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sed(1)									sed(1)

       sed - stream text editor

       script [file]...

       script]... script_file]... [file]...

       copies  the  named  text files (standard input default) to the standard
       output, edited according to a script containing	up  to	100  commands.
       Only  complete input lines are processed.  Any input text at the end of
       a file that is not terminated by a new-line character is ignored.

       recognizes the following options:

	      Take script from file

	      Edit according to
			     script.  If there	is  just  one  option  and  no
			     options, the flag can be omitted.

	      Suppress the default output.

       interprets  all and arguments in the order given.  Use caution, if mix‐
       ing and options, to avoid unpredictable or incorrect results.

   Command Scripts
       A script consists of editor commands, one per line,  of	the  following

	      [address address]] function [arguments]

       In  normal  operation, cyclically copies a line of input into a pattern
       space (unless there is something left  after  a	command),  applies  in
       sequence	 all  commands whose addresses select that pattern space, and,
       at the end of the script, copies the pattern space to the standard out‐
       put (except under and deletes the pattern space.

       Some  of	 the commands use a hold space to save all or part of the pat‐
       tern space for subsequent retrieval.

   Command Addresses
       An address is either a decimal number that counts input	lines  cumula‐
       tively  across  files,  a  which addresses the last line of input, or a
       context address; that is, a in the style of ed(1) modified thus:

	      ·	 In a context address, the construction where ?	 is any	 char‐
		 acter,	 is  identical to Note that in the context address the
		 second stands for itself, so that the regular expression is

	      ·	 The escape sequence matches a new-line character embedded  in
		 the pattern space.

	      ·	 A  period  matches any character except the terminal new-line
		 of the pattern space.

	      ·	 A command line with no addresses selects every pattern space.

	      ·	 A command line with one address selects  each	pattern	 space
		 that matches the address.

	      ·	 A command line with two addresses selects the inclusive range
		 from the first pattern space that matches the	first  address
		 through  the  next  pattern space that matches the second (if
		 the second address is a number less than or equal to the line
		 number	 first	selected,  only one line is selected).	There‐
		 after the process is repeated, looking again  for  the	 first

       supports Basic Regular Expression syntax (see regexp(5)).

       Editing	commands can also be applied to only non-selected pattern spa‐
       ces by use of the negation function (described below).

   Command Functions
       In the following list of functions, the maximum number  of  permissible
       addresses  for  each function is indicated in parentheses.  Other func‐
       tion elements are interpreted as follows:

	      text	  One or more lines, all but the  last	of  which  end
			  with	to hide the new-line.  Backslashes in text are
			  treated like backslashes in the  replacement	string
			  of  an  command,  and can be used to protect initial
			  blanks and tabs against the stripping that  is  done
			  on every script line.

	      rfile	  Must	terminate  the	command line, and must be pre‐
			  ceded by exactly one blank.

	      wfile	  Must terminate the command line, and	must  be  pre‐
			  ceded	 by  exactly one blank.	 Each wfile is created
			  before processing begins.  There can be at  most  10
			  distinct wfile arguments.

       recognizes the following functions:

       text	   Append.   Place  text  on  the output before reading
		   next input line.

       Branch to the
		   command bearing label.  If no  label	 is  specified,
		   branch to the end of the script.

       text	   Change.  Delete the pattern space.  With 0 or
		   1 address or at the end of a 2-address range,
		   place  text	on  the	 output.  Start the next

       Delete pattern space and start the next cycle.

       Delete initial segment of  pattern  space  through  first
		   and start the next cycle.

       Replace	contents  of  the pattern space with contents of
       the hold space.

       Append contents of hold space to the pattern space.

       Replace contents of the hold space with contents	 of  the
       pattern space.

       Append  the  contents  of  the  pattern space to the hold

       text	   Insert.  Place text	on  the	 standard

       List  the  pattern space on the standard output in
       an unambiguous form.
		   Non-printing characters are spelled in
		   three-digit	octal number format (with
		   a preceding backslash), and long lines
		   are folded.

       Copy the pattern space to the standard output
		   if  the  default  output  has not been
		   suppressed (by the option on the  com‐
		   mand line or the command in the script
		   file).  Replace the pattern space with
		   the next line of input.

       Append the next line of input to the pattern space
		   with	 an embedded new-line.	(The cur‐
		   rent line number changes.)

       Print.	   Copy the pattern space to the standard

       Copy  the  initial  segment  of	the pattern space
		   the first  new-line	to  the	 standard

       Quit.	   Branch  to  the end of the script.  Do
		   not start a new cycle.

