htpasswd(1)htpasswd(1)NAMEhtpasswd - Create and update user authentication files
SYNOPSIShtpasswd [ -c ] [ -m | -d | -s | -p ] passwdfile username
htpasswd-b [ -c ] [ -m | -d | -s | -p ] passwdfile username password
htpasswd-n [ -m | -d | -s | -p ] username
htpasswd-nb [ -m | -d | -s | -p ] username password
DESCRIPTIONhtpasswd is used to create and update the flat-files used to store
usernames and password for basic authentication of HTTP users. If
htpasswd cannot access a file, such as not being able to write to the
output file or not being able to read the file in order to update it,
it returns an error status and makes no changes.
Resources available from the httpd Apache web server can be restricted
to just the users listed in the files created by htpasswd. This pro‐
gram can only manage usernames and passwords stored in a flat-file. It
can encrypt and display password information for use in other types of
data stores, though. To use a DBM database see dbmmanage.
htpasswd encrypts passwords using either a version of MD5 modified for
Apache, or the system's crypt() routine. Files managed by htpasswd may
contain both types of passwords; some user records may have
MD5-encrypted passwords while others in the same file may have pass‐
words encrypted with crypt().
This manual page only lists the command line arguments. For details of
the directives necessary to configure user authentication in httpd see
the Apache manual, which is part of the Apache distribution or can be
found at <URL:http://httpd.apache.org/>.
OPTIONS-b Use batch mode; i.e., get the password from the command line
rather than prompting for it. This option should be used with
extreme care, since the password is clearly visible on the com‐
-c Create the passwdfile. If passwdfile already exists, it is
rewritten and truncated. This option cannot be combined with
the -n option.
-n Display the results on standard output rather than updating a
file. This is useful for generating password records acceptable
to Apache for inclusion in non-text data stores. This option
changes the syntax of the command line, since the passwdfile
argument (usually the first one) is omitted. It cannot be com‐
bined with the -c option.
-m Use Apache's modified MD5 algorithm for passwords. Passwords
encrypted with this algorithm are transportable to any platform
(Windows, Unix, BeOS, et cetera) running Apache 1.3.9 or later.
On Windows and TPF, this flag is the default.
-d Use crypt() encryption for passwords. The default on all plat‐
forms but Windows and TPF. Though possibly supported by htpasswd
on all platforms, it is not supported by the httpd server on
Windows and TPF.
-s Use SHA encryption for passwords. Faciliates migration from/to
Netscape servers using the LDAP Directory Interchange Format
-p Use plaintext passwords. Though htpasswd will support creation
on all platforms, the httpd deamon will only accept plain text
passwords on Windows and TPF.
Name of the file to contain the user name and password. If -c is
given, this file is created if it does not already exist, or
rewritten and truncated if it does exist.
The username to create or update in passwdfile. If username does
not exist in this file, an entry is added. If it does exist, the
password is changed.
The plaintext password to be encrypted and stored in the file.
Only used with the -b flag.
EXIT STATUShtpasswd returns a zero status ("true") if the username and password
have been successfully added or updated in the passwdfile. htpasswd
returns 1 if it encounters some problem accessing files, 2 if there was
a syntax problem with the command line, 3 if the password was entered
interactively and the verification entry didn't match, 4 if its opera‐
tion was interrupted, 5 if a value is too long (username, filename,
password, or final computed record), and 6 if the username contains
illegal characters (see the RESTRICTIONS section).
EXAMPLEShtpasswd /usr/local/etc/apache/.htpasswd-users jsmith
Adds or modifies the password for user jsmith. The user is
prompted for the password. If executed on a Windows system, the
password will be encrypted using the modified Apache MD5 algo‐
rithm; otherwise, the system's crypt() routine will be used. If
the file does not exist, htpasswd will do nothing except return
htpasswd-c /home/doe/public_html/.htpasswd jane
Creates a new file and stores a record in it for user jane. The
user is prompted for the password. If the file exists and can‐
not be read, or cannot be written, it is not altered and
htpasswd will display a message and return an error status.
htpasswd-mb /usr/web/.htpasswd-all jones Pwd4Steve
Encrypts the password from the command line (Pwd4Steve) using
the MD5 algorithm, and stores it in the specified file.
Web password files such as those managed by htpasswd should not be
within the Web server's URI space -- that is, they should not be fetch‐
able with a browser.
The use of the -b option is discouraged, since when it is used the
unencrypted password appears on the command line.
On the Windows and MPE platforms, passwords encrypted with htpasswd are
limited to no more than 255 characters in length. Longer passwords
will be truncated to 255 characters.
The MD5 algorithm used by htpasswd is specific to the Apache software;
passwords encrypted using it will not be usable with other Web servers.
Usernames are limited to 255 bytes and may not include the character
SEE ALSOhttpd(8) and the scripts in support/SHA1 which come with the distribu‐
May 2000 htpasswd(1)