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environ(5)							    environ(5)

       environ - user environment

       An  array  of  strings  called  the is made available by exec(2) when a
       process begins.	By convention, these strings have the form name=value.
       The  following names are used by various commands (listed in alphabeti‐
       cal order):

       Name of the user's login directory, set by
		   login(1) from the password file (see passwd(4)).

       Identifies the user's requirements for native language,
		   local customs and coded character set, if  the  environment
		   variables and are unset or null.

		   The format of is:

		   The valid values for are supported locales.	(See lang(5).)
		   Native Language Support (NLS) is initiated at  run-time  by
		   calling  setlocale(3C).   The  following  call to binds the
		   execution of a program to the user's language requirements:

		   This call initializes the program locale from the  environ‐
		   ment	 variables  associated	with  provides	the  necessary
		   defaults if any of the category-specific environment	 vari‐
		   ables are not set or set to the empty string.

		   The environment variable can have a maximum length of bytes
		   (see header file

       Defines language options for mode and data order in the form:

		   values are given in English as an ASCII  character  string.
		   mode	 describes  the	 mode of a file where (ell) represents
		   Latin mode and represents non-Latin mode.   Non-Latin  mode
		   is  assumed	for  values other than and order describes the
		   data order of a file where is keyboard order and is	screen

       Determines the values for all locale categories.	 The value of
		   has	precedence over any of the other environment variables

       Determines the user's requirements for language,
		   territory, and codeset with respect to character collation,
		   character  classification  and conversion, output messages,
		   currency symbol and monetary	 value	format,	 numeric  data
		   presentation,  and  time formats, respectively.  If and any
		   of these are not defined in the environment,	 provides  the

		   Syntax for the environment variables and is:

		   The	language field conforms with ISO 639 standard for lan‐
		   guage names and the territory field conforms with  the  ISO
		   3166	 territory names.  For a list of the locale names, see

		   The field allows the user to select between more  than  one
		   value  of  a	 category within the same language definition.
		   HP-UX does not currently provide locales with modifiers.

		   The values of the locale categories	are  determined	 by  a
		   precedence  order; the first condition met below determines
		   the value:

		   1. If the environment variable is defined and is not	 null,
		      the value of is used.

		   2. If the environment variable (is defined and is not null,
		      the value of the environment variable is	used  to  ini‐
		      tialize the category that corresponds to the environment

		   3. If the environment variable is defined and is not	 null,
		      the value of the environment variable is used.

		   4. If  the environment variable is not set or is set to the
		      empty string, the POSIX/C default locale is used.	  (See

       Determines the locale category for character collation.	It determines
		   collation  information for regular expressions and sorting,
		   including equivalence classes and multi-character collating
		   elements,   in   various   utilities	 and  strcoll(3C)  and
		   strxfrm(3C) (see string(3C)).

       Determines the locale category for
		   character classification (such as alphabetic, digit, upper-
		   case.)   See	 isalpha(3C),  isdigit(3C),  and  isupper(3C),
		   character  conversion  in  ctype(3C).    See	  toupper(3C),
		   tolower(3C),	 and the interpretation of text as single-byte
		   or multi-byte characters in conv(3C).

       Determines the locale category for processing affirmative and negative
		   responses and the  language	and  cultural  conventions  in
		   which  diagnostic  and informative messages should be writ‐
		   ten.	 It may also affect the	 behavior  of  catopen(3C)  in
		   determining the message catalog to open.

       Determines the locale category for monetary-related numeric
		   formatting information.

       Determines the locale category for numeric formatting information
		   (such  as  the thousands separator and the radix character)
		   in various utilities as well as the	formatted  I/O	opera‐
		   tions in printf(3S) and scanf(3S) and the string conversion
		   functions in strtod(3C).

       Determines the locale category for date and  time  formatting  informa‐
		   It affects the behavior of time functions in strftime(3C).

       Contains a colon-separated list of directory prefixes to be searched by
		   man(1)  for	manual	entries.  Upon logging in, (or sets If
		   the file exists, the default settings are taken  from  this

		   uses	 the same syntax as the environment variable, with the
		   addition of recognizing the specifiers and as used  in  the
		   environment variable.  See below for a description of these
		   specifiers.	This  provides	a  way	to  specify  paths  to
		   locale-specific manual entries.

		   It  is  assumed  that each of the prefixes given in contain
		   subdirectories of the form and (See man(1), catman(1M), and

       Contains a sequence of pseudo-pathnames used by
		   catopen(3C)	when  attempting  to  locate message catalogs.
		   Each pseudo-pathname contains a name template consisting of
		   an  optional	 path  prefix,	one or more substitution field
		   descriptors, a file name and an optional file name  suffix.
		   For example:

		   defines  that catopen(3C) should look for all message cata‐
		   logs in the directory , where the catalog  name  should  be
		   constructed	from the name parameter passed to catopen (3C)
		   (%N) with the suffix

		   Field descriptors consist of a followed by a single charac‐
		   ter.	 Field descriptors and their substitution values are:

		      The value of the
			      name parameter passed to catopen(3C).
		      The value of
		      The     language element from
		      The     territory element from
		      The     codeset element from
			      by a single

		   For example, given:

		   catopen(3C) attempts to open the file as a message catalog.

		   A  null string is substituted if the specified value is not
		   defined.  Separators are not included in and substitutions.
		   Note that a default value is not supplied for If is not set
		   and had the value  in  the  previous	 example,  catopen(3C)
		   would attempt to open the file as a message catalog.

