environ(5)environ(5)NAMEenviron - user environment
An array of strings called the is made available by exec(2) when a
process begins. By convention, these strings have the form name=value.
The following names are used by various commands (listed in alphabeti‐
Name of the user's login directory, set by
login(1) from the password file (see passwd(4)).
Identifies the user's requirements for native language,
local customs and coded character set, if the environment
variables and are unset or null.
The format of is:
The valid values for are supported locales. (See lang(5).)
Native Language Support (NLS) is initiated at run-time by
calling setlocale(3C). The following call to binds the
execution of a program to the user's language requirements:
This call initializes the program locale from the environ‐
ment variables associated with provides the necessary
defaults if any of the category-specific environment vari‐
ables are not set or set to the empty string.
The environment variable can have a maximum length of bytes
(see header file
Defines language options for mode and data order in the form:
values are given in English as an ASCII character string.
mode describes the mode of a file where (ell) represents
Latin mode and represents non-Latin mode. Non-Latin mode
is assumed for values other than and order describes the
data order of a file where is keyboard order and is screen
Determines the values for all locale categories. The value of
has precedence over any of the other environment variables
Determines the user's requirements for language,
territory, and codeset with respect to character collation,
character classification and conversion, output messages,
currency symbol and monetary value format, numeric data
presentation, and time formats, respectively. If and any
of these are not defined in the environment, provides the
Syntax for the environment variables and is:
The language field conforms with ISO 639 standard for lan‐
guage names and the territory field conforms with the ISO
3166 territory names. For a list of the locale names, see
The field allows the user to select between more than one
value of a category within the same language definition.
HP-UX does not currently provide locales with modifiers.
The values of the locale categories are determined by a
precedence order; the first condition met below determines
1. If the environment variable is defined and is not null,
the value of is used.
2. If the environment variable (is defined and is not null,
the value of the environment variable is used to ini‐
tialize the category that corresponds to the environment
3. If the environment variable is defined and is not null,
the value of the environment variable is used.
4. If the environment variable is not set or is set to the
empty string, the POSIX/C default locale is used. (See
Determines the locale category for character collation. It determines
collation information for regular expressions and sorting,
including equivalence classes and multi-character collating
elements, in various utilities and strcoll(3C) and
strxfrm(3C) (see string(3C)).
Determines the locale category for
character classification (such as alphabetic, digit, upper-
case.) See isalpha(3C), isdigit(3C), and isupper(3C),
character conversion in ctype(3C). See toupper(3C),
tolower(3C), and the interpretation of text as single-byte
or multi-byte characters in conv(3C).
Determines the locale category for processing affirmative and negative
responses and the language and cultural conventions in
which diagnostic and informative messages should be writ‐
ten. It may also affect the behavior of catopen(3C) in
determining the message catalog to open.
Determines the locale category for monetary-related numeric
Determines the locale category for numeric formatting information
(such as the thousands separator and the radix character)
in various utilities as well as the formatted I/O opera‐
tions in printf(3S) and scanf(3S) and the string conversion
functions in strtod(3C).
Determines the locale category for date and time formatting informa‐
It affects the behavior of time functions in strftime(3C).
Contains a colon-separated list of directory prefixes to be searched by
man(1) for manual entries. Upon logging in, (or sets If
the file exists, the default settings are taken from this
uses the same syntax as the environment variable, with the
addition of recognizing the specifiers and as used in the
environment variable. See below for a description of these
specifiers. This provides a way to specify paths to
locale-specific manual entries.
It is assumed that each of the prefixes given in contain
subdirectories of the form and (See man(1), catman(1M), and
Contains a sequence of pseudo-pathnames used by
catopen(3C) when attempting to locate message catalogs.
Each pseudo-pathname contains a name template consisting of
an optional path prefix, one or more substitution field
descriptors, a file name and an optional file name suffix.
defines that catopen(3C) should look for all message cata‐
logs in the directory , where the catalog name should be
constructed from the name parameter passed to catopen (3C)
(%N) with the suffix
Field descriptors consist of a followed by a single charac‐
ter. Field descriptors and their substitution values are:
The value of the
name parameter passed to catopen(3C).
The value of
The language element from
The territory element from
The codeset element from
by a single
For example, given:
catopen(3C) attempts to open the file as a message catalog.
A null string is substituted if the specified value is not
defined. Separators are not included in and substitutions.
