fsck_hfs man page on HP-UX

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fsck_hfs(1M)							  fsck_hfs(1M)

       fsck_hfs:  fsck	-  HFS	file  system consistency check and interactive

       blocknum] [special]...

       size] [special]...

       blocknum] size]

       The command audits and repairs inconsistent  conditions	for  HFS  file
       systems	on  mass  storage  device files identified by special.	If the
       file system is consistent, the number of files on that file system  and
       the number of used and free blocks are reported.	 If the file system is
       inconsistent,  provides	a  mechanism  to  fix  these  inconsistencies,
       depending on which form of the command is used.

       special represents a special device (for example,

       If  the	target	device is a swap device, does not continue to process.
       also checks the target device to ensure a mounted file  system  is  not
       being  checked.	 If  a mounted device is specified but the and options
       are omitted, prompts the user for a response.

       If the option is used and special is not specified, reads the pass num‐
       bers in to determine which groups of disks to inspect in parallel, tak‐
       ing maximum advantage of I/O overlap to process	the  file  systems  as
       quickly	as possible.  The option is normally used in the script during
       automatic reboot.

       Normally, the root file system is checked on pass 1, and	 other	"root"
       (section	 0)  file  systems  on	pass  2.  Other small file systems are
       checked on separate passes (such as the section 4 file systems on  pass
       3 and the section 7 file systems on pass 4), and finally the large user
       file systems are checked on the last pass (for  example,	 pass  5).   A
       pass  number  of	 0  in causes a file system not to be checked.	If the
       optional fields are not present on a line in processes the file	system
       on  such	 lines sequentially after all eligible file systems with posi‐
       tive pass numbers have been processed.

       The inconsistencies that with the  option  corrects  are	 shown	below.
       These  are  inconsistencies that are correctable without data loss.  If
       it encounters other inconsistencies, it exits with an  abnormal	return
       status.	 For  each  corrected  inconsistency,  one  or	more lines are
       printed identifying the file system on which the correction  will  take
       place  and  the	nature of the correction.  Correctable inconsistencies
       are limited to the following:

	 ·  Unreferenced inodes
	 ·  Unreferenced continuation inodes
	 ·  Unreferenced pipes and FIFOs
	 ·  Link counts in inodes too large
	 ·  Missing blocks in the free list
	 ·  Blocks in the free list also in files
	 ·  Counts in the superblock wrong.

       The option operates in the  same	 manner	 as  the  option  except  that
       cleanly unmounted file systems are not checked (see fsclean(1M)).  This
       can greatly decrease the amount of time required	 to  reboot  a	system
       that was brought down cleanly.

       If  the	option	is not specified, the pass numbers are ignored and the
       file systems are checked interactively in the order they are listed in

       Without the option, prompts for concurrence before each	correction  is
       attempted  when	the  file  system is inconsistent.  It should be noted
       that some corrective actions result in a loss of data.  The amount  and
       severity	 of  data  loss	 can be determined from the diagnostic output.
       The default action for each consistency correction is to wait  for  the
       operator	 to respond or If the operator does not have write permission,
       defaults to a action.

       recognizes the following options:

	      Specify the
			HFS file system.

	      Set the size of the buffer cache which
			uses to cache disk blocks.   size  is  the  number  of
			cache blocks, and is between 0 and 100 inclusive.  The
			most common use of  this  option  is  to  disable  all
			caches, thus reducing memory usage.

	      Use the specified
			blocknum  as  the  superblock for the file system.  An
			alternate superblock can usually  be  found  at	 block
			typically block 16.  is defined in You can also find a
			list of alternate superblocks in (see mkfs(1M)).

	      Force	to check a mounted file system.

	      Ignore (that is, do not check) mounted file systems.
			This option does not ask the user whether to check the
			mounted	 file  systems	or  not.   Instead  it	simply
			ignores the mounted file systems and  does  not	 check
			them.	If  the	 option	 is specified with the option,
			then the option takes  precedence;  that  is,  the  is
			skipped on mounted file systems in this case.

