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ied(1)									ied(1)

       ied - input editor and command history for interactive programs

       file] charmap] prompt] size] utility [arguments]...

       The utility command is intended to act as an interface between the user
       and an interactive program such as or a shell, providing	 most  of  the
       line editing and history functionality found in the Korn shell.	inter‐
       prets the utility name as the command to be executed, and passes	 argu‐
       ments  as  the  arguments  to the utility.  Subsequent input to utility
       then has access to editing and history functions very similar to	 those
       provided by

       monitors	 the state of the pty it uses to run the command; whenever the
       application it is running changes the state from the state of  the  tty
       when  started, becomes "transparent".  This allows programs to do shell
       escapes to screen-smart programs.  In general, should not  in  any  way
       interfere  with any action taken by any program for which it provides a
       front end.  This includes Korn shell itself: in this case would provide
       history	for  any application that was run by and would provide its own
       independent history.  In a useful extreme case, can be used as a	 front
       end  to	the  login shell (which might be or In this case, all applica‐
       tions that use normal line editing gain line editing and history, shar‐
       ing  a  single history.	The shell would continue to have its own inde‐
       pendent history if it provides such a mechanism.

       When is in its transparent mode, no history is  saved.	In  particular
       the  mode of does not use normal line editing (rather, it simulates it)
       and cannot provide history in this case.	 The and address line  editing
       of mailx also cannot be edited with

       Several options and command-line arguments control operation:

	      Debug mode.    Print information about the operation of the pro‐
			     gram.  It is best used to determine if a  program
			     puts into transparent mode unexpectedly.

	      Keep the history in a file named
			     filename.	 If a file of that name already exists
			     and is a history file, the latter part of it (the
			     last  size	 lines	as specified by the option) is
			     used as the initial value of the history.	If the
			     option  is	 not used, the environment variable is
			     used to supply the name.  If neither is  present,
			     an unnamed temporary file is used, and no initial
			     value is provided.

	      Force interactive mode.
			     Normally simply the command to which it is	 asked
			     to	 be a front end when the standard input is not
			     a tty (this allows aliases to be  used  for  com‐
			     mands  used  in  shells  without interfering with
			     their operation).	This option forces  to	remain
			     as	 a front end, and all editing functions are in
			     place.  This permits a utility that behaves  dif‐
			     ferently  in  interactive	and  batch modes to be
			     driven from a pipe or file in  interactive	 mode.
			     This  is  particularly useful in testing commands
			     that make this distinction.

	      charmap	     is a file of 256 or fewer lines.  The line number
			     in the file is the ordinal of a character as seen
			     as input by and the character on the line is  the
			     character	generated  as output (and also used as
			     editing characters).  This	 allows	 remapping  of
			     (ordinary)	 keys  such  as for a Dvorak keyboard.
			     Characters must start in column one of each line,
			     and  be represented as 1-4 characters followed by
			     a space or the newline  character	for  the  next
			     line.   Characters after the space are ignored as
			     comments.	 Single-character  entries   represent
			     themselves.    Two-character  entries  where  the
			     first character is a circumflex converts the sec‐
			     ond  character to the corresponding control char‐
			     acter.  Two-character sequences where  the	 first
			     character is backslash use the C language conven‐

				    \n	 newline     \s	  space
				    \\	 escape	     \0	  null
				    \r	 return	     \f	  form feed
				    \t	 tab	     \v	  vertical tab
				    \b	 backspace

			     Three- and four-character sequences  must	be  or
			     giving  the  octal	 value	for the character.  If
			     charmap is less than 256 lines long, the  remain‐
			     ing characters are mapped to themselves.

	      Many commands do not prompt when ready for input.
			     approximates  a prompting mechanism for such com‐
			     mands.  This is not always perfectly  successful,
			     but  for  many  commands  it helps.  In the worst
			     case, the prompt is interspersed with  output  in
			     the  wrong	 location.  prompt is a string as used
			     in the format argument to (see printf(3S)).   The
			     only  conversions	that can be included are up to
			     one instance of which is converted to the sequen‐
			     tial  number  of  the  command, and any number of
			     occurrences of which  is  treated	as  a  literal
			     character.	 Prompting is suppressed when is oper‐
			     ating in transparent mode.

	      This sets "non-raw" mode.
			     Normally uses its own editing  capabilities  when
			     reading simple text.  This causes to use tty line
			     discipline most of the time.  The disadvantage of
			     the  default  mode	 is that more context switches
			     and general processing are required.  The	advan‐
			     tage  is  that is more transparent.  For example,
			     to specifically send an end-of-file in  the  non-
			     raw  mode requires that the end-of-file character
			     (usually  Ctrl-D)	be  followed  by  a   carriage
			     return.   Similarly  the  "literal next" function
			     (Ctrl-V) cannot escape the line-erase  and	 line-
			     kill functions in non-raw mode.

