent than the current time minus one minute.

     find / -type f -exec echo {} \;
	     Use the echo(1) command to print out a list of all the files.

     find -L /usr/ports/packages -type l -exec rm -- {} +
	     Delete all broken symbolic links in /usr/ports/packages.

     find /usr/src -name CVS -prune -o -depth +6 -print
	     Find files and directories that are at least seven levels deep in
	     the working directory /usr/src.

     find /usr/src -name CVS -prune -o -mindepth 7 -print
	     Is not equivalent to the previous example, since -prune is not
	     evaluated below level seven.

COMPATIBILITY
     The -follow primary is deprecated; the -L option should be used instead.
     See the STANDARDS section below for details.

SEE ALSO
     chflags(1), chmod(1), cvs(1), locate(1), whereis(1), which(1), xargs(1),
     stat(2), acl(3), fts(3), getgrent(3), getpwent(3), strmode(3),
     re_format(7), symlink(7)

STANDARDS
     The find utility syntax is a superset of the syntax specified by the IEEE
     Std 1003.1-2001 (“POSIX.1”) standard.

     All the single character options except -H and -L as well as -amin,
     -anewer, -cmin, -cnewer, -delete, -empty, -fstype, -iname, -inum,
     -iregex, -ls, -maxdepth, -mindepth, -mmin, -path, -print0, -regex and all
     of the -B* birthtime related primaries are extensions to IEEE Std
     1003.1-2001 (“POSIX.1”).

     Historically, the -d, -L and -x options were implemented using the pri‐
     maries -depth, -follow, and -xdev.	 These primaries always evaluated to
     true.  As they were really global variables that took effect before the
     traversal began, some legal expressions could have unexpected results.
     An example is the expression -print -o -depth.  As -print always evalu‐
     ates to true, the standard order of evaluation implies that -depth would
     never be evaluated.  This is not the case.

     The operator -or was implemented as -o, and the operator -and was imple‐
     mented as -a.

     Historic implementations of the -exec and -ok primaries did not replace
     the string “{}” in the utility name or the utility arguments if it had
     preceding or following non-whitespace characters.	This version replaces
     it no matter where in the utility name or arguments it appears.

     The -E option was inspired by the equivalent grep(1) and sed(1) options.

HISTORY
     A find command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.

BUGS
     The special characters used by find are also special characters to many
     shell programs.  In particular, the characters “*”, “[”, “]”, “?”, “(”,
     “)”, “!”, “\” and “;” may have to be escaped from the shell.

     As there is no delimiter separating options and file names or file names
     and the expression, it is difficult to specify files named -xdev or !.
     These problems are handled by the -f option and the getopt(3) “--” con‐
     struct.

     The -delete primary does not interact well with other options that cause
     the file system tree traversal options to be changed.

     The -mindepth and -maxdepth primaries are actually global options (as
     documented above).	 They should probably be replaced by options which
     look like options.

BSD			       February 24, 2008			   BSD
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