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tar(1)									tar(1)

       tar - tape file archiver

       [arg]...	 [file |

       The  command saves and restores archives of files on a magnetic tape, a
       flexible disk, or a regular file.  The default archive file is  If  the
       legacy DSF is disabled, the default value is See the option below.  Its
       actions are controlled by the key argument.

       key	     is a string of characters containing exactly one function
		     letter  and zero or more function modifiers, specified in
		     any order.	 Whitespace is not permitted in key.  The  key
		     string  can  be  preceded	by a hyphen as when specifying
		     options in other HP-UX commands, but it is not necessary.

       arg ...	     The and function modifiers each require an	 arg  argument
		     (see below).  If both and are specified, the order of the
		     arg arguments must match the order of the modifiers.   If
		     specified,	 the  arg arguments must be separated from the
		     key and each other by whitespace.

       file	     specifies a file being saved or restored.	If file	 is  a
		     directory	name, it refers to the files and (recursively)
		     the subdirectories contained in that directory.

       causes	     to perform a to  directory	 (see  chdir(2)).   Subsequent
		     file  and	arguments  are	relative  to  directory.  This
		     allows multiple directories not related  by  a  close  or
		     common  parent  to	 be archived using short relative path

       The value of file is stored in the archive.  The value of directory  is
       not stored.

   Function Keys
       The function portion of the key is specified by exactly one of the fol‐
       lowing letters:

	      Create a new archive.
		     Write from	 the  beginning	 of  the  archive  instead  of
		     appending	after the last file.  Any previous information
		     in the archive is overwritten.

	      Add the named
		     file to the end of the archive.  The same blocking factor
		     used  to create the archive must be used to append to it.
		     This option cannot be used if the archive is a tape.

	      List the names of all the files in the archive.
		     Adding the function  modifier  expands  this  listing  to
		     include  the  file modes and owner numbers.  The names of
		     all files are listed each time they occur on the tape.

	      Add any named
		     file to the archive if it is not already present  or  has
		     been  modified  since it was last written in the archive.
		     The same blocking factor used to create the archive  must
		     be used to update it.

	      Extract the named
		     file from the archive and restore it to the system.  If a
		     named file matches a directory whose contents were	 writ‐
		     ten  to  the  archive,  this  directory  is (recursively)
		     extracted.	 If a named file on tape does not exist on the
		     system, the file is created as follows:

		   ·  The user, group, and other protections are restored from
		      the tape.

		   ·  The modification time is restored from the  tape	unless
		      the function modifier is specified.

		   ·  The  file user ID and group ID are normally those of the
		      restoring process.

		   ·  The set-user-ID, set-group-ID, and sticky bits  are  not
		      set  automatically.   The and function modifiers control
		      the  restoration	of  protection;	 see  below  for  more

		     If	 the files exist, their modes are not changed, but the
		     set-user-id, set-group-id and sticky  bits	 are  cleared.
		     If	 no  file argument is given, the entire content of the
		     archive is extracted.  Note that if  several  files  with
		     the same name are on the archive, the last one overwrites
		     all earlier ones.

   Function Modifier Keys
       The following function modifiers can be used in addition to  the	 func‐
       tion  letters  listed  above (note that some modifiers are incompatible
       with some functions):

	      Suppress warning messages that
		     did  not  archive	a  file's  access  control  list.   By
		     default,  writes  a  warning  message  for each file with
		     optional ACL entries.

	      Use the next
		     arg argument as the blocking factor for archive  records.
		     The  default is 20; the maximum is at least 20.  However,
		     if the modifier is used to specify	 standard  input,  the
		     default blocking factor is 1.

		     The  blocking  factor  is	determined  automatically when
		     reading nine-track tapes (key letters and	On  nine-track
		     tapes, the physical tape record length is the same as the
		     block size.  The block size is  defined  as  the  logical
		     record  size times the blocking factor (number of logical
		     records per block).

		     The blocking factor must be specified when reading flexi‐
		     ble disks and cartridge tapes if they were written with a
		     blocking factor other than the default.

		     If a file is read using a blocking factor	not  equal  to
		     the  one  used  when  the	file was written, an error may
		     occur at the end of the file but there may or may not  be
		     an	 actual error in the read.  To prevent this problem, a
		     blocking factor of can be used, although performance  may
		     be reduced somewhat.

		     writes  logical  records of 512 bytes, independent of how
		     logical records may be defined elsewhere  by  other  pro‐
		     grams  (such as variable-length records (lines) within an
		     ASCII text file).

	      Fail if the extent attributes are present in  the	 files	to  be
		     If	 fails for this reason, the partially created destina‐
		     tion file is not be removed.

	      Use the next
		     arg argument as the name of the archive  instead  of  the
		     default,  If the legacy DSF is disabled the default value
		     is If the name of the file is writes to  standard	output
		     or	 reads	from standard input, whichever is appropriate,
		     and the default blocking factor becomes 1.	 Thus, can  be
		     used as the head or tail of a pipeline (see EXAMPLES).

	      Force  to	 follow symbolic links as if they were normal files or
		     directories.  Normally, does not follow symbolic links.

	      Tell   to complain if it cannot resolve all of the links to  the
		     files  being  saved.   If is not specified, no error mes‐
		     sages are printed.

	      Tell   not to restore the modification time written on  the  ar‐
		     chive.   The  modification	 time  of the file will be the
		     time of extraction.

	      Write a POSIX format archive.
		     This format allows file names of up to 256 characters  in
		     length, and correctly archives and restores the following
		     file types: regular files, character  and	block  special
		     devices,  links,  symbolic	 links,	 directories, and FIFO
		     special files.  It also stores the user and group name of
		     each  file	 and  attempts to use these names to determine
		     the user-ID and group-ID of a file when restoring it with
		     the function modifier.  This is the default format.

