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GROPS(1)							      GROPS(1)

       grops - PostScript driver for groff

       grops [-glmv] [-b n] [-c n] [-F dir] [-I dir] [-p papersize]
	     [-P prologue] [-w n] [files ...]

       grops translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript.	Normally grops
       should  be  invoked  by	using  the  groff  command with a -Tps option.
       (Actually, this is the default for groff.)   If	no  files  are	given,
       grops  reads  the standard input.  A filename of - also causes grops to
       read the standard input.	 PostScript output is written to the  standard
       output.	 When  grops  is  run  by groff options can be passed to grops
       using groff's -P option.

       Note that grops doesn't produce a valid document structure  (conforming
       to  the	Document  Structuring Convention) if called with multiple file
       arguments.  To print such concatenated output it is necessary to	 deac‐
       tivate  DSC handling in the printing program or previewer.  See section
       FONT INSTALLATION below for a guide how to install fonts for grops.

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its

       -bn    Provide  workarounds  for	 older	printers, broken spoolers, and
	      previewers.  Normally grops produces output at  PostScript  Lan‐
	      guageLevel  2  that conforms to the Document Structuring Conven‐
	      tions version 3.0.  Some older printers, spoolers, and  preview‐
	      ers  can't  handle  such	output.	  The value of n controls what
	      grops does to make its output acceptable to  such	 programs.   A
	      value of 0 causes grops not to employ any workarounds.

	      Add 1 if no %%BeginDocumentSetup and %%EndDocumentSetup comments
	      should be generated; this is needed for early versions of	 Tran‐
	      Script  that  get	 confused  by anything between the %%EndProlog
	      comment and the first %%Page comment.

	      Add 2 if lines in included files beginning  with	%!  should  be
	      stripped out; this is needed for Sun's pageview previewer.

	      Add  4  if  %%Page, %%Trailer and %%EndProlog comments should be
	      stripped out of included files; this is needed for spoolers that
	      don't understand the %%BeginDocument and %%EndDocument comments.

	      Add 8 if the first line of the PostScript output should be %!PS-
	      Adobe-2.0 rather than %!PS-Adobe-3.0; this is needed when	 using
	      Sun's Newsprint with a printer that requires page reversal.

	      Add  16  if  no media size information should be included in the
	      document (this is, neither  use  %%DocumentMedia	nor  the  set‐
	      pagedevice PostScript command).  This was the behaviour of groff
	      version 1.18.1 and earlier; it  is  needed  for  older  printers
	      which  don't  understand PostScript LanguageLevel 2.  It is also
	      necessary if the output is further processed to get an  encapsu‐
	      lated PS (EPS) file – see below.

	      The default value can be specified by a

		     broken n

	      command in the DESC file.	 Otherwise the default value is 0.

       -cn    Print n copies of each page.

       -Fdir  Prepend  directory  dir/devname to the search path for prologue,
	      font, and device description files; name	is  the	 name  of  the
	      device, usually ps.

       -g     Guess  the  page	length.	  This	generates PostScript code that
	      guesses the page length.	The  guess  is	correct	 only  if  the
	      imageable	 area is vertically centered on the page.  This option
	      allows you to generate documents that can	 be  printed  both  on
	      letter (8.5×11) paper and on A4 paper without change.

       -Idir  This  option  may	 be used to add a directory to the search path
	      for files on the command line and files named in \X'ps:  import'
	      and  \X'ps:  file' escapes.  The search path is initialized with
	      the current directory.  This option may be specified  more  than
	      once;  the  directories are then searched in the order specified
	      (but before the current directory).  If you  want	 to  make  the
	      current  directory  be read before other directories, add -I. at
	      the appropriate place.

	      No directory search is performed for files with an absolute file

       -l     Print the document in landscape format.

       -m     Turn manual feed on for the document.

	      Set  physical  dimension	of  output medium.  This overrides the
	      papersize, paperlength, and  paperwidth  commands	 in  the  DESC
	      file;  it	 accepts  the same arguments as the papersize command.
	      See groff_font (5) for details.

	      Use the file prologue-file (in the font path)  as	 the  prologue
	      instead  of  the	default	 prologue  file prologue.  This option
	      overrides the environment variable GROPS_PROLOGUE.

       -wn    Lines should be drawn using a thickness of n thousandths	of  an
	      em.  If this option is not given, the line thickness defaults to
	      0.04 em.

