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nice(1)								       nice(1)

       nice - run a command at nondefault priority

       command [command_args]

       command [command_args]

       The  command  executes command at a nondefault CPU scheduling priority.
       (The name is derived from being "nice" to other system users by running
       large programs at lower priority.)

       The command-line arguments are as follows:

	      priority_change The  difference between the system
			      nice value (relative priority)  of
			      the  current  (or	 parent) process
			      and the actual system  nice  value
			      at which command is to run.

			      An  unsigned  value  increases the
			      system  nice  value  for	command,
			      causing  it to run at lower prior‐

			      A negative  value	 requires  supe‐
			      ruser  privileges,  and  assigns a
			      lower system  nice  value	 (higher
			      priority) to command.  If the cur‐
			      rent process  is	not  privileged,
			      the  value  is silently treated as
			      if it were 0.

			      If the  value  of	 priority_change
			      would  result  in	 a  system  nice
			      value outside the range 0	 through
			      39,  the corresponding limit value
			      of 0 or 39 is used instead.

			      Note  that   a   positive	  prior‐
			      ity_change  (lower priority) has a
			      single option character before the
			      numeric  value; a negative (higher
			      priority) priority_change has two:
			      the  option  character followed by
			      the minus sign If	 is  not  speci‐
			      fied, it defaults to

	      command	      A	 program,  HP-UX  command,  user
			      shell script, etc.  to be executed
			      at  the nondefault priority.  com‐
			      mand can be run as a foreground or
			      background process.

			      If  command is run as a background
			      process, any nice	 priority_change
			      made  by	the  shell  executes all
			      background  processes  via  is  in
			      addition	to that specified in the
			      command line.

	      command_args    Any arguments recognized	by  com‐

   Process Priorities
       All  processes have an associated system nice value which
       is used to  compute  the	 instantaneous-priority	 of  the
       process	when it is scheduled to run.  Normally, all pro‐
       cesses inherit the system  nice	value  of  their  parent
       process when they are spawned.  The shell etc.)	can cre‐
       ate a child process with a different  priority  from  the
       current	shell  process by spawning the child process via
       the command.  If the priority_change  value  is	unsigned
       (positive),  the	 child process is nicer (lower in prior‐
       ity) relative to	 the  parent.	If  the	 priority_change
       value  is  negative,  the  child process runs at a higher
       priority	 with  a  greater  share  of  available	  system
       resources.  To spawn a higher priority child process, the
       parent process must be owned by a user who has the appro‐
       priate privileges.

       At  boot-up,  the  system  starts the process at a system
       nice value of 20 (system default).  On most systems,  all
       processes  (down to the login shells) inherit this prior‐
       ity.  Starting from their  individual  login  shell  pro‐
       cesses,	users can alter the system nice value of descen‐
       dent processes to as much as  39,  or,  with  appropriate
       privileges,  as	little	as  0.	A system nice value of 0
       establishes an extremely high priority, whereas	a  value
       of 39 indicates a very low priority.

       Ordinary users can only increase the system nice value of
       any child process relative to the current process;  i.e.,
       priority_change	must  be  a  positive  (unsigned) value,
       resulting in a lower priority.  To start a child	 process
       at  a  lower system nice value (higher priority) than the
       current process, the user must have the appropriate priv‐
       ileges,	regardless  of	the relative nice-priority value

       For example, using the command

       from a login shell whose current nice value is 20  spawns
       a subshell with a system nice value of 30.  Attempting to

       from the new shell to spawn another subshell whose system
       nice  value would be 28, is rejected (unless the user has
       appropriate privileges), even though the resulting system
       nice  value would be less than the priority of the origi‐
       nal login shell process.

       The system nice value for  current  processes  is  listed
       under the column produced by the command (see ps(1)).

   Background Processes
       Foreground processes are run at same system nice value as
       the parent shell.  Background processes spawned by run at
       the  equivalent of a by default.	 If a background process
       is started via from any priority_change specified in  the
       command is added to default Thus the command

       runs at a system nice value of 36 if executed from

   Environment Variables
       determines the language in which messages are displayed.

       If  is  not specified in the environment or is set to the
       empty string, the value of is used as a default for  each
       unspecified or empty variable.  If is not specified or is
       set to the empty string, a default of "C"  (see	lang(5))
       is used instead of

       If  any internationalization variable contains an invalid
       setting, behaves as if all internationalization variables
       are set to "C".	See environ(5).

   International Code Set Support
       Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported.

       returns the value returned by command.

       The following examples assume the current process is run‐
       ning with a system nice value of 20 and is executed  from
       the Korn shell (see ksh(1)).

       Run  a  program	named  in  the	current directory at the
       default priority_change of 10 (system nice value of 30):

       Run the same program in the  background	using  a  system
       nice  value of 36 (priority_change=12 plus 4 for the Korn

       As a user with appropriate privileges,  run  as	a  fore‐
       ground process with a system nice value of 6:

       The  C  shell, has a built-in command with different syn‐
       tax.  See csh(1) for details.

       csh(1), ksh(1), nohup(1), sh-posix(1), sh(1), renice(1M),


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