		   Path	 names	defined	 in  are separated by colons A leading
		   colon or two adjacent colons is  equivalent	to  specifying
		   For example, given:

		   catopen(3C) with the oflag parameter set to will attempt to
		   open the following files in the indicated  order:  and  The
		   first file successfully opened is taken as the message cat‐

		   A default pseudo-pathname defined by the system  is	effec‐
		   tively  appended to and used by catopen(3C) whenever a mes‐
		   sage catalog cannot be opened in any of  the	 user  defined
		   pseudo-pathnames.  This system-wide default path is:

		   If  catopen(3C) is invoked from a or application with owner
		   root, the environment variable is not  used.	  Instead  the
		   system  file	 is  used to locate the message catalogs.  See
		   nlspath(4) for details.

       indicates the paginator through which output from certain  commands  is
		   Its	value must be a string specifying the complete command
		   line of the desired paginator.  Two examples are:

		   affects several commands, including man(1) and the interac‐
		   tive mailers.  Some of the affected commands provide alter‐
		   nate means of selecting a pager in case  there  is  a  con‐
		   flict.  See the individual manual entries for details.

       indicates the sequence of directory prefixes that
		   sh(1),  time(1),  nice(1), nohup(1), and others search when
		   looking for a file known by an incomplete path name.	  Pre‐
		   fixes are separated by colons The login(1) command sets

       identifies the kind of terminal for which output is to be prepared.
		   This	 information  is  used	by  commands such as vi(1) and
		   mm(1), which can exploit special capabilities of that  ter‐

       sets time zone information.
		   can be set using the format:


		   Three or more bytes that designate
			       the standard time zone and summer (or daylight-
			       savings) time zone  is  required.   If  is  not
			       specified,  summer  time does not apply in this
			       locale.	Each of	 these	fields	may  occur  in
			       either of two formats quoted or unquoted.

			       In  the	quoted form, the first character shall
			       be the less-than character and the last charac‐
			       ter  shall  be the greater-than character.  All
			       characters  between  these  quoting  characters
			       shall  be alphanumeric characters from the por‐
			       table character set in the current locale,  the
			       plus-sign  character, or the minus-sign charac‐
			       ter.  The and fields in	this  case  shall  not
			       include the quoting characters.

			       In the unquoted form, any characters other than
			       digits, comma  minus  plus  or  ASCII  NUL  are

		   offset      offset is the value that must be added to local
			       time to arrive at  Coordinated  Universal  Time
			       (UTC).  Offset is of the form :

			       Hour  (hh) is any value from 0 through 23.  The
			       optional minutes (mm) and seconds  (ss)	fields
			       are  a value from 0 through 59.	The hour field
			       is required.  If offset is preceded  by	a  the
			       time  zone  is  east  of the Prime Meridian.  A
			       preceding offset indicates that the  time  zone
			       is  west	 of  the  Prime Meridian.  The default
			       case is west of the Prime Meridian.

		   rule	       rule indicates when to change to and from  sum‐
			       mer  (daylight-savings) time.  The rule has the
			       form :

			       where the first specifies when to  change  from
			       standard	 to summer time, and the second speci‐
			       fies when to change back.  The  time  field  is
			       expressed in current local time.

			       The form of date should be one of the following

			       Julian day  n (1 through 365).  Leap  days  are
					   not counted.	 February 29 cannot be

			       n	   The	zero-based   Julian   day   (0
					   through   365).    Leap   days  are
					   counted.  February 29 can be refer‐

			       The	   d  day  (0  through 6) of week n (1
					   through 5) of month	m  (1  through
					   12)	of the year.  Week 5 refers to
					   the last day d of month m.  Week  1
					   is  the week in which the first day
					   of the month falls.	Day 0 is  Sun‐

			       time	   Time	 has the same format as offset
					   except that no leading sign	or  is
					   allowed.   The  default, if time is
					   not given, is 02:00:00.

			       While the STD field and the  offset  field  for
			       STD must be specified, if the DST field is also
			       provided, the system will supply default values
			       for  other fields not specified.	 These default
			       values come from file (see tztab(4)),  and,  in
			       general,	 reflect  the various historical dates
			       for start and end of summer time.

       Additional names may be placed in the environment by the export command
       and  arguments in sh(1), or by exec(2).	It is unwise to add names that
       conflict with the following  shell  variables  frequently  exported  by
       files: and

       The  environment	 of a process is accessible from C by using the global

       which points to an array of pointers to the strings that	 comprise  the
       environment.  The array is terminated by a null pointer.

       Coordinated  Universal  Time (UTC) is equivalent to Greenwich Mean Time

   International Code Set Support
       The and environment variables  provide  support	for  internationalized
       applications.   The  standard  utilities	 make use of these environment
       variables as described here and in the individual Environment Variables
       subsection of the utilities.

       If  these  variables  specify locale categories that are not based upon
       the same underlying codeset,  the  results  are	unspecified,  and  the
       behavior of regular expressions APIs', such as, and may be affected.

       Some  HP-UX commands and library routines do not use the or environment
       variables.  Some commands do not use  message  catalogs,	 so  does  not
       affect  their  behavior.	  See  the  section  of	 specific commands and
       library routines for implementation details.

       was developed by AT&T and HP.

       env(1), login(1), sh(1), exec(2), catopen(3C),  ctime(3C),  getenv(3C),
       setlocale(3C), nlspath(4), profile(4), tztab(4), lang(5), term(5).


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