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od(1)									 od(1)

       od, xd - octal and hexadecimal dump

       address_base] skip] count] type_string] ...  [file ...]

       address_base] skip] count] type_string] ...  [file ...]

   Supported Pre-POSIX Usage
       [file] offset

       [file] offset

       and  concatenate	 one  or  more input files and write their contents to
       standard output in a user-specified format.  If file is not  specified,
       the standard input is used.

   Options and Arguments
       and recognize the following options and command-line arguments:

	      Specify the input offset base.
				address_base   is   a  single  character  that
				defines which format the offset base is	 writ‐
				ten in:

				     Decimal format.
				     Octal format.
				     Hexadecimal format.
				     Do not write the offset.

	      Jump over		skip  bytes  from  the beginning of the input.
				seeks past the first skip bytes	 in  the  con‐
				catenated  input files.	 If the combined input
				is not at least	 skip  bytes  long,  writes  a
				diagnostic message to standard error and exits
				with a non-zero exit status.  By default, skip
				is  interpreted	 as a decimal number.  If skip
				has a leading or it is interpreted as a	 hexa‐
				decimal	 number; a leading indicates that skip
				is an octal number.

				If the value of skip is followed by a or it is
				interpreted  as	 a  multiple  of 512, 1024, or
				1048576, respectively.

	      Format no more than
				count bytes of input.

				By default, count is interpreted as a  decimal
				number.	  A leading or indicates that count is
				a hexadecimal number; a leading identifies  an
				octal value.

				If  count  bytes  of  input  are not available
				(after successfully skipping if is specified),
				the input that is available is formatted.

	      type_string	is a string defining the types to be used when
				writing the input data.

				The string can contain any  of	the  following
				type-specification characters:

				     named character ,
				     character ,
				     signed decimal ,
				     floating point ,
				     octal ,
				     unsigned decimal ,
				     hexadecimal ,

				Type  specification characters and can be fol‐
				lowed by an optional unsigned decimal  integer
				specifying  the	 number	 of bytes to be trans‐
				formed by each instance of the output type, or
				by  an optional or indicating that the conver‐
				sion should be applied	to  an	item  of  type
				char, short, int, or long, respectively.

				Type  specification  character can be followed
				by an optional or indicating that the  conver‐
				sion  should  be  applied  to  an item of type
				float, double, or long double, respectively.

				Multiple types can be concatenated within  the
				same  type_string  and multiple options can be
				specified.  Output lines are written for  each
				type  specified in the order in which the type
				specification characters appear.

	      Write all input data.
				Without the option, any number	of  groups  of
				output	lines,	that would be identical to the
				immediately preceding group  of	 output	 lines
				(except	 for  the  byte offsets), are replaced
				with a line containing only an asterisk

	      file		Pathname of one or more input files to be pro‐
				cessed.	  If  file is not specified, the stan‐
				dard input is used.

				Input files can be any file type.

       and dump file in one or more formats as selected by the first argument.
       If  the	first  argument	 is  missing, the default is for for An offset
       field is inserted at the beginning of each line.	 For the offset is  in
       octal, for the offset is in hexadecimal.

       and recognize the following format options:

	      Interpret bytes in octal (hexadecimal).

	      Interpret bytes in
		    ASCII.    Certain	non-graphic  characters	 appear	 as  C
		    escapes: others appear as 3-digit octal numbers.

	      Interpret 16-bit words in decimal.

	      Interpret 16-bit words in octal.

	      Interpret 16-bit words in signed decimal.

	      Interpret 16-bit words in hexadecimal.

       file specifies which file is to be dumped.  If file is  not  specified,
       the standard input is used.

       offset  specifies  the offset in the file where dumping is to commence,
       and is normally interpreted as  octal  bytes.   Interpretation  can  be
       altered as follows:

	      ·	    offset  must  be preceded by if the file argument is omit‐
	      ·	    offset preceded by is interpreted in hexadecimal.
	      ·	    offset followed by is interpreted in decimal.
	      ·	    offset followed by is interpreted in blocks of 512 bytes.

       Dumping continues until end-of-file.

       Write hexadecimal bytes and the corresponding octal values to the stan‐
       dard output in blocks of 16 bytes in one line, by transforming the data
       from the input file

       The following commands write one line  each  of	the  types  character,
       signed decimal integer, and float, in the order given, transforming 100
       bytes of data starting from fifteenth byte offset in the file

       Write one line each of the types unsigned integer, named character, and
       long  double,  with  the	 offsets  written in hexadecimal and forcing a
       write, even on lines that are identical to  the	immediately  preceding
       group of output lines:

       When  the  output  format  is  of  floating-point  type	(using	the or
       options), the following actions occur:

	      ·	 If the input bytes cannot be transformed into a valid	float‐
		 ing point number, a floating point exception might occur.  In
		 that case, the output is printed as a string containing  some
		 non-numeric characters and program execution continues.

	      ·	 When the number of input bytes used for transformation is set
		 to 1 with the type specifier characters or  only  the	least-
		 significant seven bits of each byte are used.

	      ·	 When  one  or more of the or options is specified, an operand
		 starting with the first character as a plus-sign or the first
		 character as numeric is interpreted as a file name.

       (UNIX Standard only, see standards(5).  Multiple types can be specified
       by using multiple options. Output lines are written for each type spec‐
       ified in the order in which the types are specified.)

       For information about the UNIX standard environment, see standards(5).

   Environment Variables
       provides	 a  default  value for the internationalization variables that
       are unset or null. If is unset or null, the default value of  "C"  (see
       lang(5)) is used. If any of the internationalization variables contains
       an invalid setting, will behave as if  all  internationalization	 vari‐
       ables are set to "C".  See environ(5).

       If  set	to  a  non-empty string value, overrides the values of all the
       other internationalization variables.

       determines the interpretation of text as single and/or multi-byte char‐
       acters,	the classification of characters as printable, and the charac‐
       ters matched by character class expressions in regular expressions.

       determines the locale that should be used to affect the format and con‐
       tents  of diagnostic messages written to standard error and informative
       messages written to standard output.

       determines the location of message catalogues for the processing of

   International Code Set Support
       Single- and multi-byte character code sets are  supported.   Multi-byte
       data is displayed as multi-byte values.

       Exit values are:

       Successful completion.
       Error condition occurred.

       adb(1), standards(5).


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