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BUILD(7)	     BSD Miscellaneous Information Manual	      BUILD(7)

     build — information on how to build the system

     The sources for the FreeBSD system and its applications are contained in
     three different directories, normally /usr/src, /usr/doc, and /usr/ports.
     Directory /usr/src contains the “base system” sources, which is loosely
     defined as the things required to rebuild the system to a useful state.
     Directory /usr/doc contains the source for the system documentation,
     excluding the manual pages.  Directory /usr/ports contains a tree that
     provides a consistent interface for building and installing third party
     applications.  For more information about the ports build process, see

     The make(1) command is used in each of these directories to build and
     install the things in that directory.  Issuing the make(1) command in any
     directory or subdirectory of those directories has the same effect as
     issuing the same command in all subdirectories of that directory.	With
     no target specified, the things in that directory are just built.

     A source tree is allowed to be read-only.	As described in make(1),
     objects are usually built in a separate object directory hierarchy speci‐
     fied by the environment variable MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX, or under /usr/obj if
     variable MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX is not set.  For a given source directory, its
     canonical object directory would be ${MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX}${.CURDIR} if
     make(1) variable MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX is set, or /usr/obj${.CURDIR} if this
     variable is not set.  Cross-builds set the object directory as described
     in the documentation for the buildworld target below.

     The build may be controlled by defining make(1) variables described in
     the ENVIRONMENT section below, and by the variables documented in

     The following list provides the names and actions for the targets sup‐
     ported by the build system:

     clean	  Remove any files created during the build process.

     cleandepend  Remove the file ${.OBJDIR}/${DEPENDFILE} generated by a
		  prior “make depend” step.

     cleandir	  Remove the canonical object directory if it exists, or per‐
		  form actions equivalent to “make clean cleandepend” if it
		  does not.  This target will also remove an obj link in
		  ${.CURDIR} if that exists.

		  It is advisable to run “make cleandir” twice: the first
		  invocation will remove the canonical object directory and
		  the second one will clean up ${.CURDIR}.

     depend	  Generate a list of build dependencies in file

     install	  Install the results of the build to the appropriate location
		  in the installation directory hierarchy specified in vari‐
		  able DESTDIR.

     obj	  Create the canonical object directory associated with the
		  current directory.

     objlink	  Create a symbolic link to the canonical object directory in

     tags	  Generate a tags file using the program specified in the
		  make(1) variable CTAGS.  The build system supports ctags(1)
		  and GNU Global.

     The other supported targets under directory /usr/src are:

     buildenv	      Spawn an interactive shell with environment variables
		      set up for cross-building the system.  The target archi‐
		      tecture needs to be specified with make(1) variables

		      This target is only useful after a complete cross-
		      toolchain including the compiler, linker, assembler,
		      headers and libraries has been built; see the toolchain
		      target below.

     buildworld	      Build everything but the kernel, configure files in etc,
		      and release.  The actual build location prefix used is
		      ${MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX}${.CURDIR} for native builds, and
		      ${MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX}/${TARGET}${.CURDIR} for cross builds
		      and native builds with variable CROSS_BUILD_TESTING set.

     cleanworld	      Attempt to clean up targets built by a preceding
		      buildworld step.

     distributeworld  Distribute everything compiled by a preceding buildworld
		      step.  Files are placed in the directory hierarchy spec‐
		      ified by make(1) variable DISTDIR.  This target is used
		      while building a release; see release(7).

     installworld     Install everything built by a preceding buildworld step
		      into the directory hierarchy pointed to by make(1) vari‐
		      able DESTDIR.

		      If installing onto an NFS file system and running
		      make(1) with the -j option, make sure that rpc.lockd(8)
		      is running on both client and server.  See rc.conf(5) on
		      how to make it start at boot time.

     toolchain	      Create the build toolchain needed to build the rest of
		      the system.  For cross-architecture builds, this step
		      creates a cross-toolchain.

     universe	      Execute a buildworld and buildkernel for all kernels
		      including LINT, for each architecture supported by the
		      build system.  This command takes a long time.

     update	      Get updated sources as configured in make.conf(5).

     Kernel specific build targets in /usr/src are:

     buildkernel      Rebuild the kernel and the kernel modules.

     installkernel    Install the kernel and the kernel modules to directory
		      ${DESTDIR}/boot/kernel, renaming any pre-existing direc‐
		      tory with this name to kernel.old if it contained the
		      currently running kernel.	 The target directory under
		      ${DESTDIR} may be modified using the INSTKERNNAME and
		      KODIR make(1) variables.

     kernel	      Equivalent to buildkernel followed by installkernel

		      Rebuild the tools needed for kernel compilation.	Use
		      this if you did not do a buildworld first.

     reinstallkernel  Reinstall the kernel and the kernel modules, overwriting
		      the contents of the target directory.  As with the
		      installkernel target, the target directory can be speci‐
		      fied using the make(1) variable INSTKERNNAME.

