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RELEASE(7)	     BSD Miscellaneous Information Manual	    RELEASE(7)

     releaserelease building infrastructure

     FreeBSD provides a complete build environment suitable for users to make
     full releases of the FreeBSD operating system.  All of the tools neces‐
     sary to build a release are available from the CVS repository in
     src/release.  A complete release can actually be built with only a single
     command, including the creation of ISO images suitable for burning to CD-
     ROM, installation floppies, and an FTP install directory.	This command
     is aptly named “make release”.

     Before attempting to build a release, the user is expected to be familiar
     with the contents of build(7), and should have experience upgrading sys‐
     tems from source.	The release build process requires that /usr/obj be
     populated with the output of a native “make buildworld” compiled from
     sources matching the currently running kernel.  This is necessary so that
     the object files for a complete system can be installed into a clean
     chroot(8) environment.  The release procedure also requires that the
     md(4) (memory disk) device driver be present in the kernel (either by
     being compiled in or available as a module).

     This document does not cover source code management, quality assurance,
     or other aspects of the release engineering process.

     The release makefile (src/release/Makefile) is fairly abstruse.  Most
     developers will only be concerned with the release target.

     release	    Uses “make installworld” to install a clean system into a
		    chroot(8) environment on the file system.  Checks out the
		    specified version of the source code and then rebuilds the
		    entire system in the clean environment with “make
		    buildworld”.  The detailed steps that follow are then exe‐
		    cuted to package up the different distributions, build the
		    installation floppy disks, build release documentation,
		    and so on.

		    This target must be built as root with the
		    kern.securelevel sysctl set to -1 (the default).

     rerelease	    Assumes that the output of a release build has been manu‐
		    ally modified, and performs the minimal number of steps to
		    rebuild the release using the intermediate output of the
		    previous “make release”.

     floppies	    Generate a new set of boot and fixit floppies.  This will
		    call the release.4, release.8, floppies.1, floppies.2, and
		    floppies.3 targets to re-generate the floppy images of a
		    previous “make release”.  This is most often used to build
		    custom boot floppies.

     package-split  Generates the portions of the disc 1 and disc 2 images
		    related to packages.  It uses the list of desired packages
		    from the src/release/scripts/ script to
		    pull packages out of a package build provided by the ports
		    team and organize them appropriately.  The resulting
		    directory can then be passed to “make release” via the
		    CD_PACKAGE_TREE variable to populate the ISO images built
		    by the iso.1 target with the correct package related bits.

     Targets called by “make release”:

     release.1	      Cleans out the ${CHROOTDIR}/R directory and uses
		      mtree(8) to build the directory hierarchy for the sys‐

     release.2	      Installs the system into the distribution directories.

     release.3	      Makes and installs the GENERIC kernel as well as any
		      other kernels listed in KERNELS.

     release.4	      Uses crunchgen(1) to build “crunched” binaries to live
		      on the installation floppies.

     release.5	      Builds synthetic distributions, and cleans up the previ‐
		      ously built distribution trees.

     release.6	      Creates tarballs of the assembled distribution trees.

     release.7	      Makes source distributions.

     release.8	      Creates the MFS root file systems.

     floppies.1	      Creates the boot and kernel floppies.

     floppies.2	      Creates the fixit floppy.

     floppies.3	      Finalizes the ${CHROOTDIR}/R/ftp/stage/floppies staging

     ftp.1	      Sets up a suitable area for FTP installations in

     cdrom.1	      Create the layout for the live file system CD-ROM image
		      in ${CHROOTDIR}/R/cdrom.

     cdrom.2	      Create the layout for the first and second CD-ROM

     cdrom.3	      Create the layout for the boot-only CD-ROM image and the
		      boot-only UFS miniroot image.

     iso.1	      Builds ISO images (installation and “live” file system)
		      from the CD-ROM release area (disabled by default, see
		      MAKE_ISOS below).

     fetch-distfiles  Fetches distfiles needed during the release build that
		      are not already in RELEASEDISTFILES.

     doc.1	      Builds all of the necessary tools to turn the FreeBSD
		      Documentation Project source documents (SGML, XML) into
		      HTML and text documents that will accompany the release.
		      Also, builds and installs the actual user documentation.
		      This includes the Handbook, FAQ, articles, and so on.

     doc.2	      Builds the release documentation.	 This includes the
		      release notes, hardware guide, and installation instruc‐

     Variables that must be specified:

     CHROOTDIR	The directory to be used as the chroot(8) environment for the
		entire release build.  This file system should have at least
		3.2 gigabytes of free space on the i386 architecture.