Note that a default value is not supplied for If is not set
and had the value in the previous example, catopen(3C)
would attempt to open the file as a message catalog.
Path names defined in are separated by colons A leading
colon or two adjacent colons is equivalent to specifying
For example, given:
catopen(3C) with the oflag parameter set to will attempt to
open the following files in the indicated order: and The
first file successfully opened is taken as the message cat‐
A default pseudo-pathname defined by the system is effec‐
tively appended to and used by catopen(3C) whenever a mes‐
sage catalog cannot be opened in any of the user defined
pseudo-pathnames. This system-wide default path is:
If catopen(3C) is invoked from a or application with owner
root, the environment variable is not used. Instead the
system file is used to locate the message catalogs. See
nlspath(4) for details.
indicates the paginator through which output from certain commands is
Its value must be a string specifying the complete command
line of the desired paginator. Two examples are:
affects several commands, including man(1) and the interac‐
tive mailers. Some of the affected commands provide alter‐
nate means of selecting a pager in case there is a con‐
flict. See the individual manual entries for details.
indicates the sequence of directory prefixes that
sh(1), time(1), nice(1), nohup(1), and others search when
looking for a file known by an incomplete path name. Pre‐
fixes are separated by colons The login(1) command sets
identifies the kind of terminal for which output is to be prepared.
This information is used by commands such as vi(1) and
mm(1), which can exploit special capabilities of that ter‐
sets time zone information.
can be set using the format:
Three or more bytes that designate
the standard time zone and summer (or daylight-
savings) time zone is required. If is not
specified, summer time does not apply in this
locale. Each of these fields may occur in
either of two formats quoted or unquoted.
In the quoted form, the first character shall
be the less-than character and the last charac‐
ter shall be the greater-than character. All
characters between these quoting characters
shall be alphanumeric characters from the por‐
table character set in the current locale, the
plus-sign character, or the minus-sign charac‐
ter. The and fields in this case shall not
include the quoting characters.
In the unquoted form, any characters other than
digits, comma minus plus or ASCII NUL are
offset offset is the value that must be added to local
time to arrive at Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC). Offset is of the form :
Hour (hh) is any value from 0 through 23. The
optional minutes (mm) and seconds (ss) fields
are a value from 0 through 59. The hour field
is required. If offset is preceded by a the
time zone is east of the Prime Meridian. A
preceding offset indicates that the time zone
is west of the Prime Meridian. The default
case is west of the Prime Meridian.
rule rule indicates when to change to and from sum‐
mer (daylight-savings) time. The rule has the
where the first specifies when to change from
standard to summer time, and the second speci‐
fies when to change back. The time field is
expressed in current local time.
The form of date should be one of the following
Julian day n (1 through 365). Leap days are
not counted. February 29 cannot be
n The zero-based Julian day (0
through 365). Leap days are
counted. February 29 can be refer‐
The d day (0 through 6) of week n (1
through 5) of month m (1 through
12) of the year. Week 5 refers to
the last day d of month m. Week 1
is the week in which the first day
of the month falls. Day 0 is Sun‐
time Time has the same format as offset
except that no leading sign or is
allowed. The default, if time is
not given, is 02:00:00.
While the STD field and the offset field for
STD must be specified, if the DST field is also
provided, the system will supply default values
for other fields not specified. These default
values come from file (see tztab(4)), and, in
general, reflect the various historical dates
for start and end of summer time.
Additional names may be placed in the environment by the export command
and arguments in sh(1), or by exec(2). It is unwise to add names that
conflict with the following shell variables frequently exported by
The environment of a process is accessible from C by using the global
which points to an array of pointers to the strings that comprise the
environment. The array is terminated by a null pointer.
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is equivalent to Greenwich Mean Time
International Code Set Support
The and environment variables provide support for internationalized
applications. The standard utilities make use of these environment
variables as described here and in the individual Environment Variables
subsection of the utilities.
If these variables specify locale categories that are not based upon
the same underlying codeset, the results are unspecified, and the
behavior of regular expressions APIs', such as, and may be affected.
Some HP-UX commands and library routines do not use the or environment
variables. Some commands do not use message catalogs, so does not
affect their behavior. See the section of specific commands and
library routines for implementation details.
was developed by AT&T and HP.
SEE ALSOenv(1), login(1), sh(1), exec(2), catopen(3C), ctime(3C), getenv(3C),
setlocale(3C), nlspath(4), profile(4), tztab(4), lang(5), term(5).