       -v     Print the version number.

       The input to grops must be in the format output by troff(1).   This  is
       described in groff_out(5).

       In  addition, the device and font description files for the device used
       must meet certain requirements: The resolution must be an integer  mul‐
       tiple  of  72  times the sizescale.  The ps device uses a resolution of
       72000 and a sizescale of 1000.

       The device description file  must  contain  a  valid  paper  size;  see
       groff_font(5) for more information.

       Each font description file must contain a command

	      internalname psname

       which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname.  It may also
       contain a command

	      encoding enc_file

       which says that the PostScript  font  should  be	 reencoded  using  the
       encoding	 described in enc_file; this file should consist of a sequence
       of lines of the form:

	      pschar code

       where pschar is the PostScript name of the character, and code  is  its
       position	 in  the encoding expressed as a decimal integer; valid values
       are in the range 0 to 255.  Lines starting with # and blank  lines  are
       ignored.	  The code for each character given in the font file must cor‐
       respond to the code for the character in encoding file, or to the  code
       in  the	default encoding for the font if the PostScript font is not to
       be reencoded.  This code can be used with the  \N  escape  sequence  in
       troff  to  select  the character, even if the character does not have a
       groff name.  Every character in the font file must exist in  the	 Post‐
       Script  font,  and  the	widths	given  in the font file must match the
       widths used in the PostScript font.  grops  assumes  that  a  character
       with  a	groff  name of space is blank (makes no marks on the page); it
       can make use of such a character to generate more efficient and compact
       PostScript output.

       Note that grops is able to display all glyphs in a PostScript font, not
       only 256.  enc_file (or the default encoding if no encoding file speci‐
       fied)  just  defines  the order of glyphs for the first 256 characters;
       all other glyphs are accessed with additional  encoding	vectors	 which
       grops produces on the fly.

       grops  can  automatically  include  the downloadable fonts necessary to
       print the document.  Such fonts must be in PFA format.  Use  pfbtops(1)
       to  convert  a Type 1 font in PFB format.  Any downloadable fonts which
       should, when required, be included by grops must be listed in the  file
       /usr/share/groff/1.22.2/font/devps/download;  this  should  consist  of
       lines of the form

	      font filename

       where font is the PostScript name of the font, and filename is the name
       of the file containing the font; lines beginning with # and blank lines
       are ignored; fields may be separated by tabs  or	 spaces;  filename  is
       searched	 for using the same mechanism that is used for groff font met‐
       ric files.  The download file itself is also searched  for  using  this
       mechanism;  currently,  only  the  first found file in the font path is

       If the file containing a downloadable font or  imported	document  con‐
       forms  to the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions, then grops inter‐
       prets any comments in the files sufficiently to	ensure	that  its  own
       output  is conforming.  It also supplies any needed font resources that
       are listed in the download file as well as any needed  file  resources.
       It  is  also  able to handle inter-resource dependencies.  For example,
       suppose that you have a downloadable font called Garamond, and  also  a
       downloadable  font  called  Garamond-Outline  which depends on Garamond
       (typically it would be defined to copy Garamond's font dictionary,  and
       change  the  PaintType),	 then  it  is necessary for Garamond to appear
       before Garamond-Outline in the PostScript document.  grops handles this
       automatically  provided	that  the downloadable font file for Garamond-
       Outline indicates its dependence on Garamond by means of	 the  Document
       Structuring  Conventions,  for  example by beginning with the following

	      %!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-Font
	      %%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond
	      %%IncludeResource: font Garamond

       In this case both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need to be listed
       in  the	download file.	A downloadable font should not include its own
       name in a %%DocumentSuppliedResources comment.

       grops does not interpret	 %%DocumentFonts  comments.   The  %%Document‐
       NeededResources,	    %%DocumentSuppliedResources,    %%IncludeResource,
       %%BeginResource,	 and  %%EndResource  comments  (or  possibly  the  old
       %%DocumentNeededFonts, %%DocumentSuppliedFonts, %%IncludeFont, %%Begin‐
       Font, and %%EndFont comments) should be used.

