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iconv(1)							      iconv(1)

       iconv - international codeset conversion

       iconv [-d] -f fromcodeset -t tocodeset [file...]

       The  command  converts the encoding of characters in its input from one
       codeset to another codeset.  The	 fromcodeset  argument	specifies  the
       codeset used to encode the data in the input; that is, it specifies the
       input codeset.  The tocodeset argument specifies the codeset  to	 which
       you  want  the  input  data converted; that is, it specifies the output
       codeset.	 The command performs the conversion by reading rules  from  a
       conversion table you create.  The command reads its input from standard
       input or from one or more files named on the command line.  The command
       writes its output to standard output.

       You define conversion rules in a conversion table. The conversion rules
       specify how converts a particular character  or	group  of  characters,
       which are called tokens.	 The conversion table is a text file that con‐
       tains two lists.	 In the left-hand list, you  specify  each  token  you
       want  to	 convert.   In	the right-hand list, you specify the token you
       want to create in the output file. For example, if you issued the  fol‐
       lowing command:
       % iconv -fupper -tlower conversion_file

       This  command uses the conversion table located in the file that speci‐
       fies how to convert from an uppercase codeset to a  lowercase  codeset.
       The following shows part of the conversion table:
       # Converts from uppercase to lowercase
       #    Input token		Output token
       #    -------------	------------------
		 A		     a
		 B		     b
		 C		     c
		 D		     d
		 E		     e
		 F		     f
		 G		     g
		 Z		     z
       # Convert tabs to spaces using octal
		\011		  \040\040\040
       # Convert the A umlaut to lowercase
		    A			    a

       Each  line  in  the conversion table must contain two strings, an input
       token and an output token.  The tokens must be delimited with spaces or
       tabs.   The backslash character ( \ ) either causes the command to rec‐
       ognize a character it normally ignores  or  introduces  a  three	 digit
       octal  constant.	 All octal constants in the conversion table must con‐
       tain three digits.  Lines that begin with a hash symbol	(#)  are  com‐
       ments.  The command ignores comment lines and blank lines.

       You name the conversion table file using the name of the input codeset,
       an underscore, and the name of the output  codeset.   For  example,  if
       your  input  codeset  is ISO646 and your output codeset is ISO8859, you
       might name the conversion table file

       The command searches for the conversion table  file  in	the  directory
       specified  by  the  pathname.   If the ${ICONV} environment variable is
       undefined, the command searches the directory.

       The operation of the command is 8-bit transparent.

       -d Deletes any characters that are omitted from the  conversion	table.
	  By  default,	the  command  sends characters that are omitted to the
	  output file without modifying them.

       -f Specifies the name of the input codeset.

       -t Specifies the name of the output codeset.

       The conversion table file name can contain no more than 255 characters.
       You  may need to truncate the name of the input codeset or output code‐
       set when you name the conversion table file.

       The following shows an example of using the command:

       This command converts the data  in  from	 ISO646	 encoding  to  ISO8859
       encoding.   The	command	 reads the conversion table from the file.  If
       the ${ICONV} environment variable is undefined, the  command  uses  the
       file.  If that file does not exist, the command issues an error message
       and does not convert the data file.  The command writes the results  of
       any conversion it performs to the file

See Also
       Guide to Developing International Software


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