cat(1)cat(1)NAMEcat - concatenate, copy, and print files
reads each file in sequence and writes it on the standard output.
prints file on the default standard output device;
concatenates file1 and file2, and places the result in file3.
If is appears as a file argument, uses standard input. To combine
standard input and other files, use a combination of and file argu‐
recognizes the following options:
Omit line numbers from blank lines when
option is specified. If this option is specified, the
option is automatically selected.
character at the end of each line (prior to the new-line).
If this option is specified, the option is automatically
Display output lines preceded by line numbers, numbered
sequentially from 1.
Replace multiple consecutive empty lines with one empty
line, so that there is never more than one empty line
between lines containing characters.
suppresses error messages about non-existent files, identi‐
cal input and output, and write errors. Normally, input
and output files cannot have identical names unless the
file is a special file.
Print each tab character as
and form feed character as If this option is specified, the
option is automatically selected.
Do not buffer output (handle character-by-character).
Normally, output is buffered.
Cause non-printing characters
(with the exception of tabs, new-lines and form-feeds) to
be printed visibly. Control characters are printed using
the form (Ctrl-X), and the DEL character (octal 0177) is
printed as (see ascii(5)). Single-byte control characters
whose most significant bit is set, are printed using the
form where x is the character specified by the seven low
order bits. All other non-printing characters are printed
as where x is the character specified by the seven low
order bits. This option is influenced by the environment
variable and its corresponding code set.
provides a default value for the internationalization variables that
are unset or null. If is unset or null, the default value of "C" (see
lang(5)) is used. If any of the internationalization variables contains
an invalid setting, will behave as if all internationalization vari‐
ables are set to "C". See environ(5).
If set to a non-empty string value, overrides the values of all the
other internationalization variables.
determines the interpretation of text as single and/or multi-byte char‐
acters, the classification of characters as printable, and the charac‐
ters matched by character class expressions in regular expressions.
determines the locale that should be used to affect the format and con‐
tents of diagnostic messages written to standard error and informative
messages written to standard output.
determines the location of message catalogues for the processing of
International Code Set Support
Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported.
Exit values are:
0 Successful completion.
>0 Error condition occurred.
To create a zero-length file, use any of the following:
The following prints for all the occurrences of tab character in file1
To suppress error messages about files that do not exist, use:
If file2 does not exist, the above command concatenates file1 and file3
without reporting the error on file2. The result is the same if option
is not used, except that displays the error message.
To view non-printable characters in file2, use:
Command formats such as
overwrites the data in file1 before the concatenation begins, thus
destroying the file. Therefore, be careful when using shell special
SEE ALSOcp(1), more(1), pg(1), pr(1), rmnl(1), ssp(1).