     CVSROOT	The location of the FreeBSD CVS repository.  This path name is
		in reference to the real system root, not the root of the
		chroot(8) directory tree.

     Optional variables:

     BUILDNAME		   The name of the release to be built.	 This is used
			   to set the RELEASE value in sys/conf/,
			   which affects the output of uname(1).  If not set,
			   a name with the timestamp and the “-SNAP” suffix
			   will be generated.

     CD_PACKAGE_TREE	   A directory containing extra bits for the first and
			   second CD-ROM images.  The extra files for the
			   first disc should be in ${CD_PACKAGE_TREE}/disc1
			   and the extra files for the second disc should be
			   in ${CD_PACKAGE_TREE}/disc2.	 Typically, this vari‐
			   able will be set to the output directory of an ear‐
			   lier invocation of the package-split target.

     CVSARGS		   Additional arguments for cvs(1) that come before
			   the subcommands such as “-qR”.

     CVSCMDARGS		   Additional arguments for cvs(1) checkout and update
			   commands.  For example, setting this variable to
			   “-D '01/01/2002 00:00:00 GMT'” for “make release”
			   or “make rerelease” will ask cvs(1) to check out or
			   update sources as of 00:00:00 GMT, January 1 2002,

     DOC_LANG		   The list of languages and encodings the SGML-based
			   documentation should be built for.  If not set, the
			   documentation is built for all available languages.

     DOCRELEASETAG	   The CVS tag to use when checking out the documenta‐
			   tion tree.  Usually, the head of the documentation
			   tree is used by default.  If RELEASETAG specifies a
			   release tag, then the associated release version is
			   used as the default instead.

     EXTLOCALDIR	   The directory that will be copied to

     EXTSRCDIR		   The directory specified by this variable will be
			   copied into ${CHROOTDIR}/usr/src instead of that
			   directory being populated by a CVS checkout.	 For
			   “rerelease”, this will NOT be copied; cvs update
			   will be used instead.

     EXTDOCDIR		   The directory specified by this variable will be
			   copied into ${CHROOTDIR}/usr/doc.  For “rerelease”,
			   this will NOT be copied again.

     EXTPORTSDIR	   The directory specified by this variable will be
			   copied into ${CHROOTDIR}/usr/ports.	For
			   “rerelease”, this will do NOTHING.

     KERNEL_FLAGS	   The contents of this variable are passed to make(1)
			   when building kernels during the release build.
			   For example, setting this variable to “-j 4” will
			   instruct make(1) to execute up to four processes at
			   a time.

     KERNELS		   Specifies a list of additional kernel configura‐
			   tions to compile and install into the “base” dis‐
			   tribution.  Each kernel is installed into
			   /boot/<config> so that it can be booted from the
			   loader via “boot <config>”.

     LOCAL_PATCHES	   Patch files against /usr/src that will be applied
			   in the chroot(8) environment before the release
			   build begins.

     PATCH_FLAGS	   Arguments for the patch(1) command used to apply
			   LOCAL_PATCHES patch file.

     LOCAL_SCRIPT	   A script that will be run in the chroot(8) environ‐
			   ment immediately after any local patches are

     MAKE_DVD		   If defined, build a bootable ISO DVD image in the
			   CD-ROM stage directory.  This option may not be
			   available for all architectures.

     MAKE_ISOS		   If defined, bootable ISO CD-ROM images will be cre‐
			   ated from the contents of the CD-ROM stage direc‐

     NOCDROM		   If defined, the CD-ROM stage directories will not
			   be created.

     NODOC		   If defined, the SGML-based documentation from the
			   FreeBSD Documentation Project will not be built.
			   However, the “doc” distribution will still be cre‐
			   ated with the minimal documentation set provided in

     NO_FLOPPIES	   If defined, no boot and fixit floppy disk images
			   will be created (for those platforms supporting

     NOPORTS		   If defined, the Ports Collection will be omitted
			   from the release.

     PORTSRELEASETAG	   The CVS tag to use when checking out the ports
			   tree.  Usually, the head of the ports tree is used
			   by default.	If RELEASETAG specifies a release tag,
			   then the associated release version is used as the
			   default instead.

