nroff(1)nroff(1)NAMEnroff - format text
[options] file ...
is a text formatting program that interprets source text contained in
file and prepares it for printing on typewriter-like devices and line
printers. If file name is or not specified, standard input is used as
If the file contains plain text with no formatter requests, uses
default line lengths and page dimensions to produce readable output,
outputting a blank line for each blank line encountered in the input,
and filling and adjusting text to both margins. ignores any lines in
the source text that begin with a period but are not valid formatter
Source File Preparation
Document source file preparation is usually easier when text is coded
using macro packages such as mm(1) which provide a high-level interface
for headings, page footers, lists, and other features, rather than cod‐
ing the file with inherently low-level requests.
recognizes the following command-line options, which can appear in any
order but must appear before the file argument:
Print only pages whose page numbers appear in the
list of numbers and ranges, separated by commas.
A range means pages n through m; an initial means
from the beginning to page n; and a final means
from n to the end. (See WARNINGS below.)
Number first generated page
Stop every n pages. halts after every n pages (default n=1)
to allow paper loading or changing, and resumes
upon receipt of a line-feed or new-line (new-
lines do not work in pipelines, such as with When
halts between pages, an ASCII is sent to the ter‐
Set register a (which must have a one-character name) to N.
Read standard input after
files are exhausted.
Invoke the simultaneous input-output mode of the
Print only messages generated by
(terminal message) requests.
Precede the input
files with the non-compiled (ASCII text) macro
where LANG is the value of the environment vari‐
able. If is not set or
does not exist, the following file is used
Prepare output for specified terminal.
Known names are as follows:
for the (default)
TELETYPE Model 37 terminal
for the GE TermiNet 300 (or any terminal without
for the DASI 300s
for the DASI 300
for the DASI 450
for a (generic)
ASCII line printer
for the DTC-382
for the Trendata 4000A
for the Anderson Jacobson 832
for a (generic)
for the Hewlett-Packard 2631 line printer
for a (generic) 16-bit character printer having
ratio of 2 to 3
in 8-bit and 16-bit character width
PCL3 and newer laser printers.
Produce equally-spaced words in adjusted lines,
using the full resolution of the particular ter‐
Use output tabs during horizontal spacing
to speed output and reduce output character
count. Tab settings are assumed to be every
eight nominal character widths.
Set the emboldening factor (number of character overstrikes)
for the third font position (bold) to n, or to
zero if n is missing.
If this option is specified on the command line, it allows the
of the special feature provided by some Asian
printers which prints two column wide characters
in 3/2 column wide boxes.
determines the interpretation of text as single and/or multi-byte char‐
is used to determine the search path for the option. also determines
the language in which messages are displayed.
If is not specified in the environment or is set to the empty string,
the value of is used as a default for each unspecified or empty vari‐
able. If is not specified or is set to the empty string, a default of
"C" (see lang(5)) is used instead of If any internationalization vari‐
able contains an invalid setting, behaves as if all internationaliza‐
tion variables are set to "C". See environ(5).
The following command prints the first five pages of the document whose
source file is filename:
Note that there should not be a space between the and the or the and
To print only pages 1, 3, and 4 type:
When is used with the option inside a pipeline, it may cause a harmless
"broken pipe" diagnostic if the last page of the document is not speci‐
fied in list.
Standard macro files
Terminal driving tables for
Suffix hyphenation tables
Standard macro files and pointers
SEE ALSOcol(1), mm(1), neqn(1), soelim(1), ul(1), man(5).