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ms(7)									 ms(7)

Name
       ms - text formatting macros

Syntax
       nroff  -ms [options] file  ...
       *roff  -ms [options] file  ...

Description
       This  package  of  and macro definitions provides a formatting facility
       for various styles of articles,	theses,	 and  books.   When  producing
       2-column	 output	 on  a	terminal  or lineprinter, or when reverse line
       motions are needed, filter the output through All external  macros  are
       defined in the following section.  Many and requests are unsafe in con‐
       junction with this package.  However, the first four  requests  in  the
       list  that  follows can be used with impunity after initialization, and
       the last two may be used even before initialization:
	    .bp	   Begin new page
	    .br	   Break output line
	    .sp n  Insert n spacing lines
	    .ce n  Center next n lines
	    .ls n  Line spacing: n=1 single, n=2 double space
	    .na	   No alignment of right margin
       Font and point size changes with \f and \s are also allowed; for	 exam‐
       ple,  \fIword\fR	 italicize  word.  Output of the and preprocessors for
       equations, tables, and references is acceptable as input.

Requests
Macro	Initial	  Break?   Explanation
Name	Value	  Reset?
.AB x	-	  y	 Begin abstract; if x=no, do not label abstract.
.AE	-	  y	 End abstract.
.AI	-	  y	 Author's institution.
.AM	-	  n	 Better accent mark definitions.
.AU	-	  y	 Author's name.
.B x	-	  n	 Embolden x; if no x, switch to boldface.
.B1	-	  y	 Begin text to be enclosed in a box.
.B2	-	  y	 End boxed text and print it.
.BT	date	  n	 Bottom title, printed at foot of page.
.BX x	-	  n	 Print word x in a box.
.CM	if t	  n	 Cut mark between pages.
.CT	-	  y,y	 Chapter title: page number moved to CF (TM only).
.DA x	if n	  n	 Force date x at bottom of page; today if no x.
.DE	-	  y	 End display (unfilled text) of any kind.
.DS x y I	  y	 Begin display with keep; x=I,L,C,B; y=indent .
.ID y	8n,.5i	  y	 Indented display with no keep; y=indent.
.LD	-	  y	 Left display with no keep.
.CD	-	  y	 Centered display with no keep.
.BD	-	  y	 Block display; center entire block.
.EF x	-	  n	 Even page footer x (3 part, as for .tl).
.EH x	-	  n	 Even page header x (3 part, as for .tl).
.EN	-	  y	 End displayed equation produced by *eqn.
.EQ x y -	  y	 Break out equation; x=L,I,C; y=equation number.
.FE	-	  n	 End footnote to be placed at bottom of page.
.FP	-	  n	 Numbered footnote paragraph; may be redefined.
.FS x	-	  n	 Start footnote; x is optional footnote label.
.HD	undef	  n	 Optional page header below header margin.
.I x	-	  n	 Italicize x; if no x, switch to italics.
.IP x y -	  y,y	 Indented paragraph, with hanging tag x; y=indent.
.IX x y -	  y	 Index words x, y and so on (up to five levels).
.KE	-	  n	 End keep of any kind.
.KF	-	  n	 Begin floating keep; text fills remainder of page.
.KS	-	  y	 Begin keep; unit kept together on a single page.
.LG	-	  n	 Larger; increase point size by 2.
.LP	-	  y,y	 Left (block) paragraph..
.MC x	-	  y,y	 Multiple columns; x=column width.
.ND x	if t	  n	 No date in page footer; x is date on cover.
.NH x y -	  y,y	 Numbered header; x=level, x=0 resets, x=S sets to y.
.NL	10p	  n	 Set point size back to normal.
.OF x	-	  n	 Odd page footer x (3 part, as for .tl).
.OH x	-	  n	 Odd page header x (3 part, as for .tl).
.P1	if TM	  n	 Print header on first page.
.PP	-	  y,y	 Paragraph with first line indented.
.PT	- % -	  n	 Page title, printed at head of page.
.PX x	-	  y	 Print index (table of contents); x=no, suppresses title.
.QP	-	  y,y	 Quote paragraph (indented and shorter).
.R	on	  n	 Return to Roman font.
.RE	5n	  y,y	 Retreat: end level of relative indentation.
.RP x	-	  n	 Released paper format; x=no, stops title on first page.
.RS	5n	  y,y	 Right shift: start level of relative indentation.
.SH	-	  y,y	 Section header, in boldface.
.SM	-	  n	 Smaller; decrease point size by two.
.TA	8n,5n	  n	 Set tabs to 8n 16n ... (nroff) 5n 10n ... (*roff).
.TC x	-	  y	 Print table of contents at end; x=no, suppresses title.
.TE	-	  y	 End of table processed by tbl.
.TH	-	  y	 End multipage header of table.
.TL	-	  y	 Title in boldface and two points larger.
.TM	off	  n	 UC Berkeley thesis mode.
.TS x	-	  y,y	 Begin table; if x=H, table has multipage header.
.UL x	-	  n	 Underline x, even in *roff.
.UX x	-	  n	 UNIX; trademark message first time; x appended.
.XA x y -	  y	 Another index entry; x=page or no for none; y=indent.
.XE	-	  y	 End index entry (or series of .IX entries).
.XP	-	  y,y	 Paragraph with first line exdented, others indented.
.XS x y -	  y	 Begin index entry; x=page or no for none; y=indent.
.1C	on	  y,y	 One-column format, on a new page.
.2C	-	  y,y	 Begin two-column format.
.]-	-	  n	 Beginning of refer reference.
.[0	-	  n	 End of unclassifiable type of reference.
.[N	-	  n	 N= 1:journal-article, 2:book, 3:book-article, 4:report.