	      Perform a sanity check only.
			Verify whether special is mounted, or needs additional
			checking.  Refer to the section for more information.

	      Assume a	response to all questions asked by about  repairing  a
			file system.  Do not open the file system for writing.

	      "Preen" the file system.
			Proceed	 to  process  and  repair file systems without
			user interaction, as described	above.	 Exit  immedi‐
			ately if there is a problem requiring intervention.

	      Same as	except	that  cleanly  unmounted  file systems are not

	      Quiet.	Do not print size-check messages in Phase 1.  Unrefer‐
			enced  fifos  are  silently  removed.  If requires it,
			counts in the superblock and cylinder groups are auto‐
			matically fixed.

	      Safe performance mode.  To improve performance, a system wide
			will not be issued.

	      Echo the completed command line, but perform no other actions.
			The  command  line  is	generated by incorporating the
			user-specified options and other  information  derived
			from This option allows the user to verify the command

	      Assume a	response to all questions asked by about  repairing  a
			file  system.  This should be used with great caution,
			because this is	 a  free  license  to  continue	 after
			essentially unlimited trouble has been encountered.

       In all cases, checks the following inconsistencies:

	 ·  Blocks claimed by more than one inode or the free list.
	 ·  Blocks  claimed  by an inode or the free list outside the range of
	    the file system.
	 ·  Incorrect link counts.
	 ·  Size checks:
	    −  Directory size not of proper format.
	 ·  Bad inode format.
	 ·  Blocks not accounted for anywhere.
	 ·  Directory checks:
	    −  File pointing to unallocated inode.
	    −  Inode number out of range.
	 ·  Superblock checks:
	    −  More blocks for inodes than there are in the file system.
	 ·  Bad free block list format.
	 ·  Total free block and/or free inode count incorrect.
	 ·  Invalid continuation inode number in a primary inode.

       Orphaned files and directories (allocated but unreferenced)  are,  with
       the  operator's	concurrence, reconnected by placing them in the direc‐
       tory.  The name assigned is the inode number.  The only restriction  is
       that  the directory must have empty slots in which entries can be made.
       This is accomplished by copying a number of  files  to  the  directory,
       then removing them before is executed.

       Unreferenced  continuation  inodes  are	removed with the option, since
       they do not refer back to the primary inode.  When a primary inode con‐
       tains an invalid continuation inode number, the continuation inode num‐
       ber should be cleared (that is, set to 0).  This is not done  automati‐
       cally  (with  the  option), because access control list information may
       have been lost and should be corrected.

       After has checked and fixed the file system, it stores the correct flag
       in  the superblock if it is not already there.  For a nonroot file sys‐
       tem, is stored there.  For the root file system, which  is  mounted  at
       the  time  of the no changes are required to the superblock if no prob‐
       lems were found and was already set.

       Checking the raw device is almost always faster.

       returns the following values:

	      Either no errors were detected or all errors were corrected.

	      A syntax error or other operational error occurred when invoked
		     with the option.

	      Root file system errors were corrected.
		     The system must be rebooted.

	      Some uncorrected errors exist on one or more of the file systems
		     there was a syntax error, or some other operational error

	      A signal was caught during processing.

	      The open of the device file failed.

	      The file system is unmounted and needs additional checking.

	      The file system is mounted.

	      The file system is damaged.

       should not be run on mounted file systems or on the  root  device.   If
       you  do	run  on mounted file systems, be sure the system is in single-
       user state (see shutdown(1M)).

       The special case of the option, will disable all internal caches, which
       will reduce memory usage but may impact performance.

       The option, from prior releases, has been replaced by the option.

       was developed by HP, AT&T, the University of California, Berkeley.

       Default list of file systems to check.

       List of locations of the superblocks for file systems.  The
			     command appends entries to this file.

       dumpfs(1M),  fsck(1M), fsck_vxfs(1M), fsclean(1M), mkfs(1M), newfs(1M),
       shutdown(1M), fstab(4), acl(5), fs_wrapper(5), disk(7).


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