       In the default setup there are styles called R, I, B, and BI mounted at
       font  positions	1 to 4.	 The fonts are grouped into families A, BM, C,
       H, HN, N, P, and T having members in each of these styles:

	      AR     AvantGarde-Book
	      AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique
	      AB     AvantGarde-Demi
	      ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique
	      BMR    Bookman-Light
	      BMI    Bookman-LightItalic
	      BMB    Bookman-Demi
	      BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic
	      CR     Courier
	      CI     Courier-Oblique
	      CB     Courier-Bold
	      CBI    Courier-BoldOblique
	      HR     Helvetica
	      HI     Helvetica-Oblique
	      HB     Helvetica-Bold
	      HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique
	      HNR    Helvetica-Narrow
	      HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique
	      HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold
	      HNBI   Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique
	      NR     NewCenturySchlbk-Roman
	      NI     NewCenturySchlbk-Italic
	      NB     NewCenturySchlbk-Bold
	      NBI    NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic
	      PR     Palatino-Roman
	      PI     Palatino-Italic
	      PB     Palatino-Bold
	      PBI    Palatino-BoldItalic
	      TR     Times-Roman
	      TI     Times-Italic
	      TB     Times-Bold
	      TBI    Times-BoldItalic

       There is also the following font which is not a member of a family:

	      ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic

       There are also some special fonts called S for the PS Symbol font,  and
       SS,  containing	slanted	 lowercase Greek letters taken from PS Symbol.
       Zapf Dingbats is available as ZD, and a reversed version	 of  ZapfDing‐
       bats  (with symbols pointing in the opposite direction) is available as
       ZDR; most characters in these fonts are unnamed and  must  be  accessed
       using \N.

       The  default  color  for	 \m and \M is black; for colors defined in the
       `rgb' color space setrgbcolor is used, for `cmy'	 and  `cmyk'  setcmyk‐
       color,  and for `gray' setgray.	Note that setcmykcolor is a PostScript
       LanguageLevel 2 command and thus not available on some older printers.

       grops understands various X  commands  produced	using  the  \X	escape
       sequence; grops only interprets commands that begin with a ps: tag.

       \X'ps: exec code'
	      This  executes  the  arbitrary PostScript commands in code.  The
	      PostScript currentpoint is set to the position of the \X command
	      before  executing code.  The origin is at the top left corner of
	      the page, and y coordinates increase down the  page.   A	proce‐
	      dure  u  is  defined that converts groff units to the coordinate
	      system in effect (provided the user doesn't change  the  scale).
	      For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     \X'ps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke'

	      draws a horizontal line one inch long.  code may make changes to
	      the graphics state, but any changes persist only to the  end  of
	      the  page.  A dictionary containing the definitions specified by
	      the def and mdef is on top of the	 dictionary  stack.   If  your
	      code  adds  definitions  to this dictionary, you should allocate
	      space for them using  \X'ps mdef n'.   Any  definitions  persist
	      only  until  the	end  of	 the  page.   If you use the \Y escape
	      sequence with an argument that names a macro,  code  can	extend
	      over multiple lines.  For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     .de y
		     ps: exec
		     \nx u 0 rlineto

	      is  another  way	to draw a horizontal line one inch long.  Note
	      the single backslash before `nx' – the only reason to use a num‐
	      ber  register while defining the macro `y' is to convert a user-
	      specified dimension `1i' to internal groff units	which  are  in
	      turn converted to PS units with the u procedure.

	      grops  wraps  user-specified  PostScript code into a dictionary,
	      nothing more.  In particular,  it	 doesn't  start	 and  end  the
	      inserted code with save and restore, respectively.  This must be
	      supplied by the user, if necessary.

       \X'ps: file name'
	      This is the same as the exec command except that the  PostScript
	      code is read from file name.

       \X'ps: def code'
	      Place a PostScript definition contained in code in the prologue.
	      There should be at most one definition  per  \X  command.	  Long
	      definitions  can be split over several \X commands; all the code
	      arguments are simply joined together separated by newlines.  The
	      definitions  are	placed	in a dictionary which is automatically
	      pushed on the dictionary stack when an exec command is executed.
	      If  you use the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a
	      macro, code can extend over multiple lines.

       \X'ps: mdef n code'
	      Like def, except that code may  contain  up  to  n  definitions.
	      grops  needs  to know how many definitions code contains so that
	      it can create an appropriately sized  PostScript	dictionary  to
	      contain them.