Registers
       Formatting distances can be controlled in by means of  built-in	number
       registers.  For example, this sets the line length to 6.5 inches:
	    .nr	 LL  6.5i
       Here is a table of number registers and their default values:
	    Name Register Controls  Takes Effect Default
	    PS	 Point size	    paragraph	 10
	    VS	 Vertical spacing   paragraph	 12
	    LL	 Line length	    paragraph	 6i
	    LT	 Title length	    next page	 same as LL
	    FL	 Footnote length    next .FS	 5.5i
	    PD	 Paragraph distance paragraph	 1v (if n), .3v (if t)
	    DD	 Display distance   displays	 1v (if n), .5v (if t)
	    PI	 Paragraph indent   paragraph	 5n
	    QI	 Quote indent	    next .QP	 5n
	    FI	 Footnote indent    next .FS	 2n
	    PO	 Page offset	    next page	 0 (if n), ∼1i (if t)
	    HM	 Header margin	    next page	 1i
	    FM	 Footer margin	    next page	 1i
	    FF	 Footnote format    next .FS	 0 (1, 2, 3 available)
       When  resetting	these  values,	make  sure  to specify the appropriate
       units.  Setting the line length to 7, for example,  results  in	output
       with  one  character  per  line.	  Setting  FF to 1 suppresses footnote
       superscripting; setting it to 2	also  suppresses  indentation  of  the
       first  line;  and  setting  it to 3 produces an .IP-like footnote para‐
       graph.

       Here is a list of string registers available in they can be  used  any‐
       where in the text:
	    Name  String's Function
	    \*Q	  Quote (" in nroff, `` in *roff )
	    \*U	  Unquote (" in nroff, '' in *roff )
	    \*-	  Dash (-- in nroff, — in *roff )
	    \*(MO Month (month of the year)
	    \*(DY Day (current date)
	    \**	  Automatically numbered footnote
	    \*´	  Acute accent (before letter)
	    \*`	  Grave accent (before letter)
	    \*^	  Circumflex (before letter)
	    \*,	  Cedilla (before letter)
	    \*:	  Umlaut (before letter)
	    \*~	  Tilde (before letter)
       When  using  the	 extended  accent mark definitions available with .AM,
       these strings should come after, rather than before, the letter	to  be
       accented.

Restrictions
       Floating	 keeps	and  regular  keeps are diverted to the same space, so
       they cannot be mixed together with predictable results.

Files
See Also
       refer(1), tbl(1)

									 ms(7)
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