     Convenience targets for cleaning up the install destination directory
     denoted by variable DESTDIR include:

     check-old	      Print a list of old files and directories in the system.

     delete-old	      Delete obsolete base system files and directories inter‐
		      actively.	 When -DBATCH_DELETE_OLD_FILES is specified at
		      the command line, the delete operation will be non-
		      interactive.  The variables DESTDIR, TARGET_ARCH and
		      TARGET should be set as with “make installworld”.

     delete-old-libs  Delete obsolete base system libraries interactively.
		      This target should only be used if no 3rd party software
		      uses these libraries.  When -DBATCH_DELETE_OLD_FILES is
		      specified at the command line, the delete operation will
		      be non-interactive.  The variables DESTDIR, TARGET_ARCH
		      and TARGET should be set as with “make installworld”.

     Variables that influence all builds include:

     DESTDIR	       The directory hierarchy prefix where built objects will
		       be installed.  If not set, DESTDIR defaults to the
		       empty string.

     MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX  Defines the prefix for directory names in the tree of
		       built objects.  Defaults to /usr/obj if not defined.
		       This variable should only be set in the environment and
		       not via /etc/make.conf or the command line.

     NO_WERROR	       If defined, compiler warnings will not cause the build
		       to halt, even if the makefile says otherwise.

     Additionally, builds in /usr/src are influenced by the following make(1)

     KERNCONF	      Overrides which kernel to build and install for the var‐
		      ious kernel make targets.	 It defaults to GENERIC.

     KERNFAST	      If set, the build target buildkernel defaults to setting
		      When set to a value other than 1 then KERNCONF is set to
		      the value of KERNFAST.

     LOCAL_DIRS	      If set, this variable supplies a list of additional
		      directories to build, relative to the root of the source

     SUBDIR_OVERRIDE  Override the default list of sub-directories and only
		      build the sub-directory named in this variable.  This
		      variable is useful when debugging failed builds.

			    make some-target SUBDIR_OVERRIDE=foo/bar

     TARGET	      The target hardware platform.  This is analogous to the
		      “uname -m” output.  This is necessary to cross-build
		      some target architectures.  For example, cross-building
		      for PC98 machines requires TARGET_ARCH=i386 and
		      TARGET=pc98.  If not set, TARGET defaults to the current
		      hardware platform.

     TARGET_ARCH      The target machine processor architecture.  This is
		      analogous to the “uname -p” output.  Set this to cross-
		      build for a different architecture.  If not set,
		      TARGET_ARCH defaults to the current machine architec‐
		      ture, unless TARGET is also set, in which case it
		      defaults to the appropriate value for that platform.
		      Typically, one only needs to set TARGET.

     Builds under directory /usr/src are also influenced by defining one or
     more the following symbols, using the -D option of make(1):

     NO_CLEANDIR	If set, the build targets that clean parts of the
			object tree use the equivalent of “make clean” instead
			of “make cleandir”.

     NO_CLEAN		If set, no object tree files are cleaned at all.  Set‐
			ting NO_CLEAN implies NO_KERNELCLEAN, so when NO_CLEAN
			is set no kernel objects are cleaned either.

     NO_CTF		If set, the build process does not run the DTrace CTF
			conversion tools on built objects.

     NO_SHARE		If set, the build does not descend into the
			/usr/src/share subdirectory (i.e. manpages, locale
			data files, timezone data files and other
			/usr/src/share files will not be rebuild from their

     NO_KERNELCLEAN	If set, the build process does not run “make clean” as
			part of the buildkernel target.

     NO_KERNELCONFIG	If set, the build process does not run config(8) as
			part of the buildkernel target.

     NO_KERNELDEPEND	If set, the build process does not run “make depend”
			as part of the buildkernel target.

     NO_DOCUPDATE	If set, the update process does not update the source
			of the FreeBSD documentation as part of the “make
			update” target.

     NO_PORTSUPDATE	If set, the update process does not update the Ports
			tree as part of the “make update” target.

     Builds under directory /usr/doc are influenced by the following make(1)

     DOC_LANG  If set, restricts the documentation build to the language sub‐
	       directories specified as its content.  The default action is to
	       build documentation for all languages.


     For an “approved” method of updating your system from the latest sources,
     please see the COMMON ITEMS section in src/UPDATING.

     The following sequence of commands can be used to cross-build the system
     for the sparc64 architecture on an i386 host:

	   cd /usr/src
	   make TARGET=sparc64 buildworld
	   make TARGET=sparc64 DESTDIR=/clients/sparc64 installworld

     cc(1), install(1), make(1), make.conf(5), src.conf(5), ports(7),
     release(7), config(8), mergemaster(8), reboot(8), shutdown(8)

     Mike W. Meyer ⟨⟩.

BSD			       January 23, 2009				   BSD

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