       \X'ps: import file llx lly urx ury width [ height ]'
	      Import  a PostScript graphic from file.  The arguments llx, lly,
	      urx, and ury give the bounding box of the graphic in the default
	      PostScript  coordinate  system; they should all be integers; llx
	      and lly are the x and y coordinates of the lower left corner  of
	      the  graphic;  urx  and  ury  are the x and y coordinates of the
	      upper right corner of the graphic; width and height are integers
	      that  give  the  desired	width and height in groff units of the

	      The graphic is scaled so that it has this width and  height  and
	      translated  so  that  the	 lower	left  corner of the graphic is
	      located at the position associated  with	\X  command.   If  the
	      height  argument	is omitted it is scaled uniformly in the x and
	      y directions so that it has the specified width.

	      Note that the contents of the \X command are not interpreted  by
	      troff;  so  vertical  space for the graphic is not automatically
	      added, and the width and height arguments	 are  not  allowed  to
	      have attached scaling indicators.

	      If  the  PostScript file complies with the Adobe Document Struc‐
	      turing Conventions and contains a	 %%BoundingBox	comment,  then
	      the  bounding  box  can  be  automatically extracted from within
	      groff by using the psbb request.

	      See groff_tmac(5) for a description of  the  PSPIC  macro	 which
	      provides	a  convenient  high-level  interface  for inclusion of
	      PostScript graphics.

       \X'ps: invis'
       \X'ps: endinvis'
	      No output is generated for text and drawing  commands  that  are
	      bracketed	 with  these \X commands.  These commands are intended
	      for use when output from troff is previewed  before  being  pro‐
	      cessed with grops; if the previewer is unable to display certain
	      characters or other constructs, then other substitute characters
	      or constructs can be used for previewing by bracketing them with
	      these \X commands.

	      For example, gxditview is not able  to  display  a  proper  \(em
	      character because the standard X11 fonts do not provide it; this
	      problem can be overcome by executing the following request

		     .char \(em \X'ps: invis'\
		     \Z'\v'-.25m'\h'.05m'\D'l .9m 0'\h'.05m''\
		     \X'ps: endinvis'\(em

	      In this case, gxditview is unable to display the \(em  character
	      and  draws the line, whereas grops prints the \(em character and
	      ignores the line (this code is already in file Xps.tmac which is
	      loaded  if  a  document  intended	 for  grops  is previewed with

       If a PostScript procedure BPhook has been defined via  a	 `ps: def'  or
       `ps: mdef'  device  command,  it	 is executed at the beginning of every
       page (before anything is drawn or written by groff).  For  example,  to
       underlay	 the  page  contents  with the word `DRAFT' in light gray, you
       might use

	      .de XX
	      ps: def
	      { gsave .9 setgray clippath pathbbox exch 2 copy
		.5 mul exch .5 mul translate atan rotate pop pop
		/NewCenturySchlbk-Roman findfont 200 scalefont setfont
		(DRAFT) dup stringwidth pop -.5 mul -70 moveto show
		grestore }
	      .devicem XX

       Or, to cause lines and polygons to be drawn with	 square	 linecaps  and
       mitered	linejoins instead of the round linecaps and linejoins normally
       used by grops, use

	      .de XX
	      ps: def
	      /BPhook { 2 setlinecap 0 setlinejoin } def
	      .devicem XX

       (square linecaps, as opposed to butt linecaps (0 setlinecap), give true
       corners in boxed tables even though the lines are drawn unconnected).

   Encapsulated PostScript
       grops  itself  doesn't emit bounding box information.  With the help of
       Ghostscript the following simple script, groff2eps, produces an	encap‐
       sulated PS file.

	      #! /bin/sh
	      groff -P-b16 $1 >$
	      gs -dNOPAUSE -sDEVICE=bbox -- $ 2>$1.bbox
	      cat $ \
	      | sed -e "/^%%Orientation/r$1.bbox" \
		    -e "/^%!PS-Adobe-3.0/s/$/ EPSF-3.0/" >$1.eps
	      rm $ $1.bbox

       Just say

	      groff2eps foo

       to convert file foo to foo.eps.

   TrueType and other font formats
       TrueType	 fonts	can  be	 used with grops if converted first to Type 42
       format, a special PostScript wrapper equivalent to the PFA format  men‐
       tioned  in pfbtops(1).  There are several different methods to generate
       a type42 wrapper and most of them  involve  the	use  of	 a  PostScript
       interpreter such as Ghostscript – see gs(1).