       Read contents of
		   rfile and place on output before read‐
		   ing the next input line.

       Substitute  replacement	string	for  instances of
		   regular  expression	in  the	  pattern
		   space.   Any	 character  can	 be  used
		   instead of For  a  fuller  description
		   see ed(1).  flags is zero or more of:

		      n		  n=1-2048 Substitute for
				  just the nth occurrence
				  of  regular  expression
				  in the pattern space.

		      Global.	  Substitute for all non-
				  overlapping	instances
				  of  regular  expression
				  rather  than	just  the
				  first one.

		      Print  the  pattern  space   if	a
		      replacement was made
				  and  the default output
				  has been suppressed (by
				  the  option on the com‐
				  mand line or	the  com‐
				  mand	 in   the  script

				  Under	 the  environment
				  (see standards(5)), the
				  pattern    space     is
				  printed  twice,  if the
				  option is not specified
				  on the command line.

		      Write.	  Append    the	  pattern
				  space	 to  wfile  if	a
				  replacement was made.

       Test.	   Branch  to  the  command  bearing  the
		   label if any substitutions  have  been
		   made	 since the most recent reading of
		   an input line or  execution	of  a  If
		   label  is  empty, branch to the end of
		   the script.

       Write.  Append the pattern space to

       Exchange the contents of the pattern and hold spa‐

       Transform.   Replace all occurrences of characters
		   string1 with the corresponding charac‐
		   ter	 in   string2.	 The  lengths  of
		   string1 and string2 must be equal.

		   Any character other than backslash  or
		   newline  can	 be used instead of slash
		   to delimit the two strings.

		   If a backslash  character  is  immedi‐
		   ately  followed  by	another backslash
		   character in string1 or  string2,  the
		   two	backslash characters will be han‐
		   dled as  a  single  literal	backslash

		   The	delimiter itself can be used as a
		   literal  character  in   string1   and
		   string2  if	it is preceded by a back‐
		   slash.  The only exception is  charac‐
		   ter	"n"  as	 the  delimiter,  because
		   backslash-n, "\n", will be interpreted
		   as a newline.

		   The	meaning	 of  a backslash is unde‐
		   fined if it is followed by any charac‐
		   ter	that  is not "n", a backslash, or
		   the delimiter character.

       Don't.	   Apply the function (or group, if func‐
		   tion	 is only to lines selected by the
		   address or addresses.

       This command does nothing; it bears a
		   label for and commands to branch to.

       Place the current line number on the standard out‐
       put as a line.

       Execute the following commands through a matching
		   only	  when	 the   pattern	space  is
		   selected.  The syntax is:

       (0)	   An empty command is ignored.

       If a	   appears as the first character on  the
		   first  line	of  a  script  file, that
		   entire line is treated  as  a  comment
		   with	 one  exception: If the character
		   after the is an the default output  is
		   suppressed.	 The  rest  of	the  line
		   after is also ignored.  A script  file
		   must	 contain at least one non-comment

       For information about the UNIX  Standard	 environ‐
       ment, see standards(5).

   Environment Variables
       provides a default value for the internationaliza‐
       tion variables that are unset or null. If is unset
       or null, the default value of "C" (see lang(5)) is
       used. If any of the internationalization variables
       contains an invalid setting, will behave as if all
       internationalization variables  are  set	 to  "C".
       See environ(5).

       If  set to a non-empty string value, overrides the
       values of all the other internationalization vari‐

       determines  the	interpretation	of text as single
       and/or multi-byte characters,  the  classification
       of  characters  as  printable,  and the characters
       matched by character class expressions in  regular

       determines  the	locale	that  should  be  used to
       affect the format and contents of diagnostic  mes‐
       sages  written  to  standard error and informative
       messages written to standard output.

       determines the location of message catalogues  for
       the processing of

   International Code Set Support
       Single-	and  multi-byte	 character  code sets are

       Make a simple substitution in a file from the com‐
       mand line or from a shell script, changing to

       Same  as	 above but use shell or environment vari‐
       ables and in search and replacement strings:


       Multiple substitutions in a single command:


       limits command scripts to a total of not more than
       100 commands.

       The hold space is limited to 8192 characters.

       processes only text files.  See the glossary for a
       definition of text files and their limitations.

       was developed by OSF and HP.

       awk(1), ed(1), grep(1), environ(5), lang(5),  reg‐
       exp(5), standards(5).

       tutorial in the


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