     NO_PREFETCHDISTFILES  If this variable is defined, then distfiles needed
			   during the release build will not be downloaded
			   prior to entering the chroot(8) environment.	 Note
			   that if NO_PREFETCHDISTFILES is not set, the fetch‐
			   ing is done after any distfiles are obtained via

     RELEASEDISTFILES	   The directory where the distribution files for
			   ports required by the release build can be found.
			   This may save a significant amount of time over
			   downloading the distfiles through a slow link.

     RELEASENOUPDATE	   If this variable is defined for “make rerelease”,
			   the source code will not be updated with “cvs

     RELEASETAG		   The CVS tag corresponding to the release that is to
			   be built.  If undefined, the release will be built
			   from the HEAD of the CVS tree (a “-CURRENT

     SEPARATE_LIVEFS	   Store the live file system on its own CD-ROM image
			   rather than placing it on the first disc.

     SVNCMDARGS		   Additional arguments for svn checkout and switch

     SVNROOT		   The location of the FreeBSD SVN source repository.
			   If this variable is set, then the source tree will
			   be extracted using Subversion rather than CVS.

     SVNBRANCH		   The branch to check out from a SVN source reposi‐
			   tory.  It is specified as a path such as head or
			   stable/7.  If this variable is not set, then the
			   branch that corresponds to the current value of
			   RELEASETAG will be used.  If neither SVNBRANCH nor
			   RELEASETAG are set, then the head branch will be

     TARGET_ARCH	   The target machine processor architecture.  This is
			   analogous to the “uname -p” output.	Set this to
			   cross-build for a different architecture.

     TARGET		   The target hardware platform.  This is analogous to
			   the “uname -m” output.  This is necessary to cross-
			   build some target architectures.  For example,
			   cross-building for PC98 machines requires
			   TARGET_ARCH=i386 and TARGET=pc98.

     WORLDDIR		   The directory where “make buildworld” was run;
			   defaults to ${.CURDIR}/.. which usually points to

     WORLD_FLAGS	   The contents of this variable are passed to make(1)
			   when building world during the release build.  For
			   example, setting this variable to “-j 4” will
			   instruct make(1) to execute up to four processes at
			   a time.


     The following sequence of commands was used to build the FreeBSD 4.9

	   cd /usr
	   cvs co -rRELENG_4_9_0_RELEASE src
	   cd src
	   make buildworld
	   cd release
	   make release CHROOTDIR=/local3/release BUILDNAME=4.9-RELEASE \
	     CVSROOT=/host/cvs/usr/home/ncvs RELEASETAG=RELENG_4_9_0_RELEASE

     After running these commands, a complete system suitable for FTP or CD-
     ROM distribution is available in the /local3/release/R directory.

     The following sequence of commands can be used to build a “-CURRENT
     snapshot” of a locally modified source tree:

	   cd /usr/src
	   cvs diff -u > /path/to/local.patch
	   make buildworld
	   cd release
	   make release CHROOTDIR=/local3/release BUILDNAME=6.0-CURRENT \
	     CVSROOT=/host/cvs/usr/home/ncvs LOCAL_PATCHES=/path/to/local.patch

     cc(1), crunchgen(1), cvs(1), install(1), make(1), patch(1), svn(1)
     (ports/devel/subversion-freebsd), uname(1), md(4), make.conf(5),
     build(7), ports(7), chroot(8), mtree(8), sysctl(8)

     FreeBSD Release Engineering,

     FreeBSD Release Engineering of Third Party Packages,

     FreeBSD Developers' Handbook,

     FreeBSD 1.x used a manual checklist, compiled by Rod Grimes, to produce a
     release.  Apart from being incomplete, the list put a lot of specific
     demands on available file systems and was quite torturous to execute.

     As part of the FreeBSD 2.0 release engineering effort, significant effort
     was spent getting src/release/Makefile into a shape where it could at
     least automate most of the tediousness of building a release in a sterile

     At near 1000 revisions spread over multiple branches, the cvs(1) log of
     src/release/Makefile contains a vivid historical record of some of the
     hardships release engineers go through.

     src/release/Makefile was originally written by Rod Grimes, Jordan
     Hubbard, and Poul-Henning Kamp.  This manual page was written by Murray
     Stokely ⟨⟩.

     Infrastructure changes are occasionally made to the FreeBSD documentation
     set in such a way that release builds on security branches can fail.  To
     work around this, release builds can be made to checkout the documenta‐
     tion from the last fully supported release of FreeBSD.  For example:


BSD				August 17, 2009				   BSD

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