	      Suppress	writing	 certain directory information that older ver‐
	      sions of
		     cannot handle  on	input.	 normally  writes  information
		     specifying	 owners	 and  modes  of directories in the ar‐
		     chive.  Earlier versions of when encountering this infor‐
		     mation, give error messages of the form:

		     When is used for reading, it causes the extracted file to
		     take on the user and group IDs of the  user  running  the
		     program  rather  than  those  on  the  tape.  This is the
		     default for the ordinary user and can be  overridden,  to
		     the  extent  that	system protections allow, by using the
		     function modifier.

	      Write a pre-POSIX format archive.

	      Cause  file to be restored to the original modes and  ownerships
		     written on the archive, if possible.  This is the default
		     for the superuser, and can be overridden by the  function
		     modifier.	 If  system  protections  prevent the ordinary
		     user from executing the error is ignored, and the	owner‐
		     ship  is  set  to	that  of  the  restoring  process (see
		     chown(2)).	 The set-user-id, set-group-id, and sticky bit
		     information  are  restored	 as allowed by the protections
		     defined by if the operation above succeeds.

	      nd     Specify a particular nine-track tape drive	 and  density,
		     where  n  is a tape drive number: and d is the density: =
		     low (800 bpi); = medium (1600 bpi); =  high  (6250	 bpi).
		     This  modifier  selects the drive on which the nine-track
		     tape is mounted.  The default is

		     does its work silently.  The (verbose) function  modifier
		     causes  to type the name of each file it treats, preceded
		     by the function letter.  With the	function,  gives  more
		     information about the archive entries than just the name.

	      Same as the
		     function  modifier	 except	 that,	when using the option,
		     also prints out a	letter	indicating  the	 type  of  the
		     archived file.

	      Cause  to	 print the action being taken, followed by the name of
		     the file, then wait for the user's confirmation.  If  the
		     user  answers  the	 action is performed.  Any other input
		     means "no".

       When end-of-tape is reached, prompts the user for a  new	 special  file
       and continues.

       If  a  nine-track  tape	drive is used as the output device, it must be
       configured in Berkeley-compatibility mode (see mt(7)).

       The function modifiers specify the format in which writes the  archive.
       Upon  extraction,  can  read  either format, regardless of the function
       modifiers used.

   Environment Variables
       determines the format and contents of date and time strings output when
       listing the contents of an archive with the option.

       determines the language equivalent of (for yes/no queries).

       If  is  not specified in the environment or is set to the empty string,
       the value of is used as the default.

       If is not specified or is set to the empty string, it defaults  to  "C"
       (see lang(5)).

       If  any	internationalization  variable	contains  an  invalid setting,
       behaves as if all internationalization variables are set to  "C".   See

   International Code Set Support
       Single- and multibyte character code sets are supported.

       issues	self-explanatory  messages  about  bad	key  characters,  tape
       read/write errors, and if not enough memory is available	 to  hold  the
       link tables.

       Create  a new archive on and copy and onto it, using the default block‐
       ing factor of 20.  The key is made up of one function  letter  and  two
       function modifiers and

       Archive files from and

       Use  in	a  pipeline  to	 copy  the  entire file system hierarchy under
       fromdir to todir:

       Archive all files and directories in directory in the current directory
       to a file called also in the current directory:

       Because of industry standards and interoperability goals, does not sup‐
       port the archival of files of size  8GB	or  larger,  files  that  have
       user/group  ID  values of 2097152 (2^21) or greater, or files belonging
       to a user/group name of 32 characters or greater.

       Files with user/group ID	 values	 of  2097152  (2^21)  or  greater  are
       archived	 and  restored using the original user/group name of the file.
       If the user/group name is not found when restoring the file,  then  the
       user/group  ID  of the current process is used.	If the user/group name
       was truncated to fit in the header, a false  match  may	be  made  when
       restoring  with this truncated value if the truncated value is the same
       as another user/group name on that system.  For	more  information  see

       Due to internal limitations in the header structure, not all file names
       of fewer than 256 characters fit when using the function modifier.   If
       a  file	name  does  not fit, prints a message and does not archive the

       Link names are still limited to 100 characters when using the  function

       There is no way to ask for the n-th occurrence of a file.

       Tape errors are handled ungracefully.

       The function key can be slow.

       If the archive is a file on disk, flexible disk, or cartridge tape, and
       if the blocking factor specified on output is not the default, the same
       blocking factor must be specified on input, because the blocking factor
       is not explicitly stored in the archive.	 Updating or appending to  the
       archive without following this rule can destroy it.

       Some previous versions of have claimed to support the selective listing
       of file names using the function key with a list.  This appears	to  be
       an error in the documentation because the capability does not appear in
       the original source code.

       There is no way to restore an absolute path name to  a  relative	 posi‐

       always  pads  information written to an archive up to the next multiple
       of the block size.  Therefore, if you are creating a small archive  and
       write out one block of information, reports that one block was written,
       but the actual size of the archive might be larger if the function mod‐
       ifier is used.

       Note that is not the same as

       Do  not	create archives on block special devices.  Attempting to do so
       can causes excessive wear, leading to premature drive hardware failure.

       The and function keys are not supported on  QIC	or  8mm	 devices.   If
       these  options are used with QIC or 8mm devices, fails and displays the

       was developed by AT&T, the University of California, Berkeley, HP,  and

       ar(1), cpio(1), acl(5), mt(7).


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