	      This option specifies the size of the history buffer.
			     When  is  started	with an existing history file,
			     approximately the last size lines	are  available
			     to the history mechanism (the number is not guar‐
			     anteed to be exactly size).  Other lines  in  the
			     file  are	retained until such time as is started
			     on that history file and it exceeds approximately
			     4K	 bytes	in  size, at which time discards older
			     entries at the beginning of the file until it  is
			     near  4  KB  in  size.  Since this occurs only at
			     startup, history files can grow to be quite large
			     between restarts.	Larger values of size make the
			     process image larger.

			     If is not specified, the value of the environment
			     variable  is  used.   If  neither is specified, a
			     default is used.

	      Set transparent mode.
			     This forces to permanently be in transparent mode
			     (as  discussed  above).   It  is primarily useful
			     with for some classes  of	automated  processing.
			     In particular, it is useful for driving a command
			     if the command takes as input what	 would	inter‐
			     pret as editing characters.  Thus with the appro‐
			     priate combinations of  and  it  is  possible  to
			     drive  an editor such as or a screen-smart appli‐
			     cation from a batch file.

       Should something go wrong with the signal, repeated  3  times,  usually
       aborts  The  exception  is the case of a fully transparent application,
       where must be killed from another window or terminal.  This  is	really
       relevant	 only  when  there is no way to direct the serviced process to
       terminate itself.

       The editing capabilities of are essentially those found in  Only	 those
       that  differ  from  are described below.	 As in the style of editing is
       determined from the environment variable or from if is  not  specified.
       The  value  examined should end in or to specify an editor type.	 If it
       does not, does no editing, and history is not accessible.

       In mode:

	      Join lines.    Considering the most recently edited line	(which
			     is	 empty immediately after a line is sent to the
			     application) to be the "last line"	 of  the  his‐
			     tory,  the	 current line being displayed from the
			     history is appended to the end of the last	 line,
			     and the position in the history is reset to be at
			     the last line which is then displayed.   A	 space
			     is	 inserted  between the old and new text on the
			     last line.	 The cursor is	left  on  that	space.
			     Because  understanding  of	 line  continuation is
			     minimal, this is useful for editing  long	state‐

	      Not supported.

	      Not supported.

	      Sends  nothing  to  the application, but inserts the line in the
			     (useful for adding comments to history file).

	      (File name expansion).
			     Not supported.

	      Macro expansion.
			     Not supported.

			     Note however that has a rarely-used function that
			     substitutes words from the previous line (this is
			     not the macro but rather an editor command).   If
			     a	preceding  count is given, it uses the countth
			     word of the last line.  This is much more	useful

       In mode:

	      (file name expansion)
			     Not supported.

			     Note  that	 the  command (and its synonym provide
			     the same functionality as the mode command.

	      Macro expansion.
			     Not supported.

	      Although supported, it may not always appear  correctly  on  the
			     The  command can be used to redraw the line.  See
			     below for the discussion on prompting.

       Add interactive editing to the command:

       Execute on using comands taken from

       Note that, without the use of  would  misbehave	because	 its  standard
       input  would  not  be  a	 terminal  device.   In	 this case, the is not
       required because puts itself in raw mode, but for an  application  that
       does not, might be required.

       The command line

       searches the file for lines beginning with sending one copy to the ter‐
       minal and a second to file just like the command line

       The difference is that in the command line without writes directly to a
       pipe, and thus buffers its output.  If is very large and not many lines
       match the pattern, output to the terminal is  delayed.	By  using  the
       output of goes to a pty instead, which causes to output each line as it
       is ready.

       Since cannot know everything about every application,  it  is  possible
       that it can become confused, with either the timing or the prompt being
       out of phase with the application.  Since the use of is never required,
       it  is  the  user's choice to determine whether the application is more
       usable with or without In general, however, programs that do  not  con‐
       fuse are usually also the most likely to benefit from its use.

       tries  to  intuit  the currently active prompt when it is not providing
       one itself.  However, this is not always successful.  Even when	it  is
       successful,  the	 timing	 of  and the serviced command may occasionally
       confuse the output.  The commands in both and  modes  redraw  the  edit
       line  in	 a consistent fashion that can be used to create the next com‐

       was developed by HP.

       bc(1), bs(1), csh(1), ex(1), grep(1), ksh(1), vi(1), printf(3S).


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