       Yet,   the   easiest   method  involves	the  use  of  the  application
       ttftot42(1).  This program uses freetype(3) (version 1.3.1) to generate
       type42  font  wrappers and well-formed AFM files that can be fed to the
       afmtodit(1) script to create appropriate metric files.	The  resulting
       font  wrappers  should  be added to the download file.  ttftot42 source
       code  can  be  downloaded  from

       Another	solution  for  creating	 type42	 wrappers is to use FontForge,
       available from ⟨⟩.  This
       font editor can convert most outline font formats.

       This section gives a summary of the above explanations; it can serve as
       a step-by-step font installation guide for grops.

	·  Convert your font to something groff understands.  This is either a
	   PostScript  Type 1 font in PFA format or a PostScript Type 42 font,
	   together with an AFM file.

	   The very first characters in a PFA file look like this:


	   A PFB file has this also in the first line, but the string is  pre‐
	   ceded with some binary bytes.

	   The very first characters in a Type 42 font file look like this:


	   This is a wrapper format for TrueType fonts.	 Old PS printers might
	   not support it (this is, they don't have a built-in	TrueType  font

	   If  your  font is in PFB format (such fonts normally have `.pfb' as
	   the file extension), you might use groff's  pfbtops(1)  program  to
	   convert  it to PFA.	For TrueType fonts, try ttftot42 or fontforge.
	   For all other font formats use fontforge  which  can	 convert  most
	   outline font formats.

	·  Convert  the	 AFM  file  to	a groff font description file with the
	   afmtodit(1) program.	 An example call is

		  afmtodit Foo-Bar-Bold.afm textmap FBB

	   which converts the metric file `Foo-Bar-Bold.afm' to the groff font
	   `FBB'.   If	you  have a font family which comes with normal, bold,
	   italic, and bold italic faces, it is recommended to use the letters
	   R, B, I, and BI, respectively, as postfixes in the groff font names
	   to make groff's `.fam' request work.	 An example is groff's	built-
	   in  Times-Roman font: The font family name is T, and the groff font
	   names are TR, TB, TI, and TBI.

	·  Install both the groff font description files and the  fonts	 in  a
	   `devps'  subdirectory  of the font path which groff finds.  See the
	   ENVIRONMENT section in the troff(1) man page which lists the actual
	   value  of the font path.  Note that groff doesn't use the AFM files
	   (but it is a good idea to store them anyway).

	·  Register all fonts which must be downloaded to the printer  in  the
	   `devps/download'  file.   Only the first occurrence of this file in
	   the font path is read.  This means that you should copy the default
	   `download'  file  to	 the first directory in your font path and add
	   your fonts there.  To continue the above example we assume that the
	   PS font name for Foo-Bar-Bold.pfa is `XY-Foo-Bar-Bold' (the PS font
	   name is stored in the internalname field in the `FBB'  file),  thus
	   the following line should be added to `download'.

		  XY-Foo-Bar-Bold Foo-Bar-Bold.pfa

       groff  versions	1.19.2 and earlier contain a slightly different set of
       the 35 Adobe core fonts; the difference	is  mainly  the	 lack  of  the
       `Euro' glyph and a reduced set of kerning pairs.	 For backwards compat‐
       ibility, these old fonts are installed also in the



       To use them, make sure that grops finds the fonts  before  the  default
       system  fonts  (with the same names): Either add command line option -F
       to grops

	      groff -Tps -P-F -P/usr/share/groff/1.22.2/oldfont ...

       or add the directory to groff's font path environment variable


	      If this is set to foo, then grops uses the file foo (in the font
	      path) instead of the default prologue file prologue.  The option
	      -P overrides this environment variable.

	      A list of directories in which to search for the devname	direc‐
	      tory  in	addition  to  the  default  ones.   See	 troff(1)  and
	      groff_font(5) for more details.

	      Device description file.

	      Font description file for font F.

	      List of downloadable fonts.

	      Encoding used for text fonts.

	      Macros for use with grops; automatically loaded by troffrc

	      Definition of PSPIC macro, automatically loaded by ps.tmac.

	      Macros to disable use of characters not present in  older	 Post‐
	      Script printers (e.g., `eth' or `thorn').

	      Temporary	 file.	 See  groff(1)	for details on the location of
	      temporary files.

       afmtodit(1),    groff(1),    troff(1),	 pfbtops(1),	 groff_out(5),
       groff_font(5), groff_char(7), groff_tmac(5)

       PostScript  Language  Document  Structuring  Conventions	 Specification

Groff Version 1.22.2		7 February 2013			